Página 1 dos resultados de 91 itens digitais encontrados em 0.018 segundos

Desenvolvimento de um gerenciador eletrônico para motores tricombustível.; Development of an electronic controller for tri-fuel engines.

Veiga, Michel Robert
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 10/09/2010 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.12%
O objetivo do desenvolvimento do projeto foi minimizar uma das principais desvantagens no uso do gás natural veicular, que é a perda de potência, e aumentar sua eficiência volumétrica através da construção de um circuito eletrônico capaz de gerenciar de forma eficiente a injeção do gás. O aumento do rendimento é obtido através do gerenciamento eficiente da mistura ar-combustível utilizando um sistema de malha fechada. O gerenciamento da relação de potência e economia é conseguido com o uso simultâneo de gás natural e o combustível líquido. Nos sistemas de conversão atuais e nos veículos originais a gás natural, a perda de potência é compensada desligando o sistema de gás e utilizando somente o combustível líquido, sendo esta seleção feita de forma manual na maioria dos sistemas de conversão e de forma automática no Fiat Siena tetrafuel, não possibilitando o uso simultâneo do gás com o combustível líquido. A exigência de potência é medida através do ângulo do pedal do acelerador. Quando a exigência de potência é baixa, o sistema opera apenas com gás. No momento em que há solicitação de potência intermediária, o sistema opera com diferentes proporções de etanol e gás. Na situação de solicitação de potência máxima...

Utilização de dinamômetro de rolo de baixa potência em veículo supereconômico; Utilization of a low-power roll dynamometer in a low fuel consumption vehicle

Dornelles, Renato Tonin
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Trabalho de Conclusão de Curso Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
126.21%
O presente trabalho visa auxiliar o desenvolvimento de um veículo supereconômico pelo Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica. Buscando tecnologias para a redução do consumo de combustível, procurou-se a melhoria da eficiência através da redução de perdas. Foram realizados testes em um protótipo produzido pela ULBRA em um dinamômetro de rolo de baixa potência, tendo como principal parâmetro de referência a potência do motor. Foram feitas seis medições com diferentes parâmetros de lubrificação, peso e pressão de pneus, com o objetivo de analisar as diferenças presentes na potência. Avaliando as incertezas de medição presentes nos resultados finais, pode-se afirmar que a maior pressão nos pneus traseiros (50 PSI), a lubrificação das correntes e rolamentos e o menor peso possível no chassi representam um aumento na potência na roda para uma mesma posição do pedal do acelerador.; This work seeks to support the development of a low fuel consumption vehicle for the Department of Mechanical Engineering. Searching for technologies to reduce fuel consumption, it was looked to improve the efficiency by reducing losses. Tests were conducted on a prototype produced by ULBRA on a low-power roll dynamometer, having the engine power as the main benchmark parameter. Six measurements were made with different parameters of lubrication...

An Analysis of Various Policy Instruments to Reduce Congestion, Fuel Consumption and CO2 Emissions in Beijing

Anas, Alex; Timilsina, Govinda R.; Zheng, Siqi
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.38%
Using a nested multinomial logit model of car ownership and personal travel in Beijing circa 2005, this paper compares the effectiveness of different policy instruments to reduce traffic congestion and CO2 emissions. The study shows that a congestion toll is more efficient than a fuel tax in reducing traffic congestion, whereas a fuel tax is more effective as a policy instrument for reducing gasoline consumption and emissions. An improvement in car efficiency would also reduce congestion, fuel consumption, and CO2 emissions significantly; however, this policy benefits only richer households that own a car. Low-income households do better under the fuel tax policy than under the efficiency improvement and congestion toll policies. The congestion toll and fuel tax require the travel cost per mile to more than triple. The responsiveness of aggregate fuel and CO2 are, approximately, a 1 percent drop for each 10 percent rise in the money cost of a car trip.

