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Offshore constitutional settlement 1980: a case study in federalism

Brazil, Pat
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 43756 bytes; 358 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
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Introduction: The main specific reference to powers over offshore matters in the Australian Constitution was in Section 51(x) giving the Commonwealth Parliament power to legislate for ‘fisheries in Australian waters beyond territorial limits’. It was held that this meant that the Commonwealth had no power to legislate with respect to fisheries within three nautical miles of the coast of a State.; no

Constitutional Courts in Central and Eastern Europe and their Attitude towards European Integration; Constitutionele Hoven in Centraal en Oost Europa en hun Houding ten opzichte van Europese Integratie

PIQANI, Darinka
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf; digital
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In the first years after the fall of communism, constitutional courts in Central and Eastern Europe undertook a crucial role in the political, economic and social reforms of their respective countries. As in other European countries after the Second World War, these courts in CEE were seen as factors of democratization whose main task was the observance of constitutionalism and the rule of law. After the first years of judicial activism which were mainly related to internal reforms and fashioning of a new democratic system, these courts turned into important actors of the European integration process, by rendering landmark decisions related to the interaction between their national legal order and European law. This paper deals in particular with a series of decisions in the context of national law-European law relations, by paying specific attention to the reception by these courts of the principle of supremacy of European law. The main finding of this paper is that constitutional courts of CEE have taken quite an equilibrated stance towards European integration: generally speaking, their rhetoric is characterized by a Euro-friendly discourse in the pre-accession period which, after the enlargement was complemented by a set of controlimi generally derived from their own constitutions and well-established constitutional traditions.

The Future of International Economic Law: A Research Agenda

PETERSMANN, Ernst-Ulrich
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
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This final chapter draws conclusions from the second edition of Constitutionalism, Multilevel Trade Governance and International Economic Law by discussing the diverse conceptions of international economic regulation presented by Profs. Joerges, Stewart, Cottier and other contributors to this book. Section I begins with methodological questions of conceptualizing and analyzing international economic law (IEL). Section II discusses private ‘conflicts law approaches’ and criticizes their inadequate criteria for identifying under which conditions public international law ‘deserves recognition’. Section III gives an overview of the diverse ‘global administrative law’ (GAL) approaches and criticizes their often inadequate methodologies for determining ‘law’ as well as their neglect of constitutional rights. Section IV discusses the various ‘multilevel constitutional’ approaches to analyzing IEL and their foundation in ‘constitutional pluralism’. Section V suggests that collective supply of ‘global public goods’ – like protection of human rights, a mutually beneficial world trading system, international rule of law and prevention of climate change – requires more systematic, legal analysis of the collective action problems and of the interrelationships among national and international public goods. The various private and public...

International Economic Law and ‘Public Reason’: Why Do Governments Fail To Protect International Public Goods More Effectively?

PETERSMANN, Ernst-Ulrich
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
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Is the ineffective protection of international public goods (like an efficient world trading and financial system), and thereby also of interrelated national public goods (like a common market undistorted by anti-dumping laws and other border discrimination), the inevitable fate of humanity? The negative answer to this question in Section I argues that the ineffective protection of international public goods is mainly due to lack of adequate theories, rules and institutions for overcoming the ‘collective action problems’ in the multilevel governance of interdependent public goods. Section II reviews the competing conceptions of ‘international economic law’ (IEL) such as public international law approaches, multilevel economic law approaches, ‘global administrative law’ approaches, ‘conflicts law approaches’ and ‘multilevel constitutional approaches’. Section III argues that - similar to the experience of all democracies that ‘national public goods’ can be supplied only in a framework of constitutional, legislative, administrative and judicial rules and procedures supported by domestic citizens - the multilevel governance of ‘international public goods’ requires a multilevel constitutional framework for multilevel rule-making and judicial protection of rule of law and constitutional rights accepted and supported by domestic citizens as ‘primary’ legal subjects of IEL and of a citizen-driven...

