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Hibridismo cultural e linguistico no universo escolar : confronto e conflito de vozes na construção de identidades; Cultural and linguistics hybridism in the school scenery: conflicting voices in the construction of identities

Paulo Roberto Almeida
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 19/07/2005 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.66%
Este trabalho tem como proposta uma reflexão sobre a relação / sujeito llingua(gem) e o processo de constituição/construção de identidades, num universo escolar heterogêneo, constituído por diferenças culturais e lingüísticas e marcado por uma situação de hibridismo, ou seja, por uma coexistência de conjuntos de valores e verdades antagônicos. Esse cenário sociolingüístico, constituído por grupos de "minorias" lingüísticas (maiorias tratadas como minorias), atravessado por uma relação de forças desiguais, com forte cunho ideológico, é perpassado por conflitos no processo de aprendizagem de língua materna, em conseqüência do confronto/conflito entre variedades lingüísticas (entre uma variedade padrão-prestigiada socialmente, tomada como "legítima" ou "legitimada", preconizada pela instituição escolar como referência para um critério de avaliação de desempenho individual do aluno e outras variedades tidas como "não-legítimas", institucionalmente estigmatizadas, "trazidas" por alunos-trabalhadores de curso técnico profissionalizante). E, ao pensar em identidades acredito ser fundamental pensar no jogo das representações de linguagem, sujeito, instituição e contexto aí envolvidos. Ao pensar em representações de língua/linguagem e cultura...

Ich kann mein Name mit letra junta und letra solta Schreiben : bilinguismo e letramento em uma escola rural localizada em zona de imigração alemã no Sul do Brasil; Ich kann mein Name mit letra junta und letra solta Schreiben : bilingualism and literacy in a rural primary school located in a German immigration region in the South of Brazil

Maristela Pereira Fritzen
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 17/12/2007 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.54%
O presente estudo descreve o cenário sociolingüístico de uma escola rural multisseriada localizada em zona de imigração alemã, no Sul do Brasil, e analisa as práticas sociais de leitura e de escrita construídas em sala de aula. Em consonância com a metodologia da pesquisa etnográfica e interpretativista, os registros foram gerados por meio de observação participante continuada durante um semestre na escola alvo da pesquisa, anotações de campo reelaboradas em diários, conversas informais, entrevistas, gravações de áudio e vídeo de aulas típicas, coleta de documentos, bem como participação em diversos eventos promovidos pela escola ou por outras instituições sociais da comunidade. A análise proposta neste estudo ampara-se teoricamente (i) no bilingüismo como fenômeno social e no campo da educação bilíngüe para minorias, ao focalizar o cenário sociolingüisticamente complexo; (ii) na Sociolingüística Interacional e na Etnografia Educacional, ao abordar a relação de contato/conflito entre as línguas no contexto pesquisado e na sala de aula; (iii) nos Estudos Culturais e na Sociologia, ao discutir questões de língua e identidade; (iv) nos Novos Estudos do Letramento, ao tratar dos eventos de letramento que têm lugar na escola...

Luso-Canadian Exchanges in Translation Studies: Translating Linguistic Variation

Rosa, Alexandra Assis, 1967-; Falcão, Luísa; Mouta, Raquel; Sengo, Susana Valdez; Botas, Tiago
Fonte: Centro de Estudos Anglísticos da Universidade de Lisboa Publicador: Centro de Estudos Anglísticos da Universidade de Lisboa
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2011 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.23%
“Translation scholars no doubt can learn much from scholars of ethnic minorities, women, minor literatures and popular literatures. Much of the most exciting work in the field is already being produced by scholars from the “smaller” countries – Belgium, the Netherlands, Israel, Czechoslovakia, and French-speaking Canada” (Gentzler 2001: 197). Several Canadian scholars have been very influential in Translation Studies. The main aim of this collaborative paper on Luso-Canadian exchanges in TS is to make a very brief presentation of how some of the most “exciting” work by Canadian scholars has been received, adopted, adapted and developed in research work and teaching by Portuguese TS scholars. Selected examples of theoretical and methodological proposals by Canadian researchers in TS will be discussed, a few studies by Portuguese scholars will be mentioned, and the operative application of these studies to translation practice and teaching will be illustrated by the presentation and analysis of short excerpts of English narrative source texts, followed by their target texts in Portuguese, as produced and commented upon by former students of the Department of English, Faculty of Letters University of Lisbon.

