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The Determinants of Location Choice: Single-plants versus Multi-plants

Isabel Mota; António Brandão
Fonte: Universidade do Porto Publicador: Universidade do Porto
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.34%
This article adopts a count data model to explore the distinction between single-plants and multi-plants location choices. It is hypothesized that start-ups location decisions would be determined by supply variables (land, labour and capital costs, workforce and technological characteristics); demand variables (market size and market accessibility) and agglomeration economies. We use plant data and focus on location choices within Portuguese municipalities. Our research shows that new multi-plants are particularly sensitive to urbanization economies, land costs and the size of the local market, while new single-plants are more responsive to labour costs, both localization and urbanization economies and accessibility to main markets.

Location of research-based spin-offs : how relevant are regional effects?

Conceição, Oscarina; Faria, Ana Paula; Fontes, Margarida
Fonte: Universidade do Minho. Núcleo de Investigação em Políticas Económicas (NIPE) Publicador: Universidade do Minho. Núcleo de Investigação em Políticas Económicas (NIPE)
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Publicado em //2014 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.1%
Using a unique self-collected dataset that comprehends the population of research-based spin-offs created in Portugal from 1995 until to 2007, we investigate the location choices of these firms. In order to do so we control for both university- and region-related mechanisms. Our results suggest that the latter play a lesser role than university-related mechanisms. Although the availability of qualified human capital and urbanization economies seem to exert some effect on the location choices of research-based spin-offs, our results suggest that the quality and prestige of the universities located in a region, as well as the presence of university-affiliated incubators and/or university research parks have a stronger impact on the intensity of RBSO location across regions.; COMPETE; QREN; FEDER; Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT)

Location choice dilemma : the internationalization of technology-based companies

Gomes, Joana Silva
Fonte: Universidade Católica Portuguesa Publicador: Universidade Católica Portuguesa
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em 06/01/2014 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.02%
Zaask is a Portuguese technology-based company (TBC) created in 2012, May. Its mission is to develop and promote an online marketplace for services and to be able to effectively match the clients’ demands with those of services providers. With growing and encouraging prospects in the domestic market and with promising expected returns from scale economies, inherent to TBCs, the company is planning to start its internationalization process. This work constitutes an attempt to address the three-step critical decision - why?, where? and how? – confronted by any company at the beginning of the process. The forthcoming main question for Zaask is related to the foreign market choice. This case study provides an overview of the company and tries to address the Zaask’s dilemma from a global perspective. In this context, this thesis will also provide support to a teaching case study within the subject of International Strategy. Therefore, this case study will conduct a strategic analysis of the Zaask’s internationalization strategy, identifying the relevant location choices variables, opportunities and threats of possible markets, among others.; A Zaask é uma empresa Portuguesa de base tecnológica criada em Maio de 2012 com o objectivo de desenvolver e promover um mercado online de serviços...

Economies of Scope, Agglomeration and Location of the Multinational Firm

Pontes, José Pedro; Parr, John B.
Fonte: ISEG – Departamento de Economia Publicador: ISEG – Departamento de Economia
Tipo: Outros
Publicado em //2004 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.42%
A classification of the locational patterns of firms (with economies of scope present) is outlined, in order to cast light on the location of the multiplant, multinational firm. This is driven by three forces: economies of scope that follow from the co-location of different activities; transportation costs of the final good; and factor mobility costs. It is concluded that the single-plant firm prevails when spatial economies of scope are strong in relation to either transportation or mobility costs. The vertical (horizontal) multiplant firm emerges when mobility costs of factors (transportation costs on the final good) are high. These two kinds of spatial costs, which are mutually exclusive, favor the formation of multinational firms.

