A constante ausência de planejamento urbano nos países em desenvolvimento é um dos principais fatores responsáveis pela ineficiência da infraestrutura pública de suas cidades, o que é agravado pelo fato de que muitas dessas cidades permanecem em processo de crescimento. Essa falta de planejamento gera inúmeros problemas, principalmente com relação à mobilidade e ao transporte, que por sua vez desencadeiam uma série de outros problemas. Dentre as principais limitações do planejamento sob tais condições, destaca-se a falta de ferramentas apropriadas. Propõe-se assim a caracterização de um modelo para o planejamento estratégico do uso do solo e transportes, com o qual é realizada uma aplicação na cidade de São Carlos, utilizando dados e ferramentas disponíveis. Dessa forma, são analisados os procedimentos executados tanto do ponto de vista técnico do planejamento, quanto do ponto de vista operacional das ferramentas e programas utilizados. Com isso, busca-se construir uma base referencial no sentido de auxiliar o uso, adaptação e desenvolvimento de ferramentas computacionais de planejamento urbano, principalmente para aplicações em cidades médias de países em desenvolvimento e com enfoque no transporte por ônibus. Baseando-se nas principais técnicas de planejamento compatíveis com essa abordagem...
Esta dissertação tem como objetivo refletir sobre o Zoneamento por meio da abordagem dos aspectos morfológicos e tipológicos resultantes de sua utilização como instrumento de planejamento urbano. O zoneamento continua sendo um dos instrumentos mais difundidos e utilizados no tocante ao controle do uso e ocupação do solo entre os municípios brasileiros mesmo diante das inovações pós-Estatuto da Cidade, aprovado em 2001. Sua concepção de regulação da forma urbana, construída por meio de um processo cumulativo por mais de um século, utiliza uma matriz de parâmetros urbanísticos com base em critérios de incomodidade de usos e controle da replicabilidade do solo. A pesquisa contou com a investigação teórica de conceitos ligados à disciplina da morfologia urbana e urbanidade, a partir dos quais foram definidos componentes para seleção e análise de tecidos urbanos existentes, que compuseram o corpus desta dissertação. Tais análises, realizadas com base no universo da amostragem selecionada, composta por alguns municípios paulistas, permitiram apontar as principais limitações do zoneamento no que se refere à qualidade urbanística e urbanidade das cidades, assim como, a ausência quanto às considerações das dimensões das políticas urbanas e de otimização do solo. Pretende-se assim...
Os padrões atuais de uso e ocupação do solo nas cidades brasileiras têm agravado as dificuldades enfrentadas pela população urbana e o poder público em eventos extremos de cheia. Neste contexto, a regulamentação do uso do solo aliada à identificação das áreas mais suscetíveis aos impactos ocasionados pelas inundações surge como importante estratégia para o desenvolvimento de políticas urbanas municipais. Este trabalho buscou elaborar um conjunto de medidas de intervenção para a regulamentação do uso do solo na área urbana do município de Atibaia, caracterizada pela ocupação desordenada e tendo se desenvolvido às margens do rio Atibaia e seus afluentes. As propostas apresentadas foram fundamentadas no mapeamento das inundáveis, por meio de análise hidrológica, para determinar a probabilidade de ocorrência dos eventos, e hidráulica, para a delimitação da mancha de inundação com base na aplicação do PCSWMM, que integra o modelo SWMM a ferramentas avançadas de geoprocessamento. Através de uma extensa análise dos fatores legais aplicáveis, foi possível identificar os desafios e as perspectivas do planejamento do uso do solo como ferramenta indispensável ao controle de inundações e o gerenciamento dos recursos hídricos. Como resultados...