Empréstimos lingüísticos do português em Xerente Akwé; LINGUISTIC OPERATIONS IN THE PORTUGUESE XERENTE Akwe

MESQUITA, Rodrigo
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Goiás; BR; UFG; Mestrado em Letras e Linguística; Lingüística, Letras e Artes Publicador: Universidade Federal de Goiás; BR; UFG; Mestrado em Letras e Linguística; Lingüística, Letras e Artes
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.51%
Many languages, spoken by minority populations coming in contact with majority ones are losing vitality. Additionally, several other languages have become extinct, and this phenomenon is related to a cultural complexity involving a unique way to reflect on reality and to become a part of it. The reasons for this are many, and in each case, they act in different ways. Identifying these reasons can help to clarify the situation of a given language, and, consequently, provide subsidies for (re)vitalization projects, given that the understanding of the sociolinguistic situation may reveal what is behind the many facets resulting from the predominantly asymmetric relationships among unequally assigned political, economic and cultural powers among the involved populations. In this sense, variations and changes in those languages are directly related to changes that have taken place in the social and cultural medium and in the ecosystem where those peoples live. Thus, both linguistic and extra-linguistic factors act on those changes. According to several authors (Albó, 1988; Braggio, 1997; Godenzzi, 2000; Nettle & Romaine, 2000; Romaine, 1995 among others), borrowings made by minority languages which come in contact with dominant languages...

Cultural, geographic and genetic isolation in Italian ethno-linguistic minorities

CAPOCASA, MARCO
Fonte: La Sapienza Universidade de Roma Publicador: La Sapienza Universidade de Roma
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.84%
The identification of isolation signatures is fundamental to better understand the genetic structure of human populations and to test the relations between cultural factors and genetic variation. In contrast to the methodological advancements achieved in the study of isolation in natural populations, current approaches in human population genetics are based on the evaluation of within and among-group diversity, but it remains difficult to distinguish between the effects of reduced sample size, purifying selection and differential admixture and the consequences of long-term isolation. To overcome these limitations, we have integrated the analysis of classical genetic diversity measures with a Bayesian method to estimate gene flow and have carried out simulations based on the coalescent with the aim to test whether a short history of cultural and geographical isolation may have left detectable genetic signatures in some Italian populations. The investigation has been primarily conducted using mitochondrial and Y chromosome polymorphisms, that continue to represent today important tools to study human isolates. The research has been conducted in Italy due to the fact that its history of migrations has determined a degree of ethno-cultural heterogeneity of the most complex in the European continent. However...

Assessing the Quality of Education in Bulgaria using PISA 2009

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.82%
This report reflects and analyzes the recently released survey results from the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) conducted in 2009 by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). The report examines the change in scores from 2006 to 2009 and looks at how much of the change can be attributed to improvements in the quality of the education system, how the poor, linguistic minorities and students at small schools fared over this period; as well as the relationship between various types of school autonomy and achievement. The analysis reveals that: (1) There were large increases in math and reading scores equivalent to one-half and one year of learning gains over time, and a modest improvement in the science scores; (2) All of the increase is attributed to improvements in the quality of the education system; (3) The poorest 20 percent of students improved just as much as the overall population. PISA 2009 shows that there has been little improvement in the equity of the Bulgarian education system as evidenced by the poor performance of small schools and socially disadvantaged groups...

Language diversity in Europe: can the EU prevent the genocide of the French linguistic minorities?

