Página 1 dos resultados de 1128 itens digitais encontrados em 0.003 segundos

O liberalismo abrangente de Ronald Dworkin; Ronald Dworkin's comprehensive liberalism

Furquim, Lilian de Toni
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 29/09/2010 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.32%
O presente trabalho discute o liberalismo abrangente de Ronald Dworkin, como alternativa ao liberalismo político de John Rawls. Dworkin interpreta o liberalismo como uma teoria contínua entre ética e moralidade, ou seja, sem uma separação entre as doutrinas abrangentes e nossas concepções políticas para justificação dos fundamentos constitucionais, respeitando o pluralismo razoável presente na sociedade democrática. O liberalismo abrangente se apresenta como uma teoria liberal na qual a liberdade, a igualdade e a comunidade fazem parte de um único ideal político.; The present study discusses Ronald Dworkins comprehensive liberalism as an alternative to John Rawlspolitical liberalism. Dworkin construes liberalism as a continuous theory between ethics and morality, that is, without a separation between comprehensive doctrines and our political conceptions so as to justify constitutional grounds, thus respecting the reasonable pluralism existing in democratic society. Comprehensive liberalism presents itself as a liberal theory in which freedom, equality and community merge into a single political ideal.

Concepções de direito e justiça: a teoria do direito de Ronald Dworkin e o liberalismo político de John Rawls; Conceptions of law and justice: Ronald Dworkins legal theory and John Rawlss political liberalism

Pontes, André Luiz Marcondes
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 04/05/2011 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.99%
Este trabalho discute a teoria do direito de Ronald Dworkin, desde sua gênese até seus desenvolvimentos mais recentes, com o objetivo específico de aferir a influência que esta sofreu da filosofia política de John Rawls e de sua concepção de justiça. Essa influência foi especialmente sentida na metodologia inicialmente concebida por Dworkin para responder às tradicionais questões de teoria geral do direito, já que estas teriam sido mal resolvidas pelos positivistas. O que se verifica é que tal método se baseia na idéia de equilíbrio reflexivo de Rawls. Essa intensa convergência que inicialmente se verifica é progressivamente afastada na medida em que Dworkin caminha rumo a um liberalismo abrangente, defendendo uma continuidade entre a moralidade política e a ética, e Rawls reinterpreta sua teoria para defender uma limitação desta ao domínio do político.; This paper will discuss Ronald Dworkins legal theory since its genesis till its most recent studies, aiming specifically assess how this theory was influenced by John Rawls political philosophy and his conception of justice. This influence was specially noticed in the methodology first conceived by Dworkin to respond to the traditional issues of jurisprudence...

Liberalismo político: uma defesa; Political liberalism: arguing for

Petroni, Lucas Cardoso
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 18/12/2012 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.38%
O objetivo deste trabalho é apresentar argumentos a favor de uma concepção igualitária de liberalismo político. Em primeiro lugar, apresenta-se uma classificação dos diferentes tipos de liberalismos políticos contemporâneos: (i) liberalismo do medo, (ii) liberalismo antifundacionista, (iii) liberalismo ético e (iv) liberalismo igualitário. A partir dos princípios de tolerância desenvolvidos em cada um deles, procura-se defender um ideal de razão pública como o melhor critério de justificação para regular o uso da coerção política entre cidadãos livres e iguais.; The work has two main goals. It attempts to provide arguments for the egalitarian branch of political liberalism. At first place, it is presented four types of possible political liberalisms: (i) the liberalism of fear, (ii) antifoundationalist liberalism, (iii) ethical liberalism and (iv) egalitarian liberalism. Departing from reasons for toleration offered by each of them, it argues that an ideal of public reason is the best way to conceive the use of political coercion on free and equal citizens.

Political Ethics and the Spirit of Liberalism in Twentieth-Century Political Thought

Cherniss, Joshua
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Thesis or Dissertation
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.51%
Liberalism is often criticized as too moralistic and removed from the realities of politics; and too complacently accepting of injustices. Such criticisms, familiar among contemporary political theorists, were expressed far more forcefully in the earlier twentieth century. Liberalism then came under attack from anti-liberals who wholly rejected the institutional and ethical limits on the political deployment of violence and fear insisted upon by liberals. Such anti-liberals advanced arguments for political ruthlessness on behalf of a truer morality - either the morality of pursuing morally imperative political goals; or the morality of "realistically" responding to threats to public order. Liberals found themselves faced with a dilemma: to adhere to their principles at the price of hampering their ability to combat both existing injustices, and the threat posed by ruthless anti-liberal movements; or to abandon their scruples in seeking to defend, or transform, liberal society. The criticisms and challenges confronting liberalism between the end of World War I, and the end of the Cold War, thus centered on opposing responses to problems of political ethics. They were also shaped by opposed ideals of political ethos - the "spirit"...