Protecting European law from international law

LAVRANOS, Nikolaos
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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This contribution analyses the relationship between international law and Community law in the light of two recent European Court of Justice (ECJ) cases on Article 307 EC, that is, the Kadi and bilateral investment treaties (BITs) judgments. The analysis discusses two concepts: (1) the concept of the 'very foundations of the Community legal order' and (2) the concept of 'hypothetical incompatibility'. The main argument that is advanced in this contribution is that with these two concepts, the ECJ has identified a constitutional dimension of Article 307 EC that hitherto has not been generally recognized. More specifically, it is argued that the main aim and result of this new line of jurisprudence is to protect the autonomy of European law from international law interferences by excluding as much as possible any conflicts between European and international law. In this sense, Article 307 EC is a tool for the ECJ to act as a gatekeeper by regulating the relationship between international law and Community law. Moreover, it is argued that the concept of the 'very foundations of the Community legal order' very much resembles the approach of the Federal German Constitutional Court, which in turn illustrates that the ECJ is performing the function of a true constitutional court of Europe. Accordingly...

Constitutional Law: Regulation and section 92: The background

O'Brien, J. R.
Fonte: Adelaide Law Review Association, School of Law, University of Adelaide University, Australia Publicador: Adelaide Law Review Association, School of Law, University of Adelaide University, Australia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 376124 bytes; application/pdf
Publicado em /08/1970 EN
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Recent cases

Fonte: Adelaide Law Review Association, School of Law, University of Adelaide Publicador: Adelaide Law Review Association, School of Law, University of Adelaide
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1961 EN
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Constitutional law: section 92: repairs and interstate trade pp 212-214. McNaughton rules: medical evidence and insanity pp 214-215. Contract: implied term in the sale of goods pp 215-219. Police Offences Act: police rights on private property pp 219-221. Statutory interpretation: shops: offered or exposed for sale pp 221-224. Evidence: the unsworn statement pp 224-228

Constitutional and judicial recognition of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples: the migration of foundational ideas from Canada to Australia

Parrott, Louise Elizabeth
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Thesis (PhD); Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)
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Ideas that are migrating from Canada are already guiding advocates who seek greater judicial and constitutional recognition of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. However, there is a need for a conceptual framework through which to approach the lessons that can be learned from Canada in this area. Inspired by The Migration of Constitutional Ideas, an edited work by Sujit Choudhry, in this thesis I argue that by thinking about the migration and transplantation of foundational ideas and by differentiating between four ‘modes’ of migration (arguments of counsel, judicial determinations, academic critique and constitutional reform deliberations), it is possible to better understand some of the processes that are at play. In particular, by adopting the terminology of the ‘migration’ and ‘transplantation’ of ‘foundational’ ideas, I aim to demonstrate that it is dangerous to transplant foundational ideas, whether derived from the common law or constitutional law, without other ideas (particularly in relation to implications) also migrating. This thesis is a response to two distinct but related topics: ‘Topic 1 — The Potential for Judicial Recognition of Indigenous Self-Government Rights: The Migration of Foundational Ideas from Canada to Australia’ and ‘Topic 2 — Constitutional Recognition of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples...

Gender and Law in Francophone Sub-Saharan Africa : The Role of the World Bank - Gender-Responsive Institutional, Policy and Legal/Regulatory Frameworks; Problematique hommes-femmes et droits legaux en Afrique Francophone : le role de la Banque mondiale - cadres de travail institutionnel, politique et legal/reglementaire axes sur la problematique hommes-femmes

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
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Law is society's institution which articulates rules to govern legal and non-legal institutions. Rules of legal institutions aim to protect the citizen against discretionary and arbitrary power, ensure equality with others and guarantee procedural fairness. Impartial administration of the law through independent accessible courts and a democratic process of law-making, defines and enforces the limits and powers of state institutions and sets out the scope of legitimate state intervention in the affairs of its citizens. To the extent that the rule of law accomplishes this, a neutral legal order exists, capable of supporting the competitive market economy in the following ways: a) ensuring predictability and security of property rights and transactions; b) limiting arbitrary and discretional rational power of the state and its agents; c) maintaining the independence of the judiciary and at the same time curtailing judicial activism; and d) limiting the retroactivity of rules of law. Because of the lack of a formalized private sector in Africa...