Jeanjean, Henri
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 217891 bytes; 359 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
EN_AU
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.59%
Introduction: All references about France, be they about French language, French culture, French arrogance or French cuisine seem to indicate that this country is homogeneous, mono-lingua and mono-cultural. If we consider some of its regions we can note a huge linguistic and cultural diversity: Corsica is Italo-Roman, Brittany is Celtic, Flemish is spoken in the North of France, Alsace is Germanic, the language in the Basque region is pre Indo-European while Catalan and Occitan both form part of the "occitano-roman group, half way between Gallo-Roman and Ibero-Roman." According to the new Atlas of Endangered World Naguages published by UNESCO, all these languages, with the exception of Corsican, are part of the 3000 languages in danger of extinction.; no

Europeanization of language rights in Russia and Ukraine

ULASIUK, Iryna
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.59%
Language has always been one of the most pertinent factors contributing to the cultural diversity of societies throughout the world. Whereas the socio-historical processes of stateformation and nation building in the modern age have been accompanied by exclusive language policies aiming at linguistic homogenisation of the population, language rights have been central to the claims of national minorities for recognition of their identities. The preservation of linguistic diversity has, thus, become a major concern to many researchers, politicians and leaders of linguistic communities in Europe in general and countries of the former Soviet Union in particular. The issue of linguistic minorities has taken on a particular urgency because of the increasing recognition of the threat of extinction faced by many minority languages. The need for immediate action has become obvious. Europe has slowly but steadily started to come up with responses to how to keep the most vulnerable languages from extinction and guarantee rights to speakers of such languages at the same time. Today we can talk about the emergence of a European minimum standard of protection of language rights as it has developed since the 1990s in the European conventions and their monitoring activities. The impact of such standard varies in different countries and is being assessed in the present doctoral thesis with respect to Russia and Ukraine.; Defence date: 28 June 2010; Examining Board: Bruno DE WITTE (Supervisor...

Legal protection of linguistic diversity in Russia: past and present

ULASIUK, Iryna
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.66%
Russia is unique in its size and ethnic composition. There is a further linguistic complexity of more than 150 co-existing languages. Notwithstanding this diversity, the claims of linguistic minorities in Russia were traditionally neglected, first in imperial Russia and later in the Soviet politics and law. The political processes undergone from the middle of the 1980s have reactivated the awareness of identity in many linguistic communities of the new Russian Federation. Their aspirations demanded the most suitable legal and political initiatives to create the necessary conditions for the preservation of minority languages. How these demands have been reflected in the current legal framework is analysed in the paper.

Europeanization of Language Rights in Russia and Ukraine: A Myth or a reality

ULASIUK, Iryna
Fonte: LAP Lambert Academic Publishing Publicador: LAP Lambert Academic Publishing
Tipo: Livro
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.56%
The increasing recognition of the threat of extinction faced by many minority languages has put the issue of linguistic minorities high on the European and national agendas. Slowly but steadily Europe has come up with a minimum standard of protection of rights of speakers of the most vulnerable languages. This book assesses the impact of such standard with respect to two nation-states, Russia and Ukraine. It provides the most complete and updated legal analysis of the language rights of national minorities in the two countries. It moves from a historical perspective to the current legal status of language rights in light of the process of Europeanization and looks at how the European minority rights standards and instruments have contributed to the development and the implementation of language rights of minorities in both countries. While there is a notorious lack of English-language scholarship on language rights, and minority protection in general in Russia and Ukraine, this book goes a long way to fill the gap and as such will appeal to different audiences: lawyers, policy makers, linguists and anybody interested in the issues of linguistic diversity.; (Published version of EUI PhD thesis, 2010.)