Liberalism - what’s in a name?

Hindess, Barry
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 152222 bytes; 353 bytes; 353 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream; application/octet-stream
EN_AU
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.32%
[Introduction]: Like the play, this paper disputes the answer given by Juliet’s fantasy. It does so in the context of academic debate by showing that the use of a name, ‘liberalism’ in this case, can have significant implications for political and historical analysis. My aim, in fact, is to question conventional academic characterisations of liberalism and to suggest that the adoption of a different usage not only serves to clarify liberal governmental practice – including many of the recent developments which, for want of a better name, tend to be grouped together under the label of neo-liberalism – but also to provide a fuller and more powerful account of the work of central figures in the liberal tradition. Specifically, the characterisations I wish to dispute present liberalism as focused essentially on one or more of the following concerns: - relations between the state and its subjects; - the promotion and defense of individual liberty; - and, as a special case of the second, the promotion and defense of private property.; no

Critical liberalism in international relations

Richardson, James L
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 243196 bytes; 349 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
EN_AU
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.25%
A number of recent developments have prompted a revival of interest in liberal theories of international relations, among them the spread of democratic institutions, economic liberalisation and the increasing significance of international institutions in many aspects of life. This paper argues that liberal international relations theory, overimpressed by developments such as these, risks becoming an apologia for a narrow version of liberalism currently promoted by Western governments. The challenge of rethinking the meaning of liberalism in a ‘globalising’ world characterised by extreme economic inequality, social upheavals and the reassertion of cultural differences—and the questions whether and how liberal values can at all be realised in such a world—have been left to political theorists, whose struggles with these issues attract little interest in an international relations discipline still largely committed to the idea of a purely empirical social science. The paper suggests that a different, ‘critical’ conception of liberalism offers a way of relating pressing liberal normative concerns to empirical research, instead of seeking to keep the two entirely separate. It presents a critique of current liberal international relations theory and outlines an alternative approach.; yes

Two faces of liberalism

Hill, L.
Fonte: Carfax Publishing Publicador: Carfax Publishing
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2002 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.99%
Book Review: John Gray, Two Faces of Liberalism (Cambridge: Polity Press 2000), 161 pp., £12.99, ISBN 0745622585.; Published online: 09 Jun 2010 See pg. 39-40 of pdf to view this book review

Isaiah Berlin and the problem of counter-enlightenment liberalism.

Bode, Mark
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2011
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.38%
This thesis will explore the complex relationship between Isaiah Berlin’s liberalism and his work in the history of ideas. While Berlin’s explicitly political thought reads like a scion of the Enlightenment, albeit with a pronounced Cold War inflection, his work in the history of ideas appears to indict the Age of Reason as partially responsible for the rise of totalitarianism. As a liberal thinker, therefore, Berlin seems Janus-faced. He appears to charge the Age of Reason with complicity in the rise of totalitarianism, yet continues to defend the most legitimate child of Enlightenment thought: liberalism in a negative form. As some of his critics have observed, notably Mark Lilla and Zeev Sternhell, Berlin seems intent on divorcing liberalism from the its foundation in the Enlightenment. This project, they are united in charging, is philosophically incoherent and politically ill-judged. The thesis will present an alternative reading of the relationship between Berlin’s liberalism and his intellectual history. Instead of interpreting Berlin’s turn to the Counter-Enlightenment as an assault on the Enlightenment and a blow against his own liberalism, his interpretation of the Counter-Enlightenment, especially the proto-fascist work of Joseph de Maistre...

Liberalismo, política y constitución en la España contemporánea (una mirada desde la historia constitucional); Liberalism, politics, and constitution in moderm Spain (an overview from the constitutional history)