Framework for developing and deploying location-based services in emerging economies

Katchy, Ifeanyi
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 98 p.
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.32%
The general belief is that Location-Based Services (LBS) in emerging economies does not make much sense until there is widespread availability of geographic information system (GIS) data, broadband internet access, payment methods, infrastructure such as power, well developed advertising platform, etc. There is also the belief that these deficiencies make it next to impossible to realize revenues from the existing revenue models such as mobile adverts, online adverts, subscription, etc. This study shows how LBS services can be developed and deployed in emerging economies within these given set of constraints. It also adduces methods for overcoming some of the identified hindrances such as ways for creating effective and sufficient revenues from online and mobile adverts. The central hypothesis for this work is encapsulated in a "change of mindset" from developing products comparable to those in developed world (United States, Western Europe) to developing products which meet the immediate needs of the local environment in emerging economies/developing economies (however crude these solutions may appear initially from the POV of the developed world) and make use of not only locally available technologies but locally available phenomena. These solutions are then refined as they are consumed by the populace and the populace becomes more "sophisticated". This hypothesis is developed and fleshed out in a methodical manner using data and examples from developing countries - Nigeria (Africa)...

Location, Concentration, and Performance of Economic Activity in Brazil

Lall, Somik V.; Funderburg, Richard; Yepes, Tito
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.2%
What are the prospects for economic development in lagging sub-national regions? What are the roles of public infrastructure investments and fiscal incentives in influencing the location and performance of industrial activity? To examine these questions, the authors estimate a spatial profit function for industrial activity in Brazil that explicitly incorporates infrastructure improvements and fiscal incentives in the cost structure of individual firms. The authors use firm level data from the 2001 annual industrial survey along with spatially disaggregated regional data and find that there are considerable cost savings from being located in areas with relatively lower transport costs to reach large markets. In comparison, fiscal incentives, such as tax expenditures, have modest effects in terms of influencing firm level costs. Although the results suggest that firms benefit from being in locations with good access to markets, the authors do not suggest that improving interregional connectivity would necessarily assist lagging regions. In the short run...

Metropolitan Industrial Clusters : Patterns and Processes

Chakravorty, Sanjoy; Koo, Jun; Lall, Somik V.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.34%
Where do industries locate within a metropolitan area? Do different industrial sectors have different patterns of location/clustering? Can these patterns be understood with reference to industry characteristics? What is the geographical relationship between clusters of different types of industry? To what extent do localization economies influence the clustering process? These questions are investigated with geographically disaggregated industry location and size data from Mumbai, Kolkata, and Chennai. Chakravorty, Koo, and Lall analyze eight industrial sectors (food/beverages, textiles, leather, printing/publishing, chemicals, metals, machinery, and electrical/electronics) for evidence of global and local clustering, and distinguish between and test for co-clustering and co-location of industries. The results suggest an evolutionary model of industry location in mixed rather than specialized industrial districts. There is little evidence of localization economies from labor markets or buyer-supplier networks. The authors suggest that land use policy is the key variable influencing the intra-metropolitan spatial distribution of industry.

Diversity Matters : The Economic Geography of Industry Location in India

Lall, Somik V.; Koo, Jun; Chakravorty, Sanjoy
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.07%
How does economic geography influence industrial production and thereby affect industrial location decisions and the spatial distribution of development? For manufacturing industry, what are the externalities that matter, and to what extent? Are these externalities spatially localized? The authors answer these questions by analyzing the influence of economic geography on the cost structure of manufacturing firms by firm size for eight industry sectors in India. The economic geography factors include market access and local and urban externalities-which are concentrations of own-industry firms, concentrations of buyer-supplier links, and industrial diversity at the district (local) level. The authors find that industrial diversity is the only economic geography variable that has a significant, consistent, and substantial cost-reducing effect for firms, particularly small firms. This finding calls into question the fundamental assumptions regarding localization economies and raises further concerns on the industrial development prospects of lagging regions in developing countries.

A Dynamic Spatial Model of Rural-Urban Transformation with Public Goods

Biller, Dan; Andres, Luis; Cuberes, David
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.39%
This paper develops a dynamic model that explains the pattern of population and production allocation in an economy with an urban location and a rural one. Agglomeration economies make urban dwellers benefit from a larger population living in the city and urban firms become more productive when they operate in locations with a larger labor force. However, congestion costs associated with a too large population size limit the process of urban-rural transformation. Firms in the urban location also benefit from a public good that enhances their productivity. The model predicts that in the competitive equilibrium the urban location is inefficiently small because households fail to internalize the agglomeration economies and the positive effect of public goods in urban production.

