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A importância dos estímulos visuais em crianças com atraso fonológico

Pedro, Cassandra Ferreira
Fonte: Universidade de Aveiro Publicador: Universidade de Aveiro
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.18%
O presente trabalho teve como principal objetivo o estudo da influência dos estímulos visuais em crianças com atraso fonológico. Neste sentido, procedeu-se ao desenvolvimento e à validação de conteúdo de materiais de avaliação/intervenção em Terapia da Fala, especificamente, uma Prova de Avaliação de Competências de Pré-Literacia e um conjunto de 50 cartões com estímulos visuais (cartões L&S). A Prova de Avaliação de Competências de Pré-Literacia possibilita a avaliação da identificação/nomeação do nome/som dos grafemas. Os cartões L&S estimulam o desenvolvimento das correspondências grafema-fonema e a melhoria da produção dos sons da fala. Um painel de peritos constituído por 6 terapeutas da fala realizou a avalição dos materiais supracitados com base num conjunto de critérios previamente definidos. A Prova de Avaliação de Competências de Pré-Literacia foi analisada com base nos critérios de clareza, simplicidade, precisão e relevância. Os cartões L&S foram analisados com base nos critérios de clareza e pertinência prática. Em ambos os casos, o método gráfico de Bland- Altman modificado permitiu concluir que existiu boa concordância entre os avaliadores, uma vez que a maioria dos valores correspondentes aos vários itens analisados se encontrava dentro dos limites esperados de concordância e a grandeza do limite superior não era muito elevada. A Prova de Avaliação de Competências de Pré-Literacia foi ainda sujeita a um estudo piloto realizado com 64 crianças em idade pré-escolar com idades compreendidas entre os 5;0 e os 6;3 e com desenvolvimento típico ao nível da fala e da linguagem. Tendencialmente...

Applications of computer-based instruction: using specialized software to aid letter-name and letter-sound recognition.

Connell, James E; Witt, Joseph C
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2004 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.97%
We evaluated computerized training and testing programs with children who were having difficulties learning prereading skills. The programs were derived from equivalence research and were written in authoring software designed for educators. After learning to match uppercase and lowercase printed letters to the corresponding letter names (Tasks 1 and 2), the children matched the letters to one another (Tasks 4 and 5). Then, after learning to match uppercase letters to sounds (Task 3), they also matched lowercase letters to sounds (Task 6) and matched printed to spoken words (Tasks 7 and 8). The results recommend equivalence-based protocols and user-friendly software in further development of prereading instruction.

The proper name as starting point for basic reading skills

Both-de Vries, Anna C.; Bus, Adriana G.
Fonte: Springer Netherlands Publicador: Springer Netherlands
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.48%
Does alphabetic-phonetic writing start with the proper name and how does the name affect reading and writing skills? Sixty 4- to 5½-year-old children from middle SES families with Dutch as their first language wrote their proper name and named letters. For each child we created unique sets of words with and without the child’s first letter of the name to test spelling skills and phonemic sensitivity. Name writing correlated with children’s knowledge of the first letter of the name and phonemic sensitivity for the sound of the first letter of the name. Hierarchical regression analysis makes plausible that both knowledge of the first letter’s name and phonemic sensitivity for this letter explain why name writing results in phonetic spelling with the name letter. Practical implications of the findings are discussed.

Fostering Alphabet Knowledge Development: A Comparison of Two Instructional Approaches

Piasta, Shayne B.; Purpura, David J.; Wagner, Richard K.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/07/2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.23%
Preschool-aged children (n = 58) were randomly assigned to receive small group instruction in letter names and/or sounds or numbers (treated control). Alphabet instruction followed one of two approaches currently utilized in early childhood classrooms: combined letter name and sound instruction or letter sound only instruction. Thirty-four 15 minute lessons were provided, with children pre- and post-tested on alphabet, phonological awareness, letter-word identification, emergent reading, and developmental spelling measures. Results suggest benefits of combined letter name and sound instruction in promoting children’s letter sound acquisition. Benefits did not generalize to other emergent literacy skills.

Learning Letter Names and Sounds: Effects of Instruction, Letter Type, and Phonological Processing Skill

Piasta, Shayne B.; Wagner, Richard K.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.34%
Preschool-aged children (n = 58) were randomly assigned to receive instruction in letter names and sounds, letter sounds only, or numbers (control). Multilevel modeling was used to examine letter name and sound learning as a function of instructional condition and characteristics of both letters and children. Specifically, learning was examined in light of letter name structure, whether letter names included cues to their respective sounds, and children’s phonological processing skills. Consistent with past research, children receiving letter name and sound instruction were most likely to learn the sounds of letters whose names included cues to their sounds, regardless of phonological processing skills. Only children with higher phonological skills showed a similar effect in the control condition. Practical implications are discussed.