Nas grandes cidades brasileiras, tem-se notado atualmente a precariedade quanto à aplicação de políticas públicas de gestão territorial municipal relacionadas à adequação do uso da terra urbana em conformidade com a qualidade socioambiental. Isto se verifica no município de Santos, nos diferentes padrões de distribuição das diversas formas de uso de ocupação da terra intraurbana em sua área insular. A partir da década de 1970 até os dias de hoje, a produção do espaço urbano santista ocorre principalmente por meio de empreendimentos imobiliários verticalizados, sobretudo de alto padrão e localizados próximos à orla marítima, dada a ausência de espaços disponíveis para o crescimento horizontal de sua mancha urbana e também o alto contingente populacional atraído pelas atividades portuárias e turísticas. Portanto, esta dissertação de mestrado teve como principal objetivo a construção de um discurso pautado nas metodologias geográficas, buscando compreender a produção do espaço urbano do município de Santos e auxiliar a execução de políticas públicas de ordenamento territorial tendo em vista um uso mais democrático da cidade. A partir de análises qualiquantitativas oriundas dos dados produzidos pelo mapeamento de uso da terra intraurbana...
In this paper, the main goal is to understand the relationship between urban growth and physical
factors in order to determine the potential area for future urban expansion. A methodology is suggested for understanding urban growth pattern in Siem Reap which could effectively sustain archaeological sites and to balance the land use between urban and non-urban areas in Siem Reap, Cambodia. Remote sensing technique is used to analyze land use maps of Siem Reap from 1993 to 2011. Results show that urban-built up area increased significantly which causes the forest land to reduce steadily from 1993 to 2003 in the Siem Reap archaeological sites. In addition, Geographic Information System (GIS) is applied to analyze urban growth pattern. Geo-processing and logical functions are applied to detect and quantify the land use changes, especially urban changes. Two main factors are used to analyze the urban driving growth in Siem Reap, which are distance to road networks and population density. Pearson correlation statistics is applied to justify the relationship between the factors and urban area growth.
Dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Science in Geospatial Technologies.; Land use intensity as a measure of degree of development, is and important element of urban form. The intensity of urban land use types is determined spatially trough enacting land use zoning. Cities are under circumstances of experiencing continuous land use change due to rapid urbanization process and resultant demand for land for various human needs. Dhaka city of Bangladesh, being one of the populous cities of the word, is observing mostly haphazard development in an unplanned way of horizontal and vertical use of use zoning and height zoning failed to render a comprehensive development indication to ensure planned and sustainable growth of the city. This study is an effort to quantify the spatial pattern of land use activities in terms of their intensity by proposing an amalgamation of both horizontal and vertical measurement of the space used in the city.
Dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Science in Geospatial Technologies.; This research was conducted to analyze the land use and land cover changes and to model the changes for the case study area Malatya, Turkey. The first step of the study was acquisition of multi temporal data in order to detect the changes over the time. For this purpose satellite images (Landsat 1990-2000-2010) have been used. In order to acquire data from satellite images object oriented image classification method have been used. To observe the success of the classification accuracy assessment has been done by comparing the control points with the classification results and measured with kappa. According to results of accuracy assessment the overall kappa value found around 75%. The second step was to perform the suitability analysis for the urban category to use in modeling process and it has been done using the Multi Criteria Evaluation method. The third step was to observe the changes between the defined years in the study area. In order to observe the changes land use/cover maps belongs to different years compared with cross tabulation and overlay methods, according to the results it has been observed that the main changes in the study area were the transformation of agricultural lands and orchards to urban areas. Every ten years around 1000ha area of agricultural land and orchards were transformed to urban. After detecting the changes in the study area simulation for the future has been performed. For the simulation two different methods have been used which are; the combination of Cellular Automata and Markov Chain methods and the combination of Multilayer Perceptron and Markov Chain methods with the support of the suitability analysis. In order to validate the models; both of them has been used to simulate the year 2010 land categories using the 1990 and 2000 data. Simulation results compared with the existing 2010 map for the accuracy assessment (validation). For accuracy assessment the quantity and allocation based disagreements and location and quantity based kappa agreements has been calculated. According to the results it has been observed that the combination of Multilayer Perceptron and Markov Chain methods had a higher accuracy in overall...
Dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Science in Geospatial Technologies; The high rate of urbanization coupled with population growth has caused changes in land use and land cover in Bahir Dar, Ethiopia. Therefore, understanding and quantifying the spatio- temporal dynamics of urban land use and land cover changes and its driving factors is essential to put forward the right policies and monitoring mechanisms on urban growth for decision making. Thus, the objective of this study was to analyze land use and land cover changes in Bahir Dar area, Ethiopia by applying geospatial and land use change modeling tools. In order to achieve this, satellite data of Landsat TM for 1986 and ETM for 2001 and 2010 have been obtained and preprocessed using ArcGIS. The Maximum Liklihood Algorithm of Supervised Classification has been used to generate land use and land cover maps. For the accuracy of classified land use and land cover maps, a confusion matrix was used to derive overall accuracy and results were above the minimum and acceptable threshold level. The generated land cover maps have been run with Land Change Modeler for quantifying land use and land cover changes, to examine land use transitions between land cover classes...
Este trabalho mostra os resultados obtidos durante as atividades de pesquisa e levantamento de dados sobre os equipamentos urbanos de carga denominados Estações Aduaneiras Interiores (EADIs), conhecidos como Portos Secos, na identificação de impactos ambientais resultantes das operações portuárias desses estabelecimentos. O conflito na utilização do espaço viário da área urbana por modos e sistemas de transporte de carga, incumbidos da tarefa de movimentação e transporte de mercadorias dos Portos Secos nas cidades brasileiras, especialmente aquelas de maior porte e em regiões metropolitanas, a saber, caminhões e trens, leva à preocupação tanto pela inexistência de uma legislação específica locacional para estes equipamentos impactantes, como pela grande disseminação destes empreendimentos, especialmente na década de 1990. Aspectos operacionais como a movimentação de cargas e intermodalidade de transportes nas áreas dos Portos Secos, as atividades produtivas urbanas e regionais e a utilização dos Portos Secos, a concentração desses equipamentos nas periferias industriais urbanas das maiores cidades do país, a utilização do sistema viário principal urbano para a viabilização do transporte de cargas...
Modification of land use/land cover in South Florida has posed a major challenge in the region’s eco-hydrology by shifting the surface-atmosphere water and energy balance. Although drainage and development in South Florida took place extensively between the mid- and late- 20th century, converting half of the original Everglades into agricultural and urban areas, urban expansion still accounts for a dominant mode of surface cover change in South Florida. Changes in surface cover directly affect the radiative, thermophysical and aerodynamic parameters which determine the absorption and partitioning of radiation into different components at the Earth surface. The alteration is responsible for changing the thermal structure of the surface and surface layer atmosphere, eventually modifying surface-induced convection.
This dissertation is aimed at analyzing the extent and pattern of land cover change in South Florida and delineating the associated development of urban heat island (UHI), energy flux alteration, and convective rainfall modification using observed data, remotely sensed estimates, and modeled results.
Urban land covers in South Florida are found to have increased by 10% from 1974 to 2011. Higher Landsat-derived land surface temperatures (LST) are observed in urban areas (LSTu-r =2.8°C) with satisfactory validation statistics for eastern stations (Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient =0.70 and R2 =0.79). Time series trends...
Over the last century, the urban spatial
structure of cities has transformed dramatically from the
traditional monocentric configuration to varying forms of
decentralized organization. This paper reviews the theory
and empirical evidence to understand the urban morphology of
jobs and land use within a city. This survey highlights four
broad insights: (i) The evolution of monocentric to
polycentric centers has been accompanied by structural
changes in the city. (ii) The internal geography of a city
is an outcome of the trade-off between the pull from
agglomeration economies and the push from congestion. (iii)
The presence of externalities implies that the equilibrium
spatial organization achieved by profit-maximizing firms may
not necessarily be optimal. This justifies the role of
public policy in addressing the associated market failures.
(iv) The productive edge and competitiveness of a city can
be enhanced by introducing policies that increase the
overall connectivity to take advantage of economic
opportunities across the metropolitan area. The survey also
puts together a wide range of policy instruments that are
useful in closing the gap between equilibrium urban spatial
structure and the optimal outcome.
This study explores the complex process
of transit and land-use integration in rapidly growing
cities in developing countries. It first identifies barriers
to and opportunities for effective coordination of transit
infrastructure and urban development. It then recommends a
set of policies and implementation measures for overcoming
these barriers and exploiting these opportunities.