¿Es la ubicación un factor determinante para la industria conservera? : evidencia empírica para el caso de las empresas gallegas durante la primera década del s. XXI

Fachal Santos, Hugo
Fonte: Universidade da Corunha Publicador: Universidade da Corunha
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/bachelorThesis; info:eu-repo/semantics/bachelorThesis
SPA
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.46%
Traballo fin de grao (UDC.ECO). ADE. Curso 2012/2013; [Resumen]: El principal objetivo de este trabajo es dar respuesta a la pregunta que lleva por título. Es decir, se intentará evidenciar qué factores determinan la ubicación de las empresas dedicadas a la elaboración de conservas de productos del mar en la Comunidad Autónoma de Galicia y si verdaderamente la localización es un factor decisivo para el éxito de las empresas de este sector. Se comenzará haciendo un repaso por las aportaciones de los principales autores que han tratado de explicar los factores que determinan la localización de las empresas industriales. Comenzando con la revisión de los denominados modelos normativos, entre los que podemos destacar el trabajo de Von Thünen, Weber, Hotelling y Lösch. Estos primeros trabajos, marcados por un alto grado de abstracción, dieron paso a nuevas aportaciones mucho más ajustadas a la realidad y entre las que podemos destacar las de Alfred Marshall. Revisadas las aportaciones de los autores más significativos, se propondrá el modelo de Marshall como aquel que mejor explica la actual distribución geográfica de la industria conservera gallega. Para la corroboración de esta hipótesis, sirviéndonos de los datos recogidos en la base de datos Ardán...

Location of Spanish integrated steel, 1880-1936

Houpt, Stefan
Fonte: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid Publicador: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /01/1998 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.14%
This analysis questions whether or not Biscay was an optimal location for Spanish integrated steel mills at the end of the century and tries to determine Spain's optimal site as coal found substitutes all throughout the twentieth century. The contrast of the correct location of Spain's main production center is relevant, because a wrong location could have been introducing the inefficiencies and redundant costs which may have made Spain lose its competitivity on international markets and could have been biasing the competitivity of its products to low coal consumption. The suspicion of a mistaken location has been cornmented upon by a number of Spanish historians and economists. The first part of this paper will introduce the relevant aspects for formalizing a model for the location of integrated steel mills; together with sorne specific considerations for the case of Spain. Part two will show the methodology applied, i.e. the underlying assumptions, the model of transport cost minimization and the calibration of parameters. The contrast of the model will be completed by combining each of the two alternative sources of coal with the different iron ore sites respectively. Each combination will give us the numerical results presented in the next section. We will be able to observe how the reduction of coal consumption affects the optimal location for each of these alternative combinations of inputs. At the same time it will be easy to identify 'the supreme site' given the overall tendency to reducing the weight of coal as an input. Our preliminary conc1usions were then scrutinized by introducing the different aspects excluded from the model. Uniform transport costs were questioned and the alternative of sea transport was cüntemplated. Scope economies...

Hotelling meets Holmes : the importance of returns to product differentiation and distribution economies for the firm's optimal location choice

Erdmann, Anett
Fonte: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid Publicador: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/draft; info:eu-repo/semantics/workingPaper
Publicado em 01/06/2014 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.14%
Inspired by the empirical work of Holmes (2011), which suggests the economic importance of distribution costs in the firm's optimal location decision, this paper introduces endogenous distribution costs in the model of Hotelling (1929). The proposed model shows an interesting trade-off between demand and cost considerations when a firm plays a hybrid location strategy. Given the location of local distribution centers and agents' displacement cost parameters, it is shown that, under certain conditions, the optimal location of the firms are in the interior of the Hotelling line rather than at the edges of the line. The supply cost effect which drives this result diminishes with the distance of the distribution center from the market so that the scale of the distribution area becomes also determinant for an optimal location strategy. The theoretical results are complemented with an empirical analysis for distribution intensive grocery retailers using location data for the two main conventional supermarket chains in the U.S. The data suggest that the firms consider distribution costs when differentiating from the competitor.