Political Economy Aspects of Fuel Subsidies : A Conceptual Framework

Strand, Jon
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.2%
While notoriously inefficient, fuel subsidies are widespread, and in many cases politically stable. This paper discusses and models various political economy aspects of fuel subsidies, focusing on gasoline and kerosene. Both economic and political are considered to explain differences in subsidies, with particular focus on democratic and autocratic governments. A political process is modeled whereby a promise of low fuel prices is used in democracies to attract voters, and in autocracies to mobilize support among key groups. Subsidies to fuels are viewed as either easier to observe, easier to commit to, easier to deliver, or better targeted at core groups, than other public goods or favors offered by rulers. Easier commitment and delivery than for regular public goods can explain the high prevalence of such policies in autocracies, and also in young democracies where the capacity to commit to or deliver complex public goods is not yet fully developed. The analysis provides a framework for empirical testing and verification.

Political Determinants of Fossil Fuel Pricing

van Beers, Cees; Strand, Jon
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.26%
This paper provides an empirical analysis of economic and political determinants of gasoline and diesel prices for about 200 countries over the period 1991-2010. A range of both political and economic variables are found to systematically influence fuel prices, and in ways that differ systematically with countries per-capita income levels. For democracies, the analysis finds that fuel prices correlate positively with both duration of democracy and tenure of democratic leaders. In non-democratic societies there is more often no such relationship or it is the opposite of that for democracies. Regime switches -- transitions from non-democratic to democratic government, or vice versa -- reduce fuel prices. Fuel prices are also lower for more corrupt, or more centralized, governments. Higher levels of gross domestic product per capita lead to higher fuel prices, while export income from selling fossil fuels reduces these prices dramatically. Higher motor fuel consumption also appears to reduce fuel prices, most for gasoline. Absolute "pass-through" of crude oil price changes to fuel prices is found to be high on average.

Planning for a Low Carbon Future

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.35%
Developing countries are faced with the dual challenge of reducing poverty while improving management of natural capital and mitigating the emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and local pollutants. The challenge is particularly acute for large, rapidly growing economies, such as India, China, and Brazil. In response to this challenge, Energy Sector Management assistance Program (ESMAP) and the World Bank began in 2007 to provide support to countries to develop long term frameworks for reducing GHG emissions in a way that is compatible with economic growth objectives and tied to national and sectoral plans. In total, seven studies were conducted between 2007 and 2010, for the following countries: Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Poland, and South Africa. This report collates the lessons learned from these studies and is intended as a practical guide for government officials, practitioners, and development agencies involved in low carbon development planning. The low carbon studies were tailored to the individual needs of each country involved. In Brazil...

Romania Climate Change and Low Carbon Green Growth Program

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Relatório
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.17%
This report has been prepared by the World Bank for the Government of Romania as an output of the World Bank advisory services program on climate change and low-carbon green growth in Romania. In response to the request, the World Bank quickly mobilized a team of sectoral and climate change (CC) specialists and conducted rapid assessments in six sectors - energy, transport, urban, water, agriculture, and forestry, which were pre-identified by both the Government of Romania and the World Bank as areas significant to emission mitigation and or adaptation to CC. The objective of rapid assessments was to quickly evaluate climate risks and identify CC-related investment priorities and necessary implementation support for the 2014-2020 operational programs. This document is the stocktaking report of component A1. It provides an introductory cover to the literature on CC, baseline for Romania, institutional review of Romania and key European Union (EU) requirements, as well as available data sets that were identified in the given short-time span. Its purpose is to support the government as a first stock of key climate and green growth issues for Romania and summarize the current situation. The report is structured as follows: section one gives introduction...

In-use vs. type-approval fuel consumption of current passenger cars in Europe

NTZIACHRISTOS Leonidas; MELLIOS Giorgos; TSOKOLIS D.; KELLER Mario; HAUSBERGER Stefan; LIGTERINK N.e.; DILARA Panagiota
Fonte: ELSEVIER SCI LTD Publicador: ELSEVIER SCI LTD
Tipo: Articles in Journals Formato: Printed
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.1%
In-use fuel consumption data of 924 passenger cars (611 petrol, 313 diesel) were collected from various European sources and were evaluated in comparison to their corresponding type-approval values. The analysis indicated that the average in-use fuel consumption was higher than the type-approval one by 11% for petrol cars and 16% for diesel cars. Comparison of this dataset with the Travelcard database in the Netherlands showed that the deviation increased for late model years and in particular for cars with low type-approval values. The deviation was higher than 60% for vehicles registered in 2012 within the 90-100 gCO2/km bin. Unrealistic vehicle resistances used in type-approval were identified as one of the prime reasons of the difference. A simplified linear model developed in the study may be used to predict in-use fuel consumption based on data publicly available. The model utilizes the fuel consumption measured in type-approval, the mass, and the engine capacity to provide in-use fuel consumption. This may be either used to correct fuel consumption factors currently utilized by emission models (e.g. COPERT, HBEFA, VERSIT+, and others) or could be used independently to make projections on how fuel consumption may develop on the basis of changing future passenger cars characteristics.; JRC.F.6-Energy systems evaluation