Suárez Cortina, Manuel
Fonte: Centro de Estudios Políticos y Constitucionales Publicador: Centro de Estudios Políticos y Constitucionales
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; publishedVersion
SPA
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.25%
Resumen: Este artículo es un ensayo bibliográfico sobre dos libros recientes en torno a la historia constitucional española. En su trabajo Joaquín Varela analiza las relaciones entre las ideas constitucionales y la cultura política liberal en la España contemporánea. Desde el iusnaturalismo escolástico —Martínez Marina—, el liberalismo revolucionario —Argüelles, Flórez Estrada—, el liberalismo postrevolucionario —Balmes, Pacheco, Donoso— o más tarde el liberalismo democrático, el desarrollo de una historia constitucional fue extremadamente complejo. Bajo la influencia del iusnaturalismo escolástico, el historicismo nacionalista y el pensamiento krausista, la llegada del positivismo jurídico a la cultura política española fue débil, como ponen de manifiesto las ideas jurídicas de Adolfo Posada. Este ensayo permite al autor recorrer las líneas maestras que han dominado la historiografía reciente sobre el liberalismo español, al tiempo que diseña la construcción de una Historia Constitucional como disciplina académica.; Abstract: This article is an essay review on two recent books about Spanish Constitutional History. At his work Joaquín Varela analyses the relationship between constitutional ideas and the liberal political culture in the Modern Spanish From the scholastic iusnaturalism —Martínez Marina— to the revolucionary liberalism —Argüelles...

Inhabiting liberalism: politics, culture, and the spaces of masculine professionalism, 1823-1903

Morrison, Kevin A.
Fonte: Universidade Rice Publicador: Universidade Rice
Tipo: Thesis; Text Formato: 302 pp; application/pdf
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.49%
Inhabiting Liberalism: Politics, Culture, and the Spaces of Masculine Professionalism, 1823-1903 investigates the physical, social, and epistemological spaces of Victorian liberalism. It argues that liberalism is locatable and that its locations matter. By locatable, I mean that the tenets of liberalism—a set of contentions about how one should live in the world—were formulated from within preexisting physical environments and also served as the basis for new ones. These environments were the places where liberalism was conceived or put into practice, its sites of meaning. This dissertation, therefore, takes up the following questions: How did the structures constitutive of particular environments shape Victorian intellectuals' conceptions of liberal norms and practices? What kinds of spatial configurations did they think were ideally suited to liberalism? Why do liberal characterological and temperamental ideals—detachment, objectivity, many-sidedness—seem so inextricably intertwined with the physically objectified social spaces that these intellectuals inhabited but often thought themselves to have transcended? And, if the places where liberalism was conceptualized or put into practice provide the background conditions of its intelligibility...

A Philosophy of Restraint: Justice and Pluralism in the New Theory of Political Liberalism

ROSAS, Joao
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.49%
Defence date: 2 February 2001; Supervisor: Steven Lukes ; Co-supervisor: Jeremy Waldron; In this dissertation I analyse and criticise the recent theory of political liberalism of John Rawls and Charles Larmore. Furthermore, I sketch an alternative solution to the challenge which this theory confronts. The main challenge in the political liberalism of Rawls and Larmore is the difficult reconciliation between, on the one hand, the value of justice seen as the ultimate and substantive standard for the assessment of institutions and policies and, on the other hand, the pervasive pluralism of ideas of the good life and their supporting world views, in contemporary liberal societies. Political liberalism reconciles these by considering that principles of justice can be consensual in a pluralist society because they are political, not comprehensive (according to Rawls) or neutral in their justifications (according to Larmore). In this way, contentious moralities and philosophies, whether religious or not, are precluded from political justification. I show the unfeasibility of this justificatory restraint both at the level of the idea of justice and in the account of pluralism provided by the advocates of political liberalism. Their implicit theories of pluralism require philosophical fallibilism in order to make sense. Moreover...

Political Liberalism and the Virtues of Citizens

Carini, Stephane
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 246896 bytes; application/pdf
EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.32%
This paper takes as its starting point the fact of reasonable pluralism and defends political liberalism as the best means of accommodating diversity and a plurality of different conceptions of the good. I then ask what is needed for a social order characterized by diversity and a multiplicity of different ways of life to come into existence and perpetuate itself over time. First, I defend political liberalism and argue that the creation of a society that is accommodating of diversity requires that the state be mindful of the spillover effects between public institutions and the private lives of citizens. Second, I argue that the individuals living in such a society must adopt certain virtues, both publicly as well as privately. I achieve this by presenting an account of the virtues of citizens in a political liberal society. Third, I draw out the implications of having a society characterized by reasonable pluralism and many different conceptions of the good, by arguing that such a society should avoid adopting too expansive a role, since an overly ambitious conception of social justice risks stifling the diversity a political liberal society is trying to protect. I conclude with some general remarks about the current state of liberal theorizing and the need for liberal theorists to provide an account of liberalism that includes more than one’s conception of distributive justice and legitimate state coercion.; Thesis (Master...