Firm Location and the Determinants of Exporting in Developing Countries

Farole, Thomas; Winkler, Deborah
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.32%
Using a cross-section of more than 40,000 manufacturing and services firms in 79 developing countries from the World Bank's Enterprise Surveys Database, this paper assesses how firm location determines the likelihood and extent of exporting in developing countries. Descriptive statistics confirm higher export participation (but not intensity) for firms in core versus non-core regions, despite the finding that firms in the core assess many aspects of the investment climate more negatively. Results from a probit model show that, in addition to firm-specific characteristics, both regional investment climate and agglomeration factors have a significant impact on export participation. Specifically, customs clearance and electricity quality matter for export participation for manufacturing firms. Although localization economies and export spillovers are associated with increased exporting, the opposite is found for urbanization economies for both manufacturing and services firms. The analysis finds that firm-level determinants of exporting matter more for firms located in non-core regions...

Vouchers for Basic Education in Developing Economies : An Accountability Perspective

Gauri, Varun; Vawda, Ayesha
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Journal Article; Publications & Research :: Journal Article; Publications & Research :: Journal Article
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.09%
Advocates argue that voucher programs can correct the incentive problems of education systems in developing economies. An accountability perspective, based on a principal-agent framework, was developed to clarify the arguments for and against education vouchers. An assessment of findings on voucher programs in industrial countries and a review of voucher or quasi-voucher experiences in Bangladesh, Chile, Colombia, Côte d'Ivoire, and the Czech Republic support the usefulness of the analytic framework. The assessment concludes that the policy relevance of voucher programs for developing economies remains uncertain. Major voucher initiatives have been attempted only in countries with a well-developed institutional infrastructure. Some studies find favorable benefits for at least some population groups, but others find limited effects and evidence of increasing social stratification in schools. Whether vouchers lead to better outcomes or greater stratification appears related to specific contexts, institutional variables...

Business Environment, Clustering, and Industry Location : Evidence from Indian Cities

Lall, Somik V.; Mengistae, Taye
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.39%
How do differences in the local business environment influence location of industry within countries? How do the benefits of a good business environment compare with those from good market access and agglomeration economies from industry clustering? The authors examine these questions by analyzing location decisions of individual firms. Using data from a recently completed survey of manufacturing firms in India, they find that both the local business environment and agglomeration economies significantly influence business location choices across cities. In particular, excessive regulation of labor and of other industrial activities reduces the probability of a business locating in a city. The authors' findings imply that in order to attract industrial activity, smaller or remoter cities need to offer even more attractive policy concessions or reforms to offset the effects of their relatively adverse (economic) geography. Their methodology pays special attention to the identification of agglomeration economies in the presence of unobserved sources of natural advantage.

Dynamic Facility Location with Modular Capacities : Models, Algorithms and Applications in Forestry

Jena, Sanjay Dominik
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.14%
Les décisions de localisation sont souvent soumises à des aspects dynamiques comme des changements dans la demande des clients. Pour y répondre, la solution consiste à considérer une flexibilité accrue concernant l’emplacement et la capacité des installations. Même lorsque la demande est prévisible, trouver le planning optimal pour le déploiement et l'ajustement dynamique des capacités reste un défi. Dans cette thèse, nous nous concentrons sur des problèmes de localisation avec périodes multiples, et permettant l'ajustement dynamique des capacités, en particulier ceux avec des structures de coûts complexes. Nous étudions ces problèmes sous différents points de vue de recherche opérationnelle, en présentant et en comparant plusieurs modèles de programmation linéaire en nombres entiers (PLNE), l'évaluation de leur utilisation dans la pratique et en développant des algorithmes de résolution efficaces. Cette thèse est divisée en quatre parties. Tout d’abord, nous présentons le contexte industriel à l’origine de nos travaux: une compagnie forestière qui a besoin de localiser des campements pour accueillir les travailleurs forestiers. Nous présentons un modèle PLNE permettant la construction de nouveaux campements...