Brazil Low Carbon Case Study : Transport

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Energy-Environment Review; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.27%
This report summarizes the results for the transportation sector from a larger study, the low carbon study for Brazil, developed by the World Bank as part of its initiative to support the integrated efforts of Brazil to reduce global and national greenhouse gases emissions, while promoting long-term development. The study covers four key areas with potential low carbon options: 1) Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry (LULUCF), including deforestation, 2) transport systems, 3) production and use of energy, particularly electricity, oil, gas and bio fuels, and 4) municipal waste, solids and liquids. This study aims to underpin Brazil's efforts to explore methods for reducing total emissions of Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) arising from all areas of human activity. More specifically, this study seeks to highlight low-carbon alternatives for Brazil´s transport sector. These alternatives could contribute positively to the world's climate, as well as benefit Brazil's socio-economic development. The technical inputs for evaluating potential carbon emissions reduction will be submitted to the Brazilian government to assist it in the design and deployment of joint planning strategies in key sectors...

Assessing Low-Carbon Development in Nigeria : An Analysis of Four Sectors

Cervigni, Raffaello; Rogers, John Allen; Dvorak, Irina
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.27%
The Federal Government of Nigeria (FGN) and the World Bank have agreed to carry out a Climate Change Assessment (CCA) within the framework of the Bank's Country Partnership Strategy (CPS) for Nigeria (2010-13). The CCA includes an analysis of options for low-carbon development in selected sectors, including power, oil and gas, transport, and agriculture. The goal of the low-carbon analysis is to define likely trends in carbon emissions up to 2035, based on government sector development plans, and to identify opportunities for achieving equivalent development objectives with a reduced carbon footprint. This study comprises the following components: (i) development of a reference scenario of greenhouse gas (GHG) net emissions for the agriculture sector, consistent with vision 20: 2020 and other government plans; (ii) identification of opportunities for reduced net emissions- reduced emissions and or enhanced carbon sequestration- while achieving the same development objectives as in the reference scenario; and (iii) economic assessment of low-carbon options in order to help the Nigerian government to prioritize policy options. The study evaluates costs and benefits in a partial equilibrium setting...

Mexico - Low-Carbon Development : Main Report; Mexico - Estudio sobre la disminución de emisiones de carbono

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Environmental Study
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.36%
This study analyzes a range of energy efficiency options available in Mexico, including supply-side efficiency improvements in the electric power and oil and gas industries and demand-side electricity efficiency measures to limit high-growth energy-consuming activities, such as air conditioning and refrigeration. It also evaluates a range of renewable energy options that make use of the country's vast wind, solar, biomass, hydro, and geothermal resources. But low-carbon (CO2) development is not only about energy production and consumption. In Mexico one of the most important sources of greenhouse gas emissions continues to be emissions from deforestation. The rate of deforestation has fallen steadily in Mexico over the past decades. Expanded programs for forest management, wildlife conservation, and efforts to increase the stock of forests can provide needed employment in rural areas and help make Mexican forests net absorbers of CO2 in the coming years. A fundamental question often asked about low-cost mitigation options is why they are not already being undertaken. As the study shows...

A Policy Framework for Green Transportation in Georgia : Achieving Reforms and Building Infrastructure for Sustainability

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.31%
The Government of Georgia is considering options for reducing fossil fuel imports in favor of introducing large scale use of domestic energy sources for public and private transportation. However, this must be considered within the overall context of green transportation-which will generate benefits well beyond the substitution of fossil fuels with domestic energy sources. The concept of green transportation has emerged in response to growing concerns about climate change; typically this refers to a transportation system characterized by low carbon emissions, i.e., Green House Gasses (GHG). In the context of Georgia, two other important development issues in green transportation in addition to GHG emissions are fossil fuel consumption and air pollution. For the purpose of this study, therefore, green transportation in Georgia refers to reducing the intensity of fossil fuel use and increasing reliance on indigenous energy sources (mainly hydropower), as well as minimizing adverse impacts on the global and local environment through reduced emissions of GHG and local pollutants. Greening transportation will create 'co-benefits': reducing fossil fuel use will help improve the balance of trade and energy security; and employing measures to avoid unnecessary trips and using fewer vehicles for the same number of trips (i.e....

