Página 1 dos resultados de 5825 itens digitais encontrados em 0.009 segundos

The Impact of Climate Change on Livestock Management in Africa : A Structural Ricardian Analysis

Seo, Sungno Niggol; Mendelsohn, Robert
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.16%
This paper develops the structural Ricardian method, a new approach to modeling agricultural performance using cross-sectional evidence, and uses the method to study animal husbandry in Africa. The model is intended to estimate the structure beneath Ricardian results in order to understand how farmers change their behavior in response to climate. A survey of over 5,000 livestock farmers in 10 countries reveals that the selection of species, the net income per animal, and the number of animals are all highly dependent on climate. As climate warms, net income across all animals will fall, especially across beef cattle. The fall in net income causes African farmers to reduce the number of animals on their farms. The fall in relative revenues also causes them to shift away from beef cattle and toward sheep and goats. All farmers will lose income but the most vulnerable farms are large African farms that currently specialize in beef cattle. Small livestock and large livestock farms respond to climates differently. Small farms are diversified...

Kyrgyz Republic - Livestock Sector Review : Embracing the New Challenges

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.17%
Continuing a long Kyrgyz tradition, the livestock sector is one of the strongest components of the rural economy. The sector contributes substantially to the national economy by providing high value food, income, employment and foreign exchange. There are also significant indirect benefits which include reduced risks to human health, more sustainable use of arable land and pastures, access to lucrative markets and the possibility to add value to livestock products. The processing and marketing of livestock products are also attractive to women. Available evidence suggests that recent growth in the value of sector output was due mostly to a strong increase in producer prices and only a small increase in productivity - despite the ample scope for growth of the latter. Productivity levels are low - number of calves/lambs born per 100 cows/ewes, milk yields, wool output and animal growth rates fall well short of genetic potential of the current mix of animal breeds and international industry standards. Current levels of animal productivity are low - due to poor nutrition...

Managing the Livestock Revolution : Policy and Technology to Address the Negative Impacts of a Fast-Growing Sector

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.16%
Fueled by fast-expanding demand, the production of meat and milk in the developing world has doubled in recent decades, and this trend is expected to continue. This expanding sector can provide income, employment, and high quality nutrition for vulnerable groups, and in many areas of the world, essential soil fertility inputs. However, as production grows, market forces, often supported by deliberate or unintended government policies, are causing, in particular in the pig and poultry sector, a spatial concentration of larger-size production units, mostly around urban areas, and an economic concentration of production, processing and retailing. This geographical and economic concentration of the livestock sector probably improves the affordability of meat and milk for the urban poor, and might create better-paid employment up- and downstream of the producer, but has significant negative effects on the environment, animal and human health, and social equity. This paper has the following contents: executive summary; setting the scene - demand patterns, supply patterns, and structural changes; effects of the livestock revolution - environmental, public health, equity, and farm-size interactions; technical solutions, policy and institutional support mechanisms...

Samoa : Livestock Production and Marketing

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.2%
This report was prepared to provide information and analysis of the Samoan livestock sub-sector for the Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries through a technical assistance assignment financed by the World Bank. The Word Bank contributed technical assistance support to the Government of Samoa to help identify measures to strengthen agriculture sector institutions, to improve the performance of selected commodities - including in the livestock sector - both in terms of import substitution and export expansion, and to identify strategic agriculture infrastructure investments. This report provides information and analysis on livestock inventories, the competitiveness of Samoan livestock products, livestock slaughtering and meat hygiene, and government policies and institutional frameworks needed to enhance the competitiveness of domestic livestock production. The report also contains recommendations for the development of a livestock component as part of the proposed Samoa Agriculture Competiveness Enhancement Project (SACEP).

The Livestock and Horticulture Value Chains in Swaziland : Challenges and Opportunities

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.17%
The specific objective of this policy note is to derive insights that can contribute to rapid and sustainable integration of small-scale farmers into the livestock and horticulture value chains in Swaziland. It seeks to do this by identifying constraints that may be contributing to poor performance in the two value chains, evaluating technological options that could improve productivity, and identifying priority areas for future government interventions. The livestock and the horticulture value chains were selected for in-depth analysis because they both are important to Swaziland, and have the potential to become even more important in the future.