After October: Russian Liberalism as a 'Work in Progress,' 1919-1945

Jansen, DINAH
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.14%
This thesis is an examination of Russian liberal thought, its durability, and its tensions in exile in interwar France. Through analysis of archival documents and contemporary pamphlets, memoranda, and print media, this thesis adds new dimensions to the scholarship on Russia Abroad, Russian liberalism, and exile politics. Russian liberal groups and actors held and established particular myths about their ideal homeland and harnessed critical occasions to elaborate their evolving ideology regarding the health, strength, and ‘greatness’ of the Russian state while addressing threats they perceived for their realization parallel to the existence of Soviet regime at home. After October: Russian Liberalism as a ‘Work in Progress,’ 1919-1945 unpacks the lively political history of this stateless exile community as it sought ways to connect to the homeland and work for the improvement of the state and its people in spite of their spatial and political alienation. Throughout, this thesis emphasizes key concerns for Russian liberals including the territorial unity and security of the state, its level of modernity and civilization vis-à-vis the West, the need to build a liberal democratic federal republic after Bolshevism, and the creation of a free...

Political Liberalism and the Characterization of the Moral Virtues

Venezia, Luciano Javier
Fonte: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona Publicador: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2009 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.38%
The Virtue ethical approach to morality is generally thought to be in tension with liberalism in politics. Their incompatibility seems to be straightforward when considering political liberalism. This is because the virtue ethical approach to morality seems to be committed to a perfectionist view of society, whereas political liberalism resists this conceptualization. But this is not the only source of trouble between virtue ethics and political liberalism. A more basic problem seems to be that, in a liberal society, there are many incompatible though reasonable comprehensive doctrines. This fact of reasonable pluralism seems to imply that the very idea of characterizing the moral virtues constitutes an impossible task in a liberal society. This conclusion is too quick, however. A non-eudaimonist, consequentialist conception of virtue can find a place within political liberalism, though this account of moral virtue must be qualified in important ways.; Tradicionalmente, la ética de la virtud es caracterizada como si estuviera en tensión con el liberalismo. Su incompatibilidad parece ser directa cuando consideramos al liberalismo político. La razón es que la ética de la virtud parece estar comprometida con una concepción perfeccionista de la sociedad...

From Scepticism to Liberalism? Bernard Williams, the Foundations of Liberalism and Political Realism

Sagar, Paul
Fonte: Wiley Publicador: Wiley
Tipo: Article; published version
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.32%
This is the final version of the article. It was first available from Wiley via http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-9248.12173; Bernard Williams was an ethical sceptic, but he was also a proponent of liberalism. To what extent can one finally be both? This article explores this question through a particular emphasis on Williams, but seeks to draw wider lessons regarding what ethical scepticism should and should not amount to. It shows how ethical scepticism can be reconciled with a commitment to what Williams, following Judith Shklar, called ?the liberalism of fear?, which is revealed as an ecumenical outlook for different stripes of ethical sceptic. The article concludes by drawing some lessons for the recent ?realist? turn in political theory.; Research for this article was undertaken while I was the recipient of an Arts and Humanities Research Council PhD studentship at the University of Cambridge, and was later supported by the Cambridge Faculty of History's Prince Consort and Thirlwall fund.

What Is Liberalism?

Bell, Duncan
Fonte: Sage Publicador: Sage
Tipo: Article; accepted version
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.38%
This is the author accepted manuscript. The final version is available from Sage via http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0090591714535103; Liberalism is a term employed in a dizzying variety of ways in political thought and social science. This essay challenges how the liberal tradition is typically understood. I start by delineating different types of response?prescriptive, comprehensive, explanatory?that are frequently conflated in answering the question ?what is liberalism?? I then discuss assorted methodological strategies employed in the existing literature: after rejecting ?stipulative? and ?canonical? approaches, I outline a contextualist alternative. Liberalism, on this (comprehensive) account, is best characterised as the sum of the arguments that have been classified as liberal, and recognised as such by other self-proclaimed liberals, over time and space. In the remainder of the article, I present an historical analysis of shifts in the meaning of liberalism in Anglo-American political thought between 1850 and 1950, focusing in particular on how Locke came to be characterised as a liberal. I argue that the scope of the liberal traditionexpanded during the middle decades of the twentieth century, such that it came to be seen by many as the constitutive ideology of the West. This capacious (and deeply confusing) understanding of liberalism was a product of the ideological wars fought against ?totalitarianism? and assorted developments in the social sciences. Today we both inherit and inhabit it.