Brazil Low-carbon Country Case Study

Gouvello, Christophe de
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.22%
This study was undertaken by the World Bank in its initiative to support Brazil's integrated effort towards reducing national and global emissions of greenhouse gases while promoting long term development. The study builds on the best available knowledge and to this effect the study team undertook a broad consultative process and surveyed the copious literature available to identify the need for incremental efforts and centers of excellences. The overall aim of this study was to support Brazil's efforts to identify opportunities to reduce its emissions in ways that foster economic development. The primary objective was to provide the Brazilian government the technical inputs needed to assess the potential and conditions for low-carbon development in key emitting sectors. The Brazil low carbon study aims to support Brazil's continued efforts to foster development while reducing GHG emissions. The World Bank Group has always been committed to supporting growth in developing countries, and in October 2008, it adopted a Strategic Framework on Climate Change and Development (SFCCD) to integrate climate change into the development agenda without compromising growth and poverty reduction efforts. Within the context of the SFCCD...

An Economic Model of Brazil's Ethanol-Sugar Markets and Impacts of Fuel Policies

de Gorter, Harry; Drabik, Dusan; Kliauga, Erika M.; Timilsina, Govinda R.
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.1%
The lack of growth in the Brazilian sugarcane-ethanol complex since the 2008 financial crisis has been blamed on policies: lower mandate, holding gasoline prices below world levels, high fuel taxes, and inadequate fuel tax exemptions for ethanol. This paper develops an empirical model of the Brazilian fuel-ethanol-sugar complex to analyze the impacts of these policies. Unlike biofuel mandates and tax exemptions elsewhere, Brazil's fuel-ethanol-sugar markets and fuel policies are unique such that each policy, in theory, has an ambiguous impact on the market price of ethanol and hence on sugarcane and sugar prices. The results indicate two policies that seemingly help the ethanol industry do otherwise in reality: low gasoline taxes and high anhydrous tax exemptions lower ethanol prices. But higher mandates, hydrous ethanol tax exemptions, and gasoline prices had the expected impact of increasing ethanol and sugar prices. Eliminating Brazilian ethanol tax exemptions and mandates reduces ethanol prices by 21 percent. Observed changes in prices are explained by outward shifts in fuel transportation and sugar export demand curves...

Brazil Low Carbon Country Case Study

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.22%
Brazil low carbon country case study was two years in the making based on a study by the World Bank assisted by the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) and the Energy Sector Management Assistance Program (ESMAP). It supports Brazil's integrated effort towards reducing national and global-emissions GHG while promoting long-term development. It builds on the best available knowledge and is underpinned by a broad consultative process and survey of available literature. The study was coordinated by Christophe de Gouvello, a Senior Energy Specialist in the Sustainable Development Department of the Latin American and the Caribbean Region. The study's scope was discussed with the Ministries of Foreign Affairs, Environment and Science and Technology, as well as representatives of the Ministries of Finance, Planning Agriculture, Transport, Mines and Energy, Development, Industry and trade. More than 15 technical reports and 4 synthesis reports have been commissioned in the course of this work. For a quick overview of priority issues...

Transit Bus Operational and Maintenance Practices to Maximize Fuel Economy

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.15%
Buses are the most common form of urban transit but, in the developing world, are often seen as inefficient and polluting. It is well known that buses that are properly tuned and adjusted tend to be cleaner, safer and consume less fuel than poorly maintained buses. Fuel cost is a relatively large fraction of total cost especially when labor and bus costs are low, as in many developing countries. Hence, reducing fuel use through targeted maintenance of fuel inefficient buses can reduce significant expenditures especially in developing countries, freeing up resources for other improved city services. In addition, if city buses do not receive periodic maintenance that is adequate in quality and quantity, their emissions, both local and global, will suffer. In an effort to catalyze solutions for urban transport, the World Bank Group focused on development of a global Knowledge Product in the form of a 'Guidance Note' (GN) on bus maintenance procedures. The GN is directed towards city transit managers and their technical staff in developing countries to enhance the energy efficiency of city transit. The objective of this work effort is to prepare a Guidance Note (GN) on maintenance best practices that is a practical and useful tool to guide the implementation of a program that will enhance the fuel efficiency of buses. To address this objective...