Well-integrated transit and land development create urban
forms and spaces that reduce the need for travel by private
motorized vehicles. Areas with good access to public transit
and well-designed urban spaces that are walkable and
bikeable become highly attractive places for people to live,
work, learn, play, and interact. Such environments enhance a
city's economic competitiveness, reduce local pollution
and global greenhouse gas emissions, and promote inclusive
development. These goals are at the heart of
transit-oriented development (TOD), an urban form that is
increasingly important to sustainable urban futures. This
book uses a case study approach. It draws lessons from
global best-case examples of transit-oriented metropolises
that have direct relevance to cities in developing countries
and elsewhere that are currently investing in bus rapid
transit (BRT) and other high-capacity transit systems. It
also reports the results of two original in-depth case
studies of rapidly growing and motorizing cities that
introduced extended BRT systems: Ahmedabad...
Land policy, administration and
management are areas of strong client demand for technical
advice and operational support. This review sought to help
the Bank better position itself to present coherent advice
on policy, institutional arrangements and practice. The
potential implications are a lowering of reputational risk
to the Bank; greater efficiency in the process including
joint data gathering; and building of greater momentum and
ownership of national land policy dialogues. The review
found that dialogues are not as divergent as initially
thought. Positions that are central to the Bank's
message on tenure security, land market efficiencies,
administrative integration, proactive and economically
efficient land use management and encouragement of rental
markets, all receive consonant reflection from the
prescriptive policy advice generated by the Bank. The review
notes that especially in democratic environments, policy
prescriptions are to be judged in the dynamics of political
economy and that land is one component where the bargaining
becomes most contested. Finally the review suggests the need
to go beyond the desk review that was possible in this
undertaking and to use more extensive consultations with
task team leaders and sector managers to convert the
background paper produced under the current exercise into a
position paper with a wider audience.
China has undergone a profound economic and social transformation as it moves from a centrally-planned to a market-oriented economy. Land issues are implicated in this ongoing transformation in numerous important ways - as key factors in China's quest for economic growth, national food security and social stability; as important influences in the rapid growth of China's cities as well as the future of its agriculture; and as central features in local government finance and in the growth and stability of the financial and banking sector. It is clear that decisions concerning land - how it is allocated, how it is used, how it is governed, how it is administered and how it is financed - will play a central role in determining the shape and trajectory of China's economic and social future. The purpose of this report is to present in a synthesised fashion the main lessons that have emerged so far from the World Bank collaboration, and on that basis to suggest concrete proposals for moving forward, in the short, medium and long term. In addition, land policy reforms have sought to put in place mechanisms, incentives and sanctions that will stimulate more rational allocation of land between competing land uses. Receiving particular attention from the central government in this respect has been the problem of accelerating conversion of agricultural land to urban uses.
This report evaluates the legal
framework for rural land rights, the regulations of rural
housing sites, the effects of land requisition on farmers
who lose land, and some selected issues affecting urban land
rights. The focus of this report is how to enhance property
rights in a number of different contexts. The report makes a
series of specific policy recommendations for rural
agricultural land, rural housing land, to protect rights in
the context of requisitions, and for urban land rights that
include: strengthening farmers' rights over rural
agricultural land, strengthening rights over rural housing
land, improving requisition procedures and outcomes, and
strengthening urban land use rights and administration.
In this paper, the main goal is to understand the relationship between urban growth and physical factors in order to determine the potential area for future urban expansion. A policy is suggested that could effectively sustain the archaeological sites and to balance the land use between urban and non-urban areas in Siem Reap, Cambodia. Remote sensing is used to analyze land use maps of Siem Reap from 1993 to 2011. Results show that urban-built up area increased significantly which causes the forest land to reduce in the Siem Reap archaeological sites. In addition, Geographic Information System (GIS) is used to analyze urban growth in potential suitable sites. Geo-processing and logical functions are applied to detect and quantify the land use changes, especially urban changes. The percentage of urban area in each year is compared with the population density and road buffers by using Pearson correlation. It is shown that the increasing in urban area is related with population density and road network factors.