Spectacles of American Liberalism: Narratives of Racial Im/posture

Gaines, Alisha Marie
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: 1809767 bytes; application/pdf
Publicado em //2009 EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.42%

This project traces the seemingly improbable intersections between performances of blackness and the development and traces of an American liberalism defined by Gunnar Myrdal's overwhelmingly influential, sociological text, An American Dilemma. I argue that when Myrdal determined in his 1944 study on the "Negro problem" that the messy inconsistencies between how the United States articulated its laudable egalitarianism and the violent histories of oppression defining the lives of African Americans was a matter resting in the "hearts and minds of white America" rather than entrenched structural inequalities, he enabled a radicalized version of sentimentality that would structure how liberalism attempted to rectify this racial paradox right into the 21st century - to walk in someone else's skin rather than their shoes. While American liberalism is a notoriously contested and slippery set of ideologies, the texts I study provide a performative logic of American liberalism that deconstructs and historicizes its own ideological impulses around notions of racial difference.

The project situates the discursive legacies of Myrdal's study alongside a series of spectacularized narratives of what I call "racial im/posture" - adventures in racial impersonation authorized by American liberalism and reliant on the logics of both blackface minstrelsy and racial passing. I consider these narratives of racial im/posture in the literary genres of memoir...

The debate of divergence: an evaluation of Michael Sandel’s criticisms to John Rawls’ liberalism; O debate dos desencontros: uma avaliação das críticas de Michal Sandel ao liberalismo de John Rawls.

Reis, Flávio Azevedo; Universidade de São Paulo
Fonte: UFPR Publicador: UFPR
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 27/05/2013 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.14%
The main objective of Micheal Sandel’s Liberalism and the Limits of Justice was to attack the concept of deontology, as formulated by John Rawls. In this article, I argue that Sandel interpreted the concept of deontology in a misleading way. There is a difference between how Rawls defined this concept and how it was interpreted by Sandel. Given this, the first part of this article will analyze the way Sandel interpreted the Rawlsian concept of deontology. The second part presents an assessment of the clash between the two authors in light of the differences in the way both of them understood the meaning of deontology in political liberalism.; O principal objetivo de Micheal Sandel, no livro Liberalismo e os limites da justiça, foi atacar o conceito de deontologia de John Rawls. Nesse artigo, pretende-se argumentar que Sandel interpretou o conceito de deontologia de um modo equivocado. Há uma diferença entre a forma como Rawls definiu este conceito e a maneira como foi interpretado por Sandel. Dado isso, na primeira parte desse artigo, será analisado o modo como Sandel interpretou o conceito de deontologia na filosofia de Rawls. A segunda parte apresenta uma avaliação do confronto entre os dois autores à luz da diferença no modo como ambos compreendem o significado da deontologia no liberalismo político.

Feminism and liberalism: a not-so-unhappy marriag

Saen, Carla
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina Publicador: Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/01/2006 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.32%
It seems that political liberalism and feminism constitute an “unhappy marriage.” I shall argue that it should be a happy one.  Liberalism does more feminist work than feminist theorists acknowledge. Feminist theorists raise both internal and external critiques.  Some of the internal critiques are ungrounded and based on misinterpretation of key liberal concepts, while others can be accommodated by revisingthe liberal framework.  In contrast, the external criticisms, which are presented as a definitive challenge to liberalism, are unsuccessful.  They themselves implicitly rely on some key liberal assumptions, which shows that they are ultimately internal critiques. My primary aim in this paper is to show that the feminist critiques remain within a liberal framework.  Feminists also claim that liberal theory is incompatible with current facts about gender.  I shall call these “inefficacy critiques.”  As my secondary aim I shall show that this  critique of liberalism relies on a misunderstanding of the distinction between normative and descriptive claims

Globalization and autonomy: embedded liberalism in the post-financial crisis economic order

Coelho, Diogo Ramos; Ministério das Relações Exteriores do Brasil
Fonte: Meridiano 47; Meridiano 47 Publicador: Meridiano 47; Meridiano 47
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 24/07/2012 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.14%
Abstract   In 1982, John Gerard Ruggie published a study of the international trade and monetary regimes in which he introduced the concept of “embedded liberalism”. This article describes how the concept of embedded liberalism has been altered or jeopardized after the 2007-2009 financial crisis.  Resumo   Em 1982, John Gerard Ruggie publicou um estudo dos regimes monetário e comercial internacionais em que ele introduziu o conceito de “liberalismo embutido”. Esse artigo descreve como o conceito de Ruggie tem sido alterado ou comprometido depois da crise financeira de 2007-2009.