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Strengthening Legislatures : Implications from Industrial Countries

Messick, Richard E.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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36.87%
With more developing and post-communist states embracing democracy, improving the performance of their congresses, parliaments, and other legislative assemblies has become a must. These bodies make laws, hold the executive branch accountable, and represent citizen interests. Good governance demands that each of these tasks be done well. Thus aid agencies have begun supporting programs that train legislators and their staff, provide computers and buildings, and otherwise strengthen the legislative branch of government. But while some programs have succeeded, the overall results have been disappointing. One reason is that many programs have ignored a key principle of public sector reform: success requires changing the incentives facing public officials (World Bank 2000). More effective legislative aid programs will require donors to understand what motivates legislators and how those incentives can be altered. This note surveys the main factors shaping incentives for legislators in industrial countries and suggests how these factors can inform legislative reform in developing and transition economies.

Ukraine : Country Financial Accountability Assessment

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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36.55%
Ukraine has several strengths, such as an educated workforce, strong bookkeeping skills, and commitment to reforms, and a long-term vision of joining the European Union. In order to strengthen existing public financial accountability, Ukraine will need to build on its strength by undertaking several measures. Experience in many other countries shows that several required changes entail reaching political consensus, reforming existing institutions, or creating new institutions. This suggests that a realistic timetable for improvement in public financial accountability will have to stretch over several years and will depend on strong leadership from the top. The most important areas for action are: bringing revenues under the scope of independent external auditors; introducing the concept of internal audit; strengthening the capacity of the Accounting Chamber to conduct financial statement audits; strengthening the accountability of state owned enterprises; introducing international accounting standards for selected enterprises; adopting international best practices for licensing of audit professionals; and strengthening the disciplinary committee of the Chamber of Auditors to provide effective oversight. Other measures needed are to: train deparmtnetal staff in implementing program budgeting; fully implementing the Budget Code; expediting the implementing of the Treasury modernization project; and implementing standardized automated accounting and reporting systems.

Pakistan : Sindh Provincial Accountability Assessment

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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46.66%
The Sindh PFAA was undertaken during 2003 to support the Sindh Structural Adjustment Credit and also to support the overall Country Financial Accountability Assessment (CFAA) which was completed in December 2003. The assessment covers budget developments and execution, financial reporting/accounting and internal control, external audit, and legislative oversight. This assessment notes that there is a longer term need for evolving a comprehensive legal framework of financial management in addition to the more short-term strengthening measures already partly underway in the Sindh Reforms Program. The assessment proposes a time-bound action plan, contained in the Action Matrix at the end of the report, for moving forward on each of the areas of reform and capacity building.

Tools for Legislative Oversight: An Empirical Investigation

Pelizzo, Riuccardo; Stapenhurst, Frederick C.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
EN_US
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46.7%
Parliaments are the institutions through which governments are held accountable to the electorate. They have a wide range of tools with which to carry out this oversight function, but until recently little analysis had been undertaken on the characteristics or use of such tools. This paper uses data for 83 countries that was collected in 2001 to investigate whether the oversight potential relates to three variables, namely the form of government (presidential, semi-presidential, or parliamentary), per capita income levels, and the level of democracy. The paper finds that oversight potential is greatly affected by the form of government, per capita income levels, and levels of democracy. Countries with parliamentary forms of government, higher income levels, and which are more democratic have a greater number of oversight tools and greater oversight potential. While the oversight potential follows this general trend, the use of committees of enquiry, interpellations and ombudsman offices follows a different pattern. The use of interpellations as an oversight tool is most common in high income countries...

Oversight Effectiveness and Political Will : Some Lessons from West Africa

Pelizzo, Riccardo; Stapenhurst, Rick
Fonte: Taylor and Francis Publicador: Taylor and Francis
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
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57.12%
The purpose of the present note is to advance two theoretical claims. The first claim proposed is that the impact of the availability of oversight tools and of the most broadly understood legislative capacity (availability of material, technical, financial resources; availability of well-trained staff) on the effectiveness with which legislative oversight is performed is conditional. The second claim put forward, after reviewing a rich body of work on executive–legislative relations and legislative oversight in West Africa, is that, of the various conditions that promote or prevent the effective use of oversight tools and capacity, political will is the single most important. These claims have both theoretical and practical relevance, for if political will is as important as is claimed for the effective performance of the oversight function, then international organisations may have to reconsider their approach to legislative strengthening.