La definición implícita del concepto de minoría nacional en el Derecho Internacional; The implicit definition of national minority concept in International Law

González Hidalgo, Eloísa; Rruiz Vieytez, Eduardo J.
Fonte: Universidad Carlos III de Madrid. Instituto de Derechos Humanos Bartolomé de las Casas; Dykinson Publicador: Universidad Carlos III de Madrid. Instituto de Derechos Humanos Bartolomé de las Casas; Dykinson
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; info:eu-repo/semantics/article
Publicado em /06/2012 SPA
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.56%
Desde los inicios del siglo XX la comunidad internacional ha intentado definir el concepto de minoría nacional en el Derecho Internacional, sin que hasta el momento haya sido posible alcanzar un consenso al respecto. Sin embargo, desde la creación de la Sociedad de Naciones hasta nuestros días se han delimitado una serie de elementos definitorios, que en las últimas décadas han sido consolidados por organismos internacionales, especialmente en el ámbito europeo. Entre ellos se incluyen, por un lado, elementos objetivos como la inferioridad numérica, la diferenciación cultural, étnica, religiosa o lingüística, la nacionalidad jurídica o ciudadanía del Estado de residencia y la temporalidad de la presencia en el territorio del Estado. Por otro lado, elementos subjetivos como la conciencia o identidad colectivas, y el deseo expresado por el grupo de preservar sus características específicas.; Since the beginning of the twentieth century, the international community has tried to define the concept of national minority in international law, although no consensus has been reached so far. However, from the creation of the League of Nations till our days a series of distinctive elements of the definition of minorities have been designed. These elements have been consolidated in recent decades by some international institutions...

Las personas sordas como minoría cultural y lingüística; Deaf people as a cultural and linguistic minority

Pérez de la Fuente, Oscar
Fonte: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Instituto de Filosofía Publicador: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Instituto de Filosofía
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; info:eu-repo/semantics/article
Publicado em 15/06/2014 SPA
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.23%
El modelo médico de la discapacidad busca rehabilitar al deficiente auditivo. Se considera que son enfermos que requieren normalización o asimilación con el resto de la sociedad. El modelo social de la discapacidad que se basa en la igual dignidad de todas las personas y en que las causas de la discapacidad son sociales. Se concibe la discapacidad en positivo y que las personas sordas pueden aportar mucho a la sociedad. En este contexto, el artículo analiza si las reivindicaciones de las personas sordas pueden considerarse como las de una minoría cultural y lingüística.; Medical model of disability searches for rehabilitating those who have hearing impairment. It’s considered that they are ill people that require normalization or assimilation to the rest of society. The Social model of disability is based on equal dignity of all people and that the causes of disability are social. Disability is conceived in a positive way and deaf people can contribute a lot to the society. Under this context, this paper analyses if the claims of deaf people could be considered as coming from a cultural and linguistic minority.; Este artículo se enmarca en el Proyecto Consolider-Ingenio 2010 “El tiempo de los derechos” CSD2008- 00007. Y en el Proyecto DIS-CAPACIDAD...

Language Rights Revisited: The challenge of global migration and communication

Fonte: WLP Publicador: WLP
Tipo: Livro
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.98%
Linguistic autonomy, assured internationally to ethnic minorities, has succeeded, above all, in Europe, yet is nowhere near passing its acid test in other parts of the world. Examples show that it is not only a question of linguistic autonomy, but of ethnic and religious conflicts, which are simmering in the foreground. Hence, there are reasons for doubting whether international agreements designed to guarantee linguistic autonomy can solve these conflicts. The protection of indigenous languages is justified largely by the principle of diversity and is derived from ecological principles. However, only people who wish to take advantage of their rights will succeed in safeguarding these rights. A language that nobody speaks or wants to speak will die. Biologists have convinced us that biodiversity preserves the balance of life on earth, cultural theoreticians however have yet to deliver evidence to this effect. Global migration has now created further problems for language regimes in many different countries. These global migration processes are creating linguistically heterogeneous populations in many countries for which the law has not created appropriate language regimes. Global communication obeys rules that differ greatly from the methods used in teaching foreign languages at school. The English used in global communication is not the “academic English” that is taught at school...