Contributions of Emergent Literacy Skills to Name Writing, Letter Writing, and Spelling in Preschool Children

Puranik, Cynthia S.; Lonigan, Christopher J.; Kim, Young-Suk
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.55%
The purpose of this study was to examine which emergent literacy skills contribute to preschool children’s emergent writing (name-writing, letter-writing, and spelling) skills. Emergent reading and writing tasks were administered to 296 preschool children aged 4–5 years. Print knowledge and letter-writing skills made positive contributions to name writing; whereas alphabet knowledge, print knowledge, and name writing made positive contributions to letter writing. Both name-writing and letter-writing skills made significant contributions to the prediction of spelling after controlling for age, parental education, print knowledge, phonological awareness, and letter-name and letter-sound knowledge; however, only letter-writing abilities made a significant unique contribution to the prediction of spelling when both letter-writing and name-writing skills were considered together. Name writing reflects knowledge of some letters rather than a broader knowledge of letters that may be needed to support early spelling. Children’s letter-writing skills may be a better indicator of children’s emergent literacy and developing spelling skills than are their name-writing skills at the end of the preschool year. Spelling is a developmentally complex skill beginning in preschool and includes letter writing and blending skills...

What’s in a Name: A Bayesian Hierarchical Analysis of the Name-Letter Effect

Dyjas, Oliver; Grasman, Raoul P. P. P.; Wetzels, Ruud; van der Maas, Han L. J.; Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan
Fonte: Frontiers Research Foundation Publicador: Frontiers Research Foundation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 25/09/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.21%
People generally prefer their initials to the other letters of the alphabet, a phenomenon known as the name-letter effect. This effect, researchers have argued, makes people move to certain cities, buy particular brands of consumer products, and choose particular professions (e.g., Angela moves to Los Angeles, Phil buys a Philips TV, and Dennis becomes a dentist). In order to establish such associations between people’s initials and their behavior, researchers typically carry out statistical analyses of large databases. Current methods of analysis ignore the hierarchical structure of the data, do not naturally handle order-restrictions, and are fundamentally incapable of confirming the null hypothesis. Here we outline a Bayesian hierarchical analysis that avoids these limitations and allows coherent inference both on the level of the individual and on the level of the group. To illustrate our method, we re-analyze two data sets that address the question of whether people are disproportionately likely to live in cities that resemble their name.

The Name-Letter-Effect in Groups: Sharing Initials with Group Members Increases the Quality of Group Work

Polman, Evan; Pollmann, Monique M. H.; Poehlman, T. Andrew
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 13/11/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.36%
Although the name-letter-effect has been demonstrated reliably in choice contexts, recent research has called into question the existence of the name-letter-effect–the tendency among people to make choices that bear remarkable similarity with the letters in their own name. In this paper, we propose a connection between the name-letter-effect and interpersonal, group-level behavior that has not been previously captured in the literature. Specifically, we suggest that sharing initials with other group members promotes positive feelings toward those group members that in turn affect group outcomes. Using both field and laboratory studies, we found that sharing initials with group members cause groups to perform better by demonstrating greater performance, collective efficacy, adaptive conflict, and accuracy (on a hidden-profile task). Although many studies have investigated the effects of member similarity on various outcomes, our research demonstrates how minimal a degree of similarity among members is sufficient to influence quality of group outcomes.

How Many Letters Should Preschoolers in Public Programs Know? The Diagnostic Efficiency of Various Preschool Letter-Naming Benchmarks for Predicting First-Grade Literacy Achievement

Piasta, Shayne B.; Petscher, Yaacov; Justice, Laura M.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.07%
Review of current federal and state standards indicates little consensus or empirical justification regarding appropriate goals, often referred to as benchmarks, for preschool letter-name learning. The present study investigated the diagnostic efficiency of various letter-naming benchmarks using a longitudinal database of 371 children who attended publicly funded preschools. Children’s uppercase and lowercase letter-naming abilities were assessed at the end of preschool, and their literacy achievement on 3 standardized measures was assessed at the end of 1st grade. Diagnostic indices (sensitivity, specificity, and negative and positive predictive power) were generated to examine the extent to which attainment of various preschool letter-naming benchmarks was associated with later risk for literacy difficulties. Results indicated generally high negative predictive power for benchmarks requiring children to know 10 or more letter names by the end of preschool. Balancing across all diagnostic indices, optimal benchmarks of 18 uppercase and 15 lowercase letter names were identified. These findings are discussed in terms of educational implications, limitations, and future directions.