Intensification of Livestock Production Systems in the North West Region of Cameroon : A South-to-South Collaboration for Technology Transfer, The Tugi Silvopastoral Project

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.16%
The Tugi Silvo-pastoral Project (TUSIP) is a South-South Cooperation between the Tropical Agriculture Research and Higher Education Centre (CATIE) based in Costa Rica (www.catie.ac.cr) and the Akwi Memorial Foundation (AMF) based in the North West Region of Cameroon. The main goal of TUSIP was to assess the environmental benefits of a set of silvo-pastoral practices and to empower traditional livestock farmers in Tugi Village by enhancing their capability to manage available crop-animal systems and natural resources in a sustainable manner. TUSIP made efforts in the rehabilitation of degraded pasturelands to ensure adequate year-round availability of forages to increase animal productivity in a sustainable manner, consequently contributing to improving the livelihoods of rural families who depend on livestock activities in Tugi. The project put emphasis on (1) modifying the traditional crop-livestock systems through the implementation of silvo-pastoral options, which helped to diversify income sources...

Potential Impact of Climate Change on Resilience and Livelihoods in Mixed Crop-Livestock Systems in East Africa

Herrero, Mario; Jones, Peter G; Karanja, Stanley; Mutie, Ianetta; Rufino, Mariana C; Thornton, Philip K
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.2%
Climate-induced livelihood transitions in the agricultural systems of Africa are increasingly likely. A recent study by Jones and Thornton (2009) points to the possibility of such climate-induced livelihood transitions in the mixed crop-livestock rainfed arid-semiarid systems of Africa. These mixed systems cover over one million square kilometers of farmland in West Africa, Eastern Africa, and Southeastern Africa. Their characteristically scant rainfall usually causes crop failure in one out of every six growing seasons and is thus already marginal for crop production. Under many projected climate futures, these systems will become drier and even more marginal for crop production. This will greatly increase the risk of cropping and among the several possible coping and adaptation mechanisms, (e.g. totally abandoning farming, diversification of income-generating activities such as migration and off-farm employment, etc.) agro-pastoralists may alter the relative emphasis that they currently place on the crop and livestock components of the farming system in favor of livestock. There has been only limited analysis on what such climate induced transitions might look like...

Investing in the Livestock Sector : Why Good Numbers Matter, A Sourcebook for Decision Makers on How to Improve Livestock Data

Pica-Ciamarra, Ugo; Baker, Derek; Morgan, Nancy; Zezza, Alberto; Azzarri, Carlo; Ly, Cheikh; Nsiima, Longin; Nouala, Simplice; Okello, Patrick; Sserugga, Joseph
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.2%
This sourcebook summarizes the outputs and lessons of the Livestock in Africa: improving data for better policies project. It aims to present the challenges facing professionals collecting and analyzing livestock data and statistics and possible solutions. While the Sourcebook does not address all conceivable issues related to enhancing livestock data and underlining statistical issues, it does represent a unique document for a number of reasons. To begin with, it is possibly the first document which specifically addresses the broad complexity of livestock data collection, taking into consideration the unique characteristics of the sector. Indeed, in most cases livestock data are dealt with, if ever, within the context of major agricultural initiatives. Second, the sourcebook is a joint product of users and suppliers of livestock data, with its overarching objective being to respond to the information needs of data users, and primarily the Ministries responsible for livestock in African countries and the National Statistical Authorities. Finally...

Collecting Livestock Data : A Snapshot of Survey Methods

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.18%
The design, implementation, and monitoring and evaluation of livestock sector public and private sector investments are based on evidence and information generated by a multitude of data collection systems, including regular and one-off, or ad-hoc, surveys. This note reviews the major survey methods that are regularly implemented by developing country governments, including: the agricultural and livestock census; agricultural and livestock sample surveys; household budget surveys; living standards measurement studies; administrative records or routine data; and others, such as the population and housing census and labor surveys. It identifies the major livestock-related indicators that the various surveys for which the prime target rarely is livestock are likely to generate. Understanding these data sources is critical for decision makers to make appropriate use of available data and indicators, and is the first step in designing and setting up a comprehensive livestock data collection system. The note concludes by highlighting that a system of livestock statistics must be seen as part of a broader framework of statistical collection on a national level and that the effective integration of livestock data...

Linking Smallholders to Livestock Markets in Tanzania : Combing Market and Household Survey Data

Pica-Ciamarra, Ugo; Baker, Derek; Chassama, John; Fadiga, Mohamadou; Nsiima, Longin
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.19%
Linking farmers to markets is widely viewed as a milestone towards promoting economic growth and poverty reduction. However, market and institutional imperfections along the supply chain thwart perfect vertical and spatial price transmission and prevent farmers and market actors from getting access to information, identifying business opportunities and allocating their resources efficiently. This acts as a barrier to market-led rural development and poverty reduction. This paper reviews and analyses household information, and the major livestock market and marketing data available in Tanzania, in relation to market-led development possibilities. Household-level data collected by the Tanzania National Bureau of Statistics and market data collected and disseminated by the Livestock Information and Knowledge System of the Tanzania Ministry of Industry and Trade are reviewed and utilized together. Both types of data help identify market opportunities for livestock producers, but only their joint use could provide policy makers with the information needed to design and implement policies that facilitate access to markets for livestock producers. Options to promote integration of household-level data and market data are discussed...