Reconnaître et protéger le statut constitutionnel des municipalités: critique de l'état du droit et perspectives d'avenir

Voisard, Caroline
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
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Ce mémoire propose un portrait global et une critique de l'état du droit canadien relatif au statut juridique des municipalités. L'adage voulant que les municipalités constituent des créatures des législatures ne possédant aucun statut constitutionnel est un héritage du droit américain (théorie du Dillon 's rule) de la fin du 1ge siècle. Or, plusieurs États américains ont introduit très tôt le principe du home rule (autonomie locale) dans leurs constitutions. Le Canada n'a pas fait de même et les institutions municipales ne sont toujours pas protégées dans la Constitution écrite. On constate toutefois une évolution de la législation et de la jurisprudence vers une augmentation de l'autonomie municipale. Notre hypothèse est que l'existence d'institutions municipales représentées par des élus et pourvues de pouvoirs autonomes dans les matières d'intérêt purement municipal fait partie de la Constitution non écrite. Les exceptions non écrites au pouvoir d'une province de modifier sa constitution interne, ainsi que les principes structurels de la démocratie et de la protection des minorités sont étudiés. Un statut protégé pour les municipalités est conforme au droit international et plusieurs États...

International Law as a Source of Constitutional Law; El Derecho Internacional como fuente del Derecho Constitucional

Monroy Cabra, Marco Gerardo
Fonte: Universidade do Rosário Publicador: Universidade do Rosário
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 24/10/2008 SPA
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This article has the purpose to prove that the Customary International Law and the Conventional International Law are sources of Constitutional Law. First, it analyses the matter of the relations between International Law and National or Domestic law according with the theories dualism and monist and international decisions. Then, it studies the reception and the hierarchy of International Customary and Conventional Law to Domestic Law including Constitution. This matter has been studied according with several Constitutions and the international doctrine. Then, it considers the constitutional regulations about international law in the Constitution of the Republic of Colombia. The general conclusion is that International Law is incorporated in domestic law according with the Constitution of each country. But every state has the duty to carry out in good faith its obligations arising from treaties and other sources of International Law, and it may not invoke provisions in its Constitutions or its Laws as an excuse for failure to perform this duty. Accordingly, state practice and decided cases have established this provision, and the same rule is established in articles 27 and 46 of the Vienna Convention on Law of Treaties of 1969.; El presente trabajo trata de demostrar que el Derecho Internacional ha llegado a constituirse en fuente del Derecho Constitucional. Para este efecto...

Soft Law: Lessons from Congressional Practice

Gersen, Jacob E.; Posner, Eric
Fonte: Stanford Law School Publicador: Stanford Law School
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Soft law consists of rules issued by lawmaking bodies that do not comply with procedural formalities necessary to give the rules legal status yet nonetheless influence the behavior of other lawmaking bodies and of the public. Soft law has been much discussed in the literatures on international law, constitutional law, and administrative law, yet congressional soft-lawmaking, such as the congressional resolution, has received little attention. Congressional soft law affects behavior by informing the public and political institutions about the intentions and policy preferences of Congress, which are informative about future hard law as well as of Congress's view of the world, and thus relevant to the decision making of various political agents as well as that of the public. Congressional soft law is important for a range of topics, including statutory interpretation and constitutional development. Other types of soft law—international, constitutional, and judicial—are compared.

A juridicidade isonômica da tramitação prioritária processual para os portadores da síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida

Silva, Polyana Maria Santana da
Fonte: Universidade Católica de Brasília Publicador: Universidade Católica de Brasília
Tipo: Trabalho de Conclusão de Curso Formato: Texto
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Pesquisa de direito constitucional e direito processual civil, que explica a existência de Projeto de Lei 5000/2001, em votação no Congresso Nacional, que visa alterar o Código de Processo Civil a fim de conceder prioridade processual aos portadores do HIV/AIDS, tendo em vista a diminuição da expectativa de vida destas pessoas. Expõe a quantidade de soropositivos no Brasil e no mundo, fazendo uma trajetória pelo histórico da Aids e pelos preconceitos enfrentados pelos soropositivos. Estabelece a necessidade e a possibilidade da concessão do benefício, já que hoje a moléstia, que antes era letal, é considerada crônica e tratável por causa dos coquetéis que matam até 99% dos vírus no organismo. Constata a necessidade e urgência de realização de reformas estruturais no poder judiciário brasileiro, apontando por deficiência, por exemplo, a irresponsabilidade de seus agentes, que ignoram a lei, e a precariedade de funcionários para a demanda de usuários do judiciário. Usa por analogia às Leis 10.173/2001 e 10.741/2003 que concedem prioridade processual aos idosos e aos portadores de deficiência mental e física. Apresenta diversos direitos concedidos aos infectados pelo vírus acompanhados de jurisprudências dos tribunais superiores brasileiros. Apoia a idéia do legislador...