Best Operational and Maintenance Practices for City Bus Fleets to Maximize Fuel Economy

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.29%
In most large cities in developing countries, buses continue to be the public transport option of choice, carrying a large share of urban travelers. However, transit bus companies in these countries are often cash-strapped. In many cases, the operating cost per bus kilometer exceeds revenues and bus fares are often kept low irrespective of the cost of providing service. Many cities are dominated by old and fuel-intensive buses with high operating costs. Transit systems are also often plagued by overcrowded and undependable service, congested roadways and chaotic operating environments. Across the board, city officials in developing countries are under strong pressure to improve the efficiency and enhance the attractiveness of bus transportation. Fuel makes up a relatively large fraction of total bus operating costs, especially when labor costs are low, as in many developing countries. Fuel costs can be reduced by improving the driving style of bus drivers and through sound maintenance practices. A safe and economical driving style can reduce variable costs...

Turning the Right Corner : Ensuring Development through a Low-Carbon Transport Sector

Kopp, Andreas; Block, Rachel I.; Limi, Atsushi
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.24%
This report 'Turning the right corner - ensuring development through a low carbon transport sector' emphasizes that developing countries need to transition to a low carbon transport sector now to avoid locking themselves into an unsustainable and costly future. Furthermore, it argues that this transition can be affordable if countries combine policies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions with broader sector reforms aimed at reducing local air pollution, road safety risks, and congestion. This report looks at relationships between mobility, low carbon transport and development, drawing attention to the inertia in transport infrastructure. It complements the analysis by reviewing how climate change is likely to affect operations and infrastructure, cost-effective measures for minimizing negative effects, and policies and decision frameworks. It further highlights current and projected research findings and examples from developing countries. And it concludes that new technology is not enough, and that urgent action is needed before economies become locked into high-carbon growth. It discusses how to reconcile development with the need to curb emissions...

Low-Carbon Development for Mexico; Mexico - Estudio sobre la disminucion de emisiones de carbono

Johnson, Todd M.; Alatorre, Claudio; Romo, Zayra; Liu, Feng
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.3%
One of the most compelling reasons for pursuing low-carbon development is that the potential impacts of climate change are predicted to be severe, for both industrial and developing countries, and that reducing greenhouse gas emissions can reduce the risk of the most catastrophic impacts. The challenge of reducing emissions is sobering: leading scientific models indicate that limiting the rise in global mean temperatures to less than two degree Celsius will require that global greenhouse gas emissions peak within the next 10-15 years and then fall by 2050 to levels about 50 percent lower than in 1990. Although many countries recognize the need to curtail carbon emissions, there is considerable uncertainty about how much this will cost in individual countries, what measures can be undertaken in both the short and longer term, and how cost-effective specific interventions are in reducing emissions. This study analyzes a range of energy efficiency options available in Mexico, including supply-side efficiency improvements in the electric power and oil and gas industries...

Low-Carbon Development : Opportunities for Nigeria

Cervigni, Raffaello; Rogers, John Allen; Henrion, Max
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.26%
The Federal Government of Nigeria (FGN) has formulated an ambitious strategy, known as Vision 20: 2020, which aims to make Nigeria the world s 20th largest economy by 2020. This book argues that there are many ways that Nigeria can achieve the Vision 20: 2020 development objectives for 2020 and beyond, but with up to 32 percent lower carbon emissions. A lower carbon path offers not only the global benefits of reducing contributions to climate change, but also net economic benefits to Nigeria, estimated at about 2 percent of gross domestic product (GDP). The FGN and the World Bank agreed, as part of the Country Partnership Strategy (CPS) 2010-13, to conduct an analysis of the implications of climate change for Nigeria's development agenda. The current volume focuses on low-carbon development. Building on the work under way on Nigeria's nationally appropriate mitigation actions, the authors evaluate opportunities to pursue national development priorities using technologies and interventions that reduce emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs)...