Legislative oversight and program evaluation

Seminar on Legislative Oversight and Program Evaluation, 1975; United States -- Congress. -- Senate. -- Committee on Government Operations. -- Subcommittee on Oversight Procedures; Library of Congress -- Congressional Research Service
Fonte: U.S. Govt. Print. Off.; U.S. Govt. Print. Off. ( Washington ) Publicador: U.S. Govt. Print. Off.; U.S. Govt. Print. Off. ( Washington )
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: x, 648 p. : ; 23 cm.
Publicado em // ENGLISH
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(Bibliography) Includes bibliographical references.; (Statement of Responsibility) prepared for the Subcommittee on Oversight Procedures of the Committee on Government Operations, United States, by the Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, May 1976.; At head of title: 94th Congress, 2d session. Committee print.

An analysis of current and proposed oversight processes for the acquisition of large-scale services seen through the eyes of the Navy Marine Corps Intranet program

Rozier, JoCephas
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Thesis; Thesis Formato: xiv, 67 p. : col. ill. ;
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Approved for public release; distribution in unlimited.; Approved for public release; distribution in unlimited.; At approximately $6.9 billion, The Navy-Marine Corps Intranet (NMCI) was the largest service contract that DoD had ever awarded. The U.S. Navy viewed it as a typical multi-year, Performance Based Services Contract (PBSC) and not a new acquisition program. Congress took a different view. Congress attached milestones, conditions, a requirement for rigorous testing and limited funding. This all had the effect of delaying the implementation of NMCI. At approximately $60 billion per year and growing, acquisition of services is a major part of DoD acquisitions and it is expected to only grow in the future. The mechanics for implementing these types of acquisitions are well understood; the U.S. Navy's experience with NMCI suggests that the amount and type of oversight required are not as well defined. Realizing this, both DoD and the U.S. Congress are scrambling to create laws and policies to bridge this gap. The commercial section has considerable experience in this area, as acquisition of services is a growing endeavor there too. This thesis examines current and proposed policy and procedures for the oversight of the acquisition of large-scale services by the DoD...

Fiscal oversight of Defense Department environmental cleanup and compliance activity, fiscal years 1984-1993

Kunkel, Kurt Lance
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 143 p.;28 cm.
EN_US
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Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.; This thesis investigates the legislative and fiscal oversight role the Congress has played in directing and funding Department of Defense environmental cleanup and compliance efforts for fiscal years 1984 through 1993. Congressional funding profiles of the Operations and Maintenance, Research, Development, Test and Evaluation, and Military Construction Appropriations are provided for the areas of environmental restoration, research and development, and base closure cleanup, respectively. The study reveals that DoD environmental cleanup funding has risen dramatically during the 1990s following a period of relatively moderate growth in the 1980s. The research indicates an evolution in congressional oversight of defense environmental funding from appropriations review to emphasis on specific activities, reflecting a shift in national security priorities. The research concludes that widening responsibilities, continued base closures, and legal considerations will continue to place pressure on DoD's ability to contain environmental cost growth.; Lieutenant, Supply Corps, United States Navy

Institutional challenges to viable civil-military relations in Malawi

Phiri, Mphatso Jones Boti
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: x, 76 p.
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Malawi is one of the few African countries that has experienced neither a military coup nor a civil war, and has remained peaceful since independence despite being under a dictatorial regime for three decades. Its military has earned international recognition for being professional; however, the country faces significant institutional challenges to democratic civil-military relations, where there is legislative oversight, and checks and balances between the executive and legislature. This thesis identifies and analyzes civil-military relations challenges currently facing Malawi, and suggests solutions that can contribute to healthy civil-military relations. Specifically, it focuses on the civilian control of the armed forces and the relationship between the president and the legislature in military oversight. The power relations between these two arms of government, as provided in the republican constitution, is described and assessed as a contributing factor to various challenges in democratic civil-military relations. I argue that the presidential powers remain the dominating factor in the country's civil-military relations and goes unchecked despite embracing democratic principles.; Malawi Defense Force author.

Bosnia and Herzegovina : Country Financial Accountability Assessment

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Country Financial Accountability Assessment; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
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36.55%
This Country Financial Accountability Assessment (CFAA) was prepared on the basis of the findings of a World Bank mission to Bosnia and Herzegovina in 2001, and reflects developments through early 2002. The CFAA was a constituent element of the Public Expenditure and Institutional Review (PEIR) published in June 2002 on the basis of work carried out in 2001-2002, and the key findings of the CFAA on the public expenditure policy and institutional framework form a significant part of the PEIR section dealing with financial management in the government sector. While some of the diagnosis presented in this CFAA may have been overtaken by events since early 2002, most of its recommendations remain valid and the report provides a sound analytical framework for ongoing reforms in the field of public expenditure management. The country is in transition not only to a market and a post-war economy, but also to a peculiar (and still fragile) conception of statehood. Public administration in BiH combines pre-war, wartime and post-war institutions...