Pluralism of legal orders: toward a new perspective of the relationship between international and constitutional law; Pluralidade das ordens jurídicas: uma nova perspectiva na relação entre o Direito Internacional e o Direito Constitucional

Ramos, André de Carvalho
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Direito Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Direito
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/01/2012 POR
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This article aims to analyse the new phenomena of the legal pluralism treaties in Brazil, focusing on the convergence and divergence of the international law and the constitutional law. At the end, the article sustains the possibility of achieving harmony into the legal pluralism, due to a new perspective of the relationship between international and constitutional law.; O presente artigo visa analisar o novo fenômeno da pluralidade das ordens jurídicas, enfocando os aspectos de convergência e divergência entre o Direito Internacional e o Direito Nacional. Por fim, o artigo defende a possibilidade de harmonia entre as ordens jurídicas plurais, com base uma nova perspectiva na relação entre o direito internacional e o direito interno.

A Coerência do Sistema Jurídico em Luhmann: Uma proposta ao fechamento operacional e à abertura cognitiva da decisão judicial. doi:10.5007/2177-7055.2011v32n62p323; The Law System's Coherence in Luhmann: an approach to the operational closing and to the cognitive opening of the judge's decision doi: 10.5007/2177-7055.2011v32n62p323

Cademartori, Luiz Henrique Urquhart; Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina; Baggenstoss, Grazielly Alessandra; Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina
Fonte: Fundação José Arthur Boiteux Publicador: Fundação José Arthur Boiteux
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 30/07/2011 POR
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No presente trabalho, propõe-se o exame das balizas da decisão judicial no atual Estado Constitucional de Direito a partir da teoria sistêmica de Niklas Luhmann, que destaca o Direito como subsistema social, motivo pelo que deve seguir os mecanismos de abertura cognitiva e fechamento operacional das estruturas sistemáticas, sob pena de corrupção de seus elementos, deficiências em sua reprodução e incapacidade de evolução autônoma e diferenciada. Possíveis métodos para a realização do Direito nas decisões judiciais são apresentados, atualmente, pelas teorias jurídicas garantista e neoconstitucionalista, que aqui são examinadas com o objetivo de se verificar prováveis correspondências de suas assertivas ao movimento de reprodução autônoma e de evolução do sistema teorizado por Luhmann e para que seja viável o delineamento de uma decisão judicial que se consubstancie, efetivamente, em uma operação comunicativa especial do sistema jurídico, sendo adequada para o fim a que se destina: (re)afirmação, concretização e especialização do sistema jurídico.; In this work we propose to examine the goals of the judicial decision in the current Rule of Law Constitutional State using Niklas Luhmann’s systemic theory...

On the limits of constitutional liberalism: in search of a constitutional reflexivity

Dowdle, Michael W.; Wilkinson, Michael
Fonte: National University of Singapore, Faculty of Law Publicador: National University of Singapore, Faculty of Law
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /11/2015 EN; EN
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Analyses of comparative constitutional law are frequently framed by a particular vision of constitutionalism that we call the 'structural-liberal' vision. This vision sees the purpose of constitutional as being one of limiting state power - its ‘liberal’ component - which is done through the construction of a particular set of institutional architectures - such as judicial constitutional review, judicial protection and enforcement of fundamental rights, separation of powers, rule of law, etc. - its 'structural component.' In this paper, we argue that such analyses are incomplete. The structural-liberal vision is but one of a number of ways of conceptualizing constitutionalism. It is the product of a particular time and place, and reflects the particular concerns and experiences of that time and place. Conversely, there are other kinds of important constitutional concerns and experiences that the structural liberal-vision renders invisible. These include processes of constitutional emergence and evolution, and symbiotic relationships between constitutionalism and other aspects of the regulatory environment (such as the economic structure of the state). In order to be complete, analyses of comparative constitutional law need to be more attentive to the distinctive concerns and experiences of the subjects of their attention. This involves allowing the subject system to speak for itself within the context of the larger...