What underlies localization and urbanization economies? Evidence from the location of new firms

Marín-López, Raquel; Jofre Monseny, Jordi; Viladecans Marsal, Elisabet
Fonte: Xarxa de Referència en Economia Aplicada (XREAP) Publicador: Xarxa de Referència en Economia Aplicada (XREAP)
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2012 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.39%
The objective of this paper is to analyze why firms in some industries locate in specialized economic environments (localization economies) while those in other industries prefer large city locations (urbanization economies). To this end, we examine the location decisions of new manufacturing firms in Spain at the city level and for narrowly defined industries (three-digit level). First, we estimate firm location models to obtain estimates that reflect the importance of localization and urbanization economies in each industry. In a second step, we regress these estimates on industry characteristics that are related to the potential importance of three agglomeration theories, namely, labor market pooling, input sharing and knowledge spillovers. Localization effects are low and urbanization effects are high in knowledge-intensive industries, suggesting that firms (partly) locate in large cities to reap the benefits of inter-industry knowledge spillovers. We also find that localization effects are high in industries that employ workers whose skills are more industry-specific, suggesting that industries (partly) locate in specialized economic environments to share a common pool of specialized workers.

Tax differentials and agglomeration economies in intraregional firm location

Jofre Monseny, Jordi; Solé Ollé, Albert
Fonte: Xarxa de Referència en Economia Aplicada (XREAP) Publicador: Xarxa de Referència en Economia Aplicada (XREAP)
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2007 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.39%
This paper analyses empirically how differences in local taxes affect the intraregional location of new manufacturing plants. These effects are examined within the random profit maximization framework while accounting for the presence of different types of agglomeration economies (localization/ urbanization/ Jacobs’ economies) at the municipal level. We look at the location decision of more than 10,000 establishments locating between 1996 and 2003 across more than 400 municipalities in Catalonia, a Spanish region. It is necessary to restrict the choice set to the local labor market and, above all, to control for agglomeration economies so as to identify the effects of taxes on the location of new establishments.

Location of research-based spin-offs: how relevant are regional effects?

Conceição, Oscarina; Faria, Ana Paula; Fontes, Margarida
Fonte: Universidade do Minho. Núcleo de Investigação em Políticas Económicas (NIPE) Publicador: Universidade do Minho. Núcleo de Investigação em Políticas Económicas (NIPE)
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Publicado em //2014 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.1%
Using a unique self-collected dataset that comprehends the population of research-based spin-offs created in Portugal from 1995 until to 2007, we investigate the location choices of these firms. In order to do so we control for both university- and region-related mechanisms. Our results suggest that the latter play a lesser role than university-related mechanisms. Although the availability of qualified human capital and urbanization economies seem to exert some effect on the location choices of research-based spin-offs, our results suggest that the quality and prestige of the universities located in a region, as well as the presence of university-affiliated incubators and/or university research parks have a stronger impact on the intensity of RBSO location across regions.

Agglomeration economies and the location of foreign direct investment: quasi-experimental evidence from Romania

Hilber, Christian A. L.; Voicu, Ioan
Fonte: Geography and Environment Department, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Geography and Environment Department, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /03/2006 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.35%
How important are agglomeration economies for the location of foreign manufacturing plants? We investigate this question by combining innovations from previous studies and by taking advantage of a quasi-experimental setting: the political and economic transition in Romania. The recent, sudden and sustained influx of foreign investors into Romania provides an ideal setting to disentangle agglomeration economies from endowment effects. Using a countylevel conditional logit set-up that controls for choice-specific fixed effects and endowment effects, we find that external economies from industry-specific foreign agglomeration and service agglomeration are important location determinants. Increases in the number of foreign plants and in service employment density by 10 percent make the average county 2.2 and 6.2 percent more likely to attract a new foreign investor. Local labor market conditions also matter. Our findings suggest that results are sensitive to the choice of geographical unit of observation and the inclusion of locational fixed effects.