Gambia : Country Financial Accountability Assessment

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Country Financial Accountability Assessment; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
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36.78%
In the Gambia, effective public financial management is promoted through a reasonably sound budget framework. However, there are a number of serious weaknesses, which create a high level of fiduciary risk. (Appendix 1 of this report.) Fiduciary risk means here that there is a risk that resources are not accounted for properly, that they are not used for intended purposes and that expenditure does not represent value for money. There are also risks associated with the governance environment. These weaknesses include poor resource allocation, non-compliance, limited execution, inadequate monitoring and scrutiny, insufficient capacity, lack of enforcement, non-transparency, and poor parliamentary oversight. The Government's pledge to strengthen governance needs to be translated into measures to address these weaknesses. This report recommends the following recommendations for providing evidence that significant progress has been made towards the fundamental benchmarks in public financial management: 1) Strengthen linkages between policies and budget expenditures through updating sectoral public expenditure reviews (PERs) for education...

Ethiopia : Country Financial Accountability Assessment, Volume 2. Detailed Reports

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Country Financial Accountability Assessment; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
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36.78%
The CFAA examined the means by which the Federal Government of Ethiopia intends to improve the management of resources to enhance sustainable economic growth and reduce poverty. There are many challenges but the likelihood that Ethiopia will receive substantial assistance in the coming years means that, in order to maximize this opportunity, financial accountability issues and the exercise of fiduciary responsibilities in line with development goals are a priority. A key theme in the exercising of this fiduciary responsibility is to ensure that not only are the issues addressed at Federal level, but with the increasing devolution of fiscal responsibilities to 'Regions of Responsibility', that strengthening of financial accountability systems also occurs at the Regional level. Of particular emphasis will be the human capacity issues that decentralization initiatives have emphasized, which are in addition to technical considerations in systems for budgeting, accounting and financial reporting. Progress has been made in some areas over the last two years...

Legislative Oversight and Budgeting : A World Perspective; Fiscalizacion legislativa y presupuesto : una perspectiva mundial

Stapenhurst, Rick; Pelizzo, Riccardo; Olson, David M.; von Trapp, Lisa
Fonte: Washington, DC : World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC : World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
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57.03%
Effective legislatures are fundamental to promoting good governance and are a critical component in a country's overall governance framework. Although differences exist across government systems, legislatures, through their constitutional mandates, fulfill three core functions: representation, lawmaking, and oversight. Governance goals of greater accountability, transparency, and participation are directly related to these three functions. Legislative oversight in particular seeks to ensure that the executive and its agencies, or those to whom authority is delegated, remain responsive and accountable. This volume looks at oversight as a continuous and ongoing cycle. Legislatures may examine government policies as they are being developed or work to ensure that programs are implemented and administered efficiently, effectively, and in a manner consistent with legislative intent. In addition, this book highlights the important opportunities provided for oversight during the budget cycle. At the same time, the authors recognize the many factors and incentives legislators face that may assist or impede them in playing their oversight role.

When Do Special Interests Run Rampant? Disentangling the Role in Banking Crises of Elections, Incomplete Information, and Checks and Balances

Keefer, Philip
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
EN_US
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The author investigates the political determinants of government decisions that benefit special interest groups - especially government decisions to deal with banking crises. He finds that the better informed the voters, the more proximate elections, and the larger the number of political veto players ( conditional on the costs to voters of relevant policy decision), the smaller the government's fiscal transfer are to the financial sector and the less likely the government is to exercise forbearance in dealing with insolvent financial institutions. The results suggest that policies that might be appropriate for mitigating banking crises in the United States might be less effective in settings where voters are less informed, where elections are less competitive, and where there are fewer veto players, because in these settings checks and balances are missing. These policies include: a) Disseminating information about the costs of inefficient government decisions. b) Improving the structure of legislative regulatory oversight. c) Intervening early in insolvent banks. The author concludes that the more veto players there are, the less likely policies are to favor special interest groups (contrary to previous views). Moreover, the closer the elections...

Jamaica : Parliamentary Oversight of Public Finances--An Institutional Review

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work; Economic & Sector Work :: Institutional and Governance Review (IGR)
ENGLISH; EN_US
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46.99%
Sound legislative oversight of public finances is crucial to ensure efficiency and effectiveness of public spending. All national governments, and particularly those that are accountable to their citizens through free elections and the voice of civil society, are concerned with the efficiency and efficacy of public finances. More broadly, well-functioning parliaments promote good governance; enhance transparency and accountability, including for public expenditures and their results; widen public discourse on national priorities and options; and build better partnerships between officials and representatives and their electorate. In all this, those among the citizenry with the least have the most to gain. This report responds to a request from the Government of Jamaica to review the structure and capacity of the Parliament of Jamaica to undertake its constitutional role with respect to oversight of the nation's public finances. Jamaica's Parliament is the country's supreme legislative body, consisting of an elected House of Representatives and an appointed Senate (Upper House)...