Measuring the Contribution of Livestock to Household Livelihoods : A Livestock Module for Multi-topic Household Surveys

Pica-Ciamarra, Ugo; Baker, Derek; Morgan, Nancy; Zezza, Alberto
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.18%
About 60 percent of rural households in developing countries are estimated to fully or partly depend on livestock for their livelihoods. Available household level livestock data, however, are insufficient to appreciate the contribution of livestock to household livelihoods, including both the monetary and non-monetary benefits provided by farm animals. This challenges the design and implementation of effective investments in the sector. This paper presents a livestock module for multi-topic household surveys, which targets improved livestock-related questions therein. The livestock module for multi-topic household surveys has been jointly elaborated by the FAO, the ILRI (International Livestock Research Institute) and the World Bank, as part of the Livestock Data for Better Policies in Africa Project. It consists of a core set of questions, which quantify both livestock herd and the various contributions of farm animals to household livelihoods, including cash income, food, manure, draft power and hauling services...

Livestock Assets, Livestock Income and Rural Households : Cross-Country Evidence from Household Surveys

Pica-Ciamarra, Ugo; Tasciotti, Luca; Otte, Joachim; Zezza, Alberto
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.2%
This paper investigates the livestock asset positions of rural households and the contribution of livestock to their income in 12 developing countries. It draws on the FAO Rural Income Generating Activities (RIGA) database, which allows cross-country comparisons of household surveys. The majority of rural households keep livestock; the rural poor, defined as those living in rural areas and belonging to the bottom expenditure quintile, are more likely to keep livestock than those in higher quintiles; there are minor differences in herd composition between households, and the contribution of livestock to total income is overall small, with no significant differences across households.

The Inter-linkages between Rapid Growth in Livestock Production, Climate Change, and the Impacts on Water Resources, Land Use, and Deforestation

Thornton, Philip K.; Herrero, Mario
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.2%
Livestock systems globally are changing rapidly in response to human population growth, urbanization, and growing incomes. This paper discusses the linkages between burgeoning demand for livestock products, growth in livestock production, and the impacts this may have on natural resources, and how these may both affect and be affected by climate change in the coming decades. Water and land scarcity will increasingly have the potential to constrain food production growth, with adverse impacts on food security and human well-being. Climate change will exacerbate many of these trends, with direct effects on agricultural yields, water availability, and production risk. In the transition to a carbon-constrained economy, livestock systems will have a key role to play in mitigating future emissions. At the same time, appropriate pricing of greenhouse gas emissions will modify livestock production costs and patterns. Health and ethical considerations can also be expected to play an increasing role in modifying consumption patterns of livestock products...

Does Livestock Ownership Affect Animal Source Foods Consumption and Child Nutritional Status? Evidence from Rural Uganda

Azzarri, Carlo; Cross, Elizabeth; Haile, Beliyou; Zezza, Alberto
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.15%
In many developing countries, consumption of animal source foods among the poor is still at a level where increasing its share in total caloric intake may have many positive nutritional benefits. This paper explores whether ownership of various livestock species increases consumption of animal source foods and helps improve child nutritional status. The paper finds some evidence that food consumption patterns and nutritional outcomes may be affected by livestock ownership in rural Uganda. The results are suggestive that promoting (small) livestock ownership has the potential to affect human nutrition in rural Uganda, but further research is needed to estimate more precisely the direction and size of these effects.

Livestock Development : Implications for Rural Poverty, the Environment, and Global Food Security

De Haan, Cornelis; Van Veen, Tjaart Schillhorn; Brandenburg, Brian; Gauthier, Jerome; Le Gall, Francois; Mearns, Robin; Simeon, Michel
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.21%
This report provides recommendations on how to better manage ongoing changes in livestock development. First, it presents an overview of the main trends that can be expected to drive the sector over the next decades. Second it discusses the negative or positive social, environmental, and health repercussions of those trends, and the institutional, policy, and technical requirements needed to manage them. It concludes with a section on the current World Bank portfolio in the livestock sector and provides an action plan for the future. The report generally describes good practices where available and identifies strategy implications of past experience. Finally, this report summarizes the current thinking of the Animal Resources Team on the type of activities that the Bank should support. It is a direct input into the review of the Bank's rural strategy.