Underappreciated Resource or Inadequate Measure?

Molos, DIMITRIOS
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.54%
Article 27 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights is a legally binding and justiciable minority protection provision. It stipulates, “In those States in which ethnic, religious or linguistic minorities exist, persons belonging to such minorities shall not be denied the right, in community with the other members of their group, to enjoy their own culture, to profess and practise their own religion, or to use their own lan-guage.” Perhaps due to its negative, weak and qualified terminology, too many legal scholars display a dismissive attitude toward this article suggesting that they deem it to be an inadequate measure of minority protection. This thesis seeks to address the question of whether article 27 is simply another inadequate measure or an underappreciated resource through analyses of four key questions: (i) the scope question, (ii) the definitional ques¬tion, (iii) the right-bearer question, and, (iv) the obligation question. Article 27’s cautious terminology has produced much confusion and controversy, but the United Nations Human Rights Com¬mittee’s practice has helped clarify many significant points of contention. Despite contesta¬tions to the contrary by many States parties, article 27 has a universal scope and applicability with only two minor...

The importance of language : the impact of linguistic vitality on intergroup tensions

Medeiros, Mike
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.88%
Cette thèse vise à mieux comprendre les tensions ethniques. Ceci est fait en explorant, dans une étude en quatre parties, l'une de ses caractéristiques les plus importantes mais sévèrement négligées: la langue. S’inspirant des traditions de recherche de la sociolinguistique, de la psychologie sociale et de la science politique, cette thèse fournit une analyse en profondeur de l'influence de la langue sur les relations intergroupes. Elle le fait, spécifiquement, en se concentrant sur l'influence que la vitalité linguistique, la santé sociale d'une langue, a sur les tensions sociales. Cette thèse propose un cadre théorique dans lequel le niveau de vitalité linguistique contribue à générer des griefs culturels qui ont une incidence par la suite sur les relations intergroupes. Le premier article explore la relation macro entre la vitalité linguistique et l'intensité des conflits intergroupes. Les résultats, dérivés de données de l'Atlas UNESCO des langues en danger dans le monde et du projet Minorities at Risk (MAR), démontrent une relation curvilinéaire où les niveaux bas et élevé de vitalité linguistique génèrent une intensité inférieure au niveau modéré de vitalité. Ces résultats confirment que la vitalité linguistique est un déterminant important des tensions ethniques fondées sur la langue d'une manière générale...

Linguistic policy and “minority” languages in the People's Republic of China : The case of the Tai Lue of Sipsong Panna

Casas, Roger
Fonte: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona Publicador: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2011 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.32%
Este artículo ofrece una breve discusión de algunas de las contradicciones inherentes a las políticas lingüísticas puestas en práctica por el gobierno de la República Popular China (RPC) en áreas habitadas por las llamadas “minorías”, en teoría destinadas a preservar y promover el uso de lenguas no mayoritarias, a través del caso de los Tai Lue (clasificados oficialmente como Dai), en la provincia de Yunnan. Mientras el estado garantiza el derecho de todos los grupos étnicos reconocidos (minzu) en la RPC a utilizar y promocionar formas escritas y orales de sus lenguas, la inserción del Tai Lue y de otras lenguas “minoritarias” en una jerarquía simbólica dominada por la cultura de la mayoría Han legitima la exclusión de facto de dichas lenguas de los espacios públicos.; This paper offers a brief discussion of some of the contradictions informing linguistic policies implemented by the government of the People´s Republic of China (PRC) in “minority” areas, allegedly aimed at preserving and promoting non-Han languages, through the case of the Tai Lue (officially classified as Dai) in Yunnan province. It is argued that, while all (recognized) ethnic groups (minzu) in the PRC are granted the right to use and develop their own spoken and written languages by the state...