Name Letter Branding: Valence Transfers When Product Specific Needs Are Active

Brendl, C. Miguel; Chattopadhyay, Amitava; Pelham, Brett W.; Carvallo, Mauricio
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.32%
Respondents in five experiments were more likely to choose a brand when the brand name started with letters from their names than when it did not, a choice phenomenon we call “name letter branding.” We propose that during a first stage an active need to self-enhance increases the positive valence of name letters themselves and that during stage 2 positive name letter valence transfers to product-specific attributes (e.g., taste of a beverage). Accordingly, when respondents form a brand preference (e.g., of beverages), activating a product-specific need (e.g., need to drink) boosts the influence of this (transferred) valence.

Selection in vision : a study of visual search

Solman, Robert T.
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Thesis (PhD); Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)
EN_AU
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.16%
This thesis is concerned with the selective processing of information which arrives via the visual system. The introduction discusses the problem of stimulus control during selection and specifies the aim of the thesis. Nine experiments are reported. The first six examine the relationship between selection accuracy and stimulus exposure-time. It is suggested that a plausible explanation of the obtained results can be found in a two-stage model of information processing (e.g., Neisser, 1967). The remaining three experiments address the question of whether a letter-name can direct the selection process, and the results, while somewhat indecisive, do not indicate that it can. Specifically, a) in Experiment 1 accuracy of search for a single target declined as the number of irrelevant items, and their physical (shape)similarity to the target, increased. These results could be explained either by sophisticated parallel-serial models of information processing, or by a two-stage model; Experiment 2 suggested that selection was not based on a limited retinal region, thereby negating the possibility of the distance separating I terns influencing the results of Experiment 1; Experiment 3 varied stimulus exposure-time along with similarity and number of items. The results replicated the effects obtained in Experiment 1...

Relaçâo entre os conhecimentos inicias da linguagem escrita e a aprendizagem da leitura no final do 1º ano de escolaridade

Camacho, Hugo Miguel Rato
Fonte: Instituto Universitário de Ciências Psicológicas, Sociais e da Vida Publicador: Instituto Universitário de Ciências Psicológicas, Sociais e da Vida
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em //2010 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.14%
Dissertação de Mestrado apresentada ao ISPA - Instituto Universitário; O objectivo desta investigação foi verificar se existe uma relação entre os conhecimentos iniciais sobre linguagem escrita à entrada do ensino formal e os resultados alcançados nas várias componentes da leitura no final do 1º ano de escolaridade. Os participantes do estudo foram 19 crianças que frequentaram pela primeira vez o 1º ano de escolaridade. Este estudo inclui dois momentos de avaliação: no inicio do ano lectivo foram aplicados seis instrumentos para avaliar os conhecimentos iniciais sobre a linguagem escrita (Conhecimento do Nome e Som das Letras, Escrita Inventada, Teste de Linguagem Técnica e Linguagem Escrita, Subteste de Reflexão Morfo-Sintáctica e a Bateria de Provas de Consciência Fonológica) e no final do ano lectivo foi aplicada a prova de leitura que avalia três componentes da leitura (Leitura oral, Selecção ortográfica e Leitura compreensiva). Observou-se neste estudo que o Conhecimento do Nome e Som das Letras, a Escrita Inventada, a Consciência Sintáctica e a Consciência fonológica determinam diferentes relações com as componentes da leitura.; ABSTRACT: The purpose of the present investigation is to determine whether there is a link between the initial knowledge about written language at the entry into formal education and achievements in the various components of reading at the end of 1st grade. Study participants were 19 children who attended for the first time a school year. This study includes two time points: at the beginning of the school year...

Hospital discharge letter --Clinical information for the family physician.; Nota de alta hospitalar--que informação clínica para o médico de família.

Varela, A; Centro de Saúde dos Olivais, Lisboa.; Rola, J
Fonte: Ordem dos Médicos Publicador: Ordem dos Médicos
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; article; article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 30/06/2000 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.24%
There are aspects related with the proportion and quality of discharge letters which may influence the management of shared health care after hospital discharge; we describe them taking into consideration that no changes regarding the usual way of giving hospital discharge took place.To determine the proportion of cases in which the hospital discharge of inpatients was accompanied with a discharge letter and to measure its quality.A descriptive and transverse observation study referring to the year of 1996. The authors observed, in the clinical files of this Department, the total cases of discharge of inpatients with ischaemic heart disease (123 cases). Besides measuring the variable "discharge letter existence", we studied the composed variable discharge letter quality (existence of clinical history data, objective observation data, complementary test results, diagnosis, therapeutic procedures, and also the readability of the clinical information and the existence of the legible name of the specialist).From the study of 121 cases of discharge of inpatients with ischaemic heart disease, 90.2% presented discharge letters. When studied, their quality was considered sufficient in 57.7% and insufficient in the rest of the cases. We point out that 29.7% of the discharge letters did not present objective observation data.The clinical information provided in this Department...