East Timor Public Administration : Public Expenditure Management and Accountability Note

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Country Financial Accountability Assessment; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
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This study focuses on the implications of East Timor's transitions from United Nations administration to Independence, from reconstruction to development and from aid dependence to fiscal independence for public expenditure policy and management. Following an assessment of the existing systems and their constraints, it makes recommendations for improvements in the public expenditure management system as a tool for achieving: 1) Macro-Economic Stability and Growth, by delivering a sustainable and productive application of resources; 2) Poverty Reduction, by allocating resources to programs that benefit and meet the needs of the poor; 3) Value-for-Money in the application of public funds, by focusing on economy, efficiency and effectiveness in public spending; 4) Good Governance, by ensuring transparency in decision-making and expenditure management, and accountability within the public sector, to the legislature and ultimately to the public. 2. The note is intended first as a contribution to the Government's on-going reform strategy. Summary recommendations are presented at the end of this report. The note is also intended as a contribution to independent assessments of the Government's financial management system undertaken by external partners. Six Chapters...

Strengthening Oversight by Legislatures

Manning, Nick; Stapenhurst, Rick
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.75%
About 90 percent of the world's nearly 200 sovereign states have national legislatures or parliaments. With the spread of democracy and the rise of multiparty political systems, these bodies are playing larger roles in government. Increasingly, legislatures and their members perform four important functions of governance: o Making policies and laws. Legislatures are representative bodies for collective decisionmaking, working with the executive branch to deliberate policies and make laws. Representing citizens. Legislators give voice to individual citizens, civil society organizations, and business groups, representing the needs of local constituents in policymaking. Overseeing the executive. Legislatures oversee policy implementation by the executive branch, scrutinizing its work and holding it accountable. Recruiting future leaders. Legislatures are stepping stones and training grounds for senior positions in the executive branch. Transcending these formal functions, legislatures also provide an arena where competing political forces can debate and reach consensus on national policies and laws. This note addresses the oversight function because of its significance for government transparency and accountability...

Strengthening Oversight by Legislatures; Renforcer le contrôle par les parlements

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.55%
About 90 percent of the world's nearly 200 sovereign states have national legislatures or parliaments. With the spread of democracy and the rise of multiparty political systems, these bodies are playing larger roles in government. Increasingly, legislatures and their members perform four important functions of governance: Making policies and laws. Legislatures are representative bodies for collective decision-making, working with the executive branch to deliberate policies and make laws. Representing citizens. Legislators give voice to individual citizens, civil society organizations, and business groups, representing the needs of local constituents in policymaking. Overseeing the executive. Legislatures oversee policy implementation by the executive branch, scrutinizing its work and holding it accountable. Recruiting future leaders. Legislatures are stepping stones and training grounds for senior positions in the executive branch.

Scrutinizing Public Expenditures : Assessing the Performance of Public Accounts Committees

Stapenhurst, Rick; Sahgal, Vinod; Woodley, William; Pelizzo, Riccardo
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
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36.78%
In 2002, David McGee wrote a comprehensive report on two important elements in the system of public financial accountability, namely the office of the Auditor General and the parliamentary oversight committee commonly referred to as the Public Accounts Committee (PAC). The purpose of the present paper is to deepen McGee's analysis of PACs. In particular, the authors define PAC success and identify those factors that affect PAC peformance. They use data that were collected by the World Bank Institute in 2002, when a survey questionnaire was sent to 51 national and state/provincial parliaments in Commonwealth countries in Asia and Australasia, and Canada and the United Kingdom. The authors find that the institutional factors which most account for the success of the PACs are the focus on government's financial activity rather than its policies, the power to investigate all past and present government expenses, the power to follow up on government action in response to its recommendations, and its relationship with the Auditors General.

Bureaucratic discretion and legislative oversight on the budget process in Mexico 2001-2012

Velázquez-López Velarde,Rodrigo
Fonte: El Colegio Mexiquense A.C. Publicador: El Colegio Mexiquense A.C.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2015 EN
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The article analyzes the extent to which democratization increased the level of legislative control over the budget process during the first twelve years of democracy in Mexico. Two components of legislative oversight are examined in detail: Haciendas financial information available to legislators and the legislation regulating the government's capacity to allocate and reallocate federal funds. The article finds that while legislators have formal rights to control the bureaucracy, public officials have informal leverage over members of Congress, as well. By distributing resources that legislators can use for patronage purposes, bureaucrats obtain legislators' consent to implement programs at their convenience.