La legge per la tutela delle minoranze linguistiche : a proposito degli Atti di un Convegno

Pinto, Raffaele
Fonte: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona Publicador: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona
Tipo: Article; info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2004 ITA
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.38%
La legge 482/1999 sulle minoranze linguistiche crea le condizioni per un radicale mutamento della cultura linguistica italiana, non solo nelle aree geografiche direttamente interessate dal provvedimento ma anche nel resto del paese, dove la secolare diglossia lingua/ dialetto potrebbe essere messa in discussione da una sensibilità linguistica più attenta alla realtà plurilingue italiana.; Law 482/1999 concerning linguistic minorities establishes the conditions for radical change within Italian linguistic culture, not only in the geographical area directly concerned by the provisions of this law, but also throughout the rest of the country, where the age-old language/ dialect diglossia may be giving way to the discussion of a linguistic sensibility that is now more attentive to the plurilingual reality of Italy.

Deaf studies for transfer deaf adolescents

McNulty, Katherine
Fonte: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia Publicador: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia
Tipo: Masters Project
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.44%
This capstone project focuses on developing a curriculum unit that deals specifically with Deafhood. The purpose of this curriculum development project is to help deaf students who transferred from mainstreamed schools to a school for the deaf, leam more about the DEAF-WORLD and thusly adapt to the new environment by constructing a Deaf identity and becoming confident in themselves as contributing members of society. Increasingly, transfer students are introduced to a new educational and cultural environment where sign language is free flowing, one of the primary educational and social languages ofthe deaf. The curriculum unit is divided into five programs: 1. Introduction of the DEAFWORLD, 2. Identity/Perception of deaf People, 3. Linguistic Minorities & Deaf Arts, 4. Deafidentity and Diversity, and 5. The Concept of Deafhood. The five programs allow the transfer students to gain knowledge of the DEAF-WORLD and to analyze and discover their identity as they go through a journey of identification process. This curriculum allows them to develop their own sense of Deaf identity, during which they acquire a comprehension and appreciation of Deaf culture, hence, it may impact their academic performance. These deaf individuals need to have self-concept and accept themselves as cultural and characteristic individuals. Thereafter...

Book review: Linguistic minorities in democratic context by Colin H. Williams

Feghali, Zalfa
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 09/01/2014 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.72%
"Linguistic Minorities in Democratic Context." Colin H. Williams. Palgrave Macmillan. October 2013. --- Linguistic Minorities in Democratic Context aims to blend a discussion of the role of language minorities in politics with a detailed understanding of applied language policy in a variety of contexts ranging from Quebec, the Basque Country and Wales to Gaelic Scotland and Northern Ireland. Zalfa Feghali writes that this book lays the foundations for more work to be done on a hugely relevant and entirely fascinating issue: the need for the state – and the very ideas of “nation” and “sovereignty” – to be recalibrated at a political moment when cultural misfires take place before language even takes the stage.

Mobilising for group-specific norms: Reshaping the international protection regime for minorities.

Lennox, Corinne
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2009 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.27%
This thesis examines the agency of minority groups and their international allies in reshaping the international protection regime for national, ethnic, religious and linguistic minorities to include new group-specific norms. The practices of "norm entrepreneurship" by two groups, Dalits and Afro-descendants, are considered in detail and contrasted with the experiences of similar norm entrepreneurship by indigenous peoples and Roma. Dalit and Afro-descendant activists have pursued norm emergence to establish group-specific recognition, standards and mechanisms at the international level. This thesis examines three key factors that have been instrumental to this group- specific norm emergence: the establishment of strategic frames and stronger forms of transnational mobilisation by each group; the supportive engagement of international actors; and the emergence of new political opportunity structures at the international level, in particular the 2001 UN World Conference Against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance (WCAR). The findings of the thesis provide insight into macro-level changes to international minority protection. By concentrating on the agency of minority groups, the thesis adds to the largely state-centred literature on minority protection. By critically assessing the role of international actors in aiding this norm entrepreneurship...