Instrução transmissiva ou construtivista nos programas de escrita inventada? Impacto na qualidade das escritas inventadas de crianças em idade pré-escolar

Almeida, Tiago Alexandre Fernandes
Fonte: ISPA - Instituto Universitário das Ciências Psicológicas, Sociais e da Vida Publicador: ISPA - Instituto Universitário das Ciências Psicológicas, Sociais e da Vida
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2014 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.54%
Tese submetida como requisito parcial para obtenção do grau de Doutoramento em Psicologia - Área de especialidade Psicologia da Saúde; O presente estudo tem como objectivos especificar a eficácia de dois tipos de instrução (transmissiva vs. construtivista) distintas nos programas de intervenção em escrita, manipulando as palavras facilitadoras e o tipo de orientação dado para analisar e refletir sobre as palavras escritas. Pretende-se verificar, por um lado, o impacto dos dois tipos de instrução nas conceptualizações infantis, número de fonetizações e consciência fonológica. Por outro, em cada um dos tipos de instrução, como é que a manipulação das variáveis palavra facilitadora e orientação para analisar as palavras influencia os processos de fonetização, o desenvolvimento das conceptualizações e da consciência fonológica. Participaram 107 crianças entre os 5 e os 6 anos de idade que foram distribuídas por 7 grupos (6 experimentais e 1 de controlo). Todos os participantes eram estatisticamente equivalentes no pré-teste quanto ao nível conceptual, idade, inteligência, conhecimento das letras, consciência fonológica e nível académico dos pais. Nos pré e pós-testes, as escritas inventadas das crianças foram avaliadas através de 40 palavras que nunca foram trabalhadas ao longo das 6 sessões de intervenção que cada participantes realizou individualmente. Na intervenção o tipo de instrução variava em função do grupo (construtivista ou transmissiva). Em cada sessão escreveram-se 10 palavras (2 facilitadoras por sessão) com as letras P e T. A natureza das palavras facilitadoras era diferente consoante o grupo (palavra facilitadora com o nome da primeira letra ou palavra facilitadora que se aproximava do som a primeira letra). Depois de cada palavra escrita as crianças foram confrontadas com uma produção escrita hipotética de nível silábico duma criança hipotética. Nessa confrontação era dado uma orientação especifica para analisarem as palavras (centrados no nome ou no som). O conjugação da instrução x palavra facilitadora x orientação foi a seguinte: G1 (instrução transmissiva x palavras facilitadoras cuja sílaba inicial coincidia com o nome da letra x identificação do nome da letra; G2 (instrução transmissiva x palavras facilitadoras cuja sílaba inicial coincidia com o som da letra x identificação do nome da letra); G3 (instrução transmissiva x palavras facilitadoras cuja sílaba coincidia com o som da letra x identificação do som da letra; G4 (instrução construtivista x palavras facilitadoras cuja sílaba inicial coincidia com o nome da letra x orientações para uma reflexão centrada no nome da letra); G5 (instrução construtivista x palavras facilitadoras cuja sílaba inicial coincidia com o som da letra x orientações para uma reflexão centrada no nome da letra); G6 (instrução construtivista x palavras facilitadoras cuja sílaba coincidia com o som da letra x orientações para uma reflexão centrada no som da letra) e Grupo de controlo (desenhos livres com base nas palavras ditadas nos grupos experimentais). Os objectivos específicos foram comparar entre os participantes dos 6 grupos experimentais e de controlo: os progressos nas conceptualizações sobre a escrita; as diferenças no número total de fonetizações; as diferenças no número de fonetizações da consoante inicial; as diferenças no número de fonetizações da vogal da primeira sílaba; as diferenças no desempenho nas provas de classificação silábica e análise silábica; e...

IRTs of the ABCs: Children's Letter Name Acquisition

Phillips, Beth M.; Piasta, Shayne B.; Anthony, Jason L.; Lonigan, Christopher J.; Francis, David J.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.32%
We examined the developmental sequence of letter name knowledge acquisition by children from 2 to five years of age. Data from 2 samples representing diverse regions, ethnicity, and socioeconomic backgrounds (ns = 1074 & 500) were analyzed using item response theory (IRT) and differential item functioning techniques. Results from factor analyses indicated that letter name knowledge represented a unidimensional skill; IRT results yielded significant differences between letters in both difficulty and discrimination. Results also indicated an approximate developmental sequence in letter name learning for the simplest and most challenging to learn letters -- but with no clear sequence between these extremes. Findings also suggested that children were most likely to first learn their first initial. We discuss implications for assessment and instruction.