Book review: The war prerogative: history, reform, and constitutional design by Rosara Joseph

Bannerman, Gordon
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 28/01/2014 EN; EN
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"The War Prerogative: History, Reform, and Constitutional Design." Rosara Joseph. Oxford University Press. September 2013. --- In this book, Rosara Joseph studies the evolution of the war prerogative in England from 1600-2012. The author traces the historical theory and practice of the war prerogative and proposes reform of the constitutional arrangements for its exercise. Meticulously-researched and written in a lively and engaging style, the book will interest scholars in international and constitutional law, political science, and modern history, writes Gordon Bannerman.

Comparative constitutional law in the courts: reflections on the originalists’ objections

Murkens, Jo Eric Khushal
Fonte: Department of Law, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Department of Law, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /10/2008 EN; EN
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The controversy surrounding the judicial use of comparative constitutional law is not new. However, the debate has recently been reignited by a number of US Supreme Court justices who have spoken out on the use of non-US law in the Court. Scalia opposes, and Breyer favours, references to ‘foreign law’. Their comments, made both within and outside of the Court, have led to a reaction by scholars. Arguably the debate is US-specific as it resembles the different views regarding constitutional interpretation, namely whether the Constitution’s original, or rather its current, meaning is determinative. Yet the debate also raises broader issues of constitutional theory and politics: formal vs substantive legitimacy, globalisation of the courts, judicial sleight of hand, the cultural foundations of constitutional law, and the citation of non-primary sources of law in litigation. The present article explores these issues. It rejects radical approaches (either against or in favour of comparative constitutional law) and instead argues for a more modest process which both identifies the national specificity of law and grasps the mediating potential of law as a self-reflexive discourse.

The open architecture of European human rights law

Krisch, Nico
Fonte: Department of Law, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Department of Law, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /10/2007 EN; EN
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The evolution of the European human rights regime is often described in constitutionalist terms: as the move towards an integrated order with the European Convention of Human Rights as its “constitutional instrument” at the top. In this article, I seek to show that this description is misguided and that the regime is better regarded as pluralist – as characterised by a heterarchical relationship between its constituent parts that is ultimately defined politically and not legally. The emergence and workings of this pluralist order are traced through the interaction of the European Court of Human Rights with domestic courts in Spain, France, the European Union and the United Kingdom. All these cases not only show conflicts over questions of ultimate supremacy but also significant convergence and harmony in day-to-day practice. I begin to identify factors that have led to this convergence and conclude that central characteristics of pluralism – incrementalism and the openness of ultimate authority – seem to have contributed to the generally smooth evolution of the European human rights regime in a significant way. This finding suggests a broader appeal of pluralist models as alternatives to constitutionalism in the construction of postnational authority and law.

But is it speech? Making critical sense of the dominant constitutional discourse on pornography, morality and harm under the pervasive influence of United States first amendment jurisprudence

van der Poll,L
Fonte: PER: Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad Publicador: PER: Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2012 EN
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Under the pervasive influence of United States First Amendment jurisprudence, adult gender-specific sexually explicit (or "pornographic") material is conceptualized, and thus protected in the "marketplace of ideas", as a particular mode of expression; to be viewed as part of the fabric of an open, free and democratic society. The values which free expression are seen to promote centre upon the advancement of political debate and promotion of personal self-fulfilment and autonomy. Attempts to conceptualise sexually explicit material within a gender-specific human rights framework present distinct challenges which, in a patriarchal legal and political design, appear to be near insurmountable. These challenges seem to be related to the enduring impact of the common law conception of obscenity (with its strong moralistic overtones) on the jurisprudence of the United States Supreme Court, coupled with a subjective libertarian-inspired test, and the Supreme Court's general reluctance (also echoed by the South African Constitutional Court) to consider a gender-specific conception of harm emanating from feminist arguments premised upon women's constitutional interests in human dignity, equality and bodily integrity. The social revolution of the 1960s...