Land cover plays a vital role in the chemistry and the quantity of runoff, and therefore can indirectly have an immense impact on the water quality of stream and river systems. Simulation models have become extremely useful tools available to watershed managers as geospatial environmental datasets become increasingly more available. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is a deterministic hydrologic model that can predict hydrologic conditions over various temporal and spatial scales. This project evaluates the accuracy of the SWAT model for the Upper Neuse River Basin, while comparing two land use scenarios in an effort to identify sensitive regions in the watershed. A regression analysis between observed and predicted stream velocity demonstrated that the initial model required calibration of stream parameters in order to more accurately model the natural system. After calibration, stream sedimentation values were compared by subbasin between a current (2001) and future (2010) land use scenario, in order to identify areas in the watershed that were the most susceptible to degradation via urbanization. Out of the 138 catchments delineated in the watershed, 29 experienced no relative change while the remaining 109 all displayed an increase in the relative difference of the sedimentation rate between scenarios. Subbasins with the greatest potential for degradation were identified and prioritized for conservation efforts or further analysis. The subbasins experiencing the highest increase in both the relative change as well as the percent change in sediment yield are all in either Wake or Durham County...
Modeling the effects of land use and land cover changes on water quality is important for watershed managers to better understand how human modifications to land surfaces may alter stream nutrient loads. One model available to resource managers for this purpose is the U.S. Geological Survey's SPARROW (Spatially Referenced Regressions on Watershed Attributes) model. SPARROW estimates total nitrogen and total phosphorus loads for watersheds by relating water quality information to nutrient sources, land-surface characteristics, stream connectivity, and downstream travel time. This project evaluates the pySPARROW model, which is an application of SPARROW written in the Python programming language for North Carolina's non-tidal stream network. By analyzing estimated nutrient loads of the Falls Lake subbasin under current land uses, this project assesses how well pySPARROW predicts the long term mean total nitrogen concentration. A regression analysis of the observed versus predicted total nitrogen concentrations shows that pySPARROW most likely needs to be recalibrated to improve its accuracy. The model is also used to assess watershed impacts of a development scenario under which forests and agricultural lands are converted to urban uses. Under this scenario...
Linking Land Use and Water Quality: Guiding Development Surrounding Durham County’s Drinking Watershed
By Katie Rose Levin
Cities and Counties have an obligation to provide water to their citizens in the quality and quantity necessary to support a viable existence. To meet these demands, in 1929 Durham City dammed the Flat River, creating the reservoir named “Lake Michie” in the far north eastern part of Durham County. Although located in a primarily rural area, there are signs that stormwater runoff is having detrimental effects on Lake Michie. The reservoir has already lost a quarter of its holding capacity to sedimentation, and was recently classified as Eutrophic by the USGS. Development pressure will only increase, as for the last ten years Durham County’s population has grown faster than the average across the state.
To address development concerns, Durham county and city created the Unified Development Ordinance (UDO) which provides enhanced protection for the land in the Lake Michie Watershed. The UDO limits the amount of impervious surface allowed on any one parcel in the watershed to 6%, while allowing a transfer of development between parcels to discourage urban sprawl. In addition to the protection afforded by codes...
Epilithic diatom communities offer a holistic and integrated approach for assessing water quality as they remain in one place for a number of months and reflect an ecological memory of water quality over a period of time. The objective of this study is to use diatom assemblages to distinguish between particular land types and associated water quality impacts that are linked to these land-use patterns. Water quality and diatom community data were collected from sites in the Crocodile and Magalies Rivers (Gauteng and North West Province, South Africa) associated with agricultural, urban and natural (reference) adjacent land use respectively. The data collected were subjected to multivariate statistical techniques to analyse spatial and temporal patterns in water quality (principal component analysis) and diatom community structures (non-metric multidimensional scaling) to elucidate hypothesised differences in community structure per land-use type. Five diatom response indices (Generic Diatom Index, Specific Pollution Sensitivity Index, Biological Diatom Index, Eutrophication/Pollution Index and Percentage Pollution Tolerant Valves) incorporated in the OMNIDIA software were implemented to assess the integrity of diatom communities per land-use type. Principle component ordination of water quality describes 56.6% of the variation in data observed...