Letter knowledge in parent–child conversations: differences between families differing in socio-economic status

Robins, Sarah; Ghosh, Dina; Rosales, Nicole; Treiman, Rebecca
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 24/06/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.21%
When formal literacy instruction begins, around the age of 5 or 6, children from families low in socioeconomic status (SES) tend to be less prepared than children from families of higher SES. The goal of our study is to explore one route through which SES may influence children's early literacy skills: informal conversations about letters. The study builds on previous studies (Robins and Treiman, 2009; Robins et al., 2012, 2014) of parent–child conversations that show how U. S. parents and their young children talk about writing and provide preliminary evidence about similarities and differences in parent–child conversations as a function of SES. Focusing on parents and children aged three to five, we conducted five separate analyses of these conversations, asking whether and how family SES influences the previously established patterns. Although we found talk about letters in both upper and lower SES families, there were differences in the nature of these conversations. The proportion of letter talk utterances that were questions was lower in lower SES families and, of all the letter names that lower SES families talked about, more of them were uttered in isolation rather than in sequences. Lower SES families were especially likely to associate letters with the child's name...

Your Unconscious Knows Your Name

Pfister, Roland; Pohl, Carsten; Kiesel, Andrea; Kunde, Wilfried
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 05/03/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.2%
One's own name constitutes a unique part of conscious awareness – but does this also hold true for unconscious processing? The present study shows that the own name has the power to bias a person's actions unconsciously even in conditions that render any other name ineffective. Participants judged whether a letter string on the screen was a name or a non-word while this target stimulus was preceded by a masked prime stimulus. Crucially, the participant's own name was among these prime stimuli and facilitated reactions to following name targets whereas the name of another, yoked participant did not. Signal detection results confirmed that participants were not aware of any of the prime stimuli, including their own name. These results extend traditional findings on “breakthrough” phenomena of personally relevant stimuli to the domain of unconscious processing. Thus, the brain seems to possess adroit mechanisms to identify and process such stimuli even in the absence of conscious awareness.

The Social Name-Letter Effect on Online Social Networks

Kooti, Farshad; Magno, Gabriel; Weber, Ingmar
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 20/11/2014
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.36%
The Name-Letter Effect states that people have a preference for brands, places, and even jobs that start with the same letter as their own first name. So Sam might like Snickers and live in Seattle. We use social network data from Twitter and Google+ to replicate this effect in a new environment. We find limited to no support for the Name-Letter Effect on social networks. We do, however, find a very robust Same-Name Effect where, say, Michaels would be more likely to link to other Michaels than Johns. This effect persists when accounting for gender, nationality, race, and age. The fundamentals behind these effects have implications beyond psychology as understanding how a positive self-image is transferred to other entities is important in domains ranging from studying homophily to personalized advertising and to link formation in social networks.; Comment: 12 pages, 1 figure

Letter to Isabel from someone whose last name is Price [the first name is illegible]

Fonte: Brock University Publicador: Brock University
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.21%
Letter to Isabel from someone whose last name is Price [the first name is illegible] in which the writer says that the row with Phil regarding the bonds is settled (1 ½ pages). This person does not anticipate any more trouble with Phil. They are sending the personal effects to Isabel as well as a cheque for $3000 as her share of the estate, and more next month, July 15, 1901.

The body's grammar and the writing of the name; La grammaire du corps et l'écriture du nom; A gramática do corpo e a escrita do nome

Masagão, Andrea Menezes
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Instituto de Psicologia Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Instituto de Psicologia
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/06/2004 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.03%
The aim off this article is to investigate the function of writing found in the psychoses as the testemony off Schereber, Aimée, Bispo do Rosario e Stela do Patrocínio, getting enphasis in the articulations between the writte, the body end the name; Ce travail vise à rechercher la fonction de la production écrite trouvée dans les psychoses comme témoignent Schereber, Aimée, Bispo do Rosario, Stela do Patrocínio et beaucoup d'autres, remarquant les articulations entre l'écriture, le corps et le nom; O presente trabalho visa a investigar a função da produção escrita encontrada nas psicoses, como testemunham Schereber, Aimée, Bispo do Rosario, Stela do Patrocínio, entre muitos outros, enfatizando as articulações entre a escrita, o corpo e o nome