Minding the Stock : Bringing Public Policy to Bear on Livestock Sector Development

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Agricultural Study
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.2%
Driven by population growth, urbanization, and increased income, the demand for animal-source food products in developing countries is rapidly increasing. Livestock, which already constitutes 30 percent of the agricultural Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in the developing world, and about 40 percent of the global agricultural GDP, is one of the fastest-growing subsectors in agriculture. Growing demand presents real opportunities for economic growth and poverty reduction in rural areas. It could directly benefit the one billion poor people who depend on livestock as a source of income and subsistence. Livestock also provides traction for about 50 percent of the world's farmers and is a source of organic fertilizer for most of the world's croplands, converting waste products into inputs in the production of high-value food. For these reasons, the sector has a critical role to play in making agriculture sustainable, in reducing poverty, and in contributing to economic growth. This report presents an analysis of the issues related to market failures in the livestock sector...

Business and Livelihoods in African Livestock : Investments to Overcome Information Gaps

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Agricultural Study
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.21%
This paper investigates how the development of the livestock sector can contribute to economic growth and poverty reduction in the continent, with the ultimate objective of identifying major information gaps critical to designing and implementing successful livestock sector policies and investments. As a first step, the paper presents an analysis of African consumption of animal-source foods. This is rapidly growing and is forecast to continue doing so. It therefore provides opportunities for demand-led growth. This focus is distinct from the more traditional, production-oriented entry point. To understand opportunities for poverty reduction, this paper reviews both the quantitative and qualitative dimensions of African markets for livestock products, in this case animal-source foods. Second, rather than exploring production and productivity constraints, which are known to a large extent, the paper focuses on the incentives that rural households have to invest in their livestock to overcome those constraints. Indeed...

Investing in African Livestock : Business Opportunities in 2030-2050; Investir dans l'elevage en Afrique : perspectives commerciales pour 2030-2050

Pica-Ciamarra Ugo; Baker, Derek; Morgan, Nancy; Ly, Cheikh; Nouala, Simplice
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.15%
Medium and long-term development perspectives of any productive sector are driven by prospects for demand growth which, dependent on the policy and economic environment, can translate into associated producer responses. For the livestock sector, trends in the consumption of animal-sourced foods and livestock by-products are the first key indicator of opportunities for investment. This paper depicts the medium to long term development prospects for the African livestock sector by reviewing data on the estimated consumption of animal-sourced foods and anticipated responses by producers for 2005-07, 2030, and 2050. By 2050, the meat market is projected at 34.8 million tones and that of milk about 82.6 million tones, an increase of 145 and 155 percent respectively over 2005-07 levels. More notably, over this period, Africa's increase in volume of meat consumed will be on a par with that of the developed world and that of Latin America, with only South Asia and Southeast Asia anticipated registering higher growth. Policy and institutional reforms should be devised...

Livestock and Livelihoods in Rural Tanzania : A Descriptive Analysis of the 2009 National Panel Survey

Covarrubias, Katia; Nsiima, Longin; Zezza, Alberto
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Agricultural Study
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.22%
In 2006, the government approved a national livestock policy based on the premise that the livestock industry has an important role to play in building a strong national economy and in the process, reducing inequalities among Tanzanians by increasing their incomes and employment opportunities. This report presents an analysis of rural livelihoods in Tanzania, with particular emphasis on the livestock sub-sector, smallholder farmers' living standards, and issues with access to productive assets. The report attempts to answer basic questions such as: to what extent is keeping livestock an activity of the relatively better off, and to what extent are poorer households able to engage?; how does the role of livestock vary with different levels of income and well-being?; how are livestock holding size and structure associated with differences in welfare, gender, and geography?; how important are input and output markets for small livestock keepers?; what form does this market participation take in practice, and to what extent?; and to what extent do the non-income services of livestock (for example...

Differential Adaptation Strategies by Agro-Ecological Zones in African Livestock Management

Seo, S. Niggol; Mendelsohn, Robert; Dinar, Ariel; Kurukulasuriya, Pradeep
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.15%
This paper examines how farmers have adapted their livestock operation to the current climate in each agro-ecological zone in Africa. The authors examine how climate has affected the farmer's choice to raise livestock or not and the choice of animal species. To measure adaptation, the analysis regresses the farmer's choice on climate, soil, water flow, and socio-economic variables. The findings show that climate does in fact affect the farmer's decision about whether to raise livestock and the species. The paper also simulates how future climates may alter these decisions using forecasts from climate models and the estimated model. With a hot dry scenario, livestock ownership will increase slightly across all of Africa, but especially in West Africa and high elevation agro-ecological zones. Dairy cattle will decrease in semi-arid regions, sheep will increase in the lowlands, and chickens will increase at high elevations. With a mild and wet scenario, however, livestock adoption will fall dramatically in lowland and high latitude moist agro-ecological zones. Beef cattle will increase and sheep will fall in dry zones...