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Monitoring and assessment of sustainable land management: overview of issues.

MACHADO, P. L. O. de A.
Fonte: In: WINSLOW, M.; SOMMER, S.; BIGAS, H.; MARTIUS, C.; VOGT, J.; AKHTAR-SCHUSTER, M.; THOMAS, R. (Ed.). Understanding desertification and land degradation trends. Luxembourg: European Commission Joint Research Centre, 2011. Publicador: In: WINSLOW, M.; SOMMER, S.; BIGAS, H.; MARTIUS, C.; VOGT, J.; AKHTAR-SCHUSTER, M.; THOMAS, R. (Ed.). Understanding desertification and land degradation trends. Luxembourg: European Commission Joint Research Centre, 2011.
Tipo: Artigo em anais de congresso (ALICE)
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.53%
Defining sustainable land management. A reference frame for the monitoring and assessment of sustainable land management. Advanced scientific methods for the monitoring and assessment of sustainable land management. Key natural resources underpinning sustainable land management. Water. Phosphorus. Soil organic carbon. Connections of monitoring and assessment of sustainable land management to climate change and biodiversity conventions.; 2011; Proceedings of the UNCCD First Scientific Conference, 22-24 September 2009, during the UNCCD Ninth Conference of Parties, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Mappig and monitoring land degradation risks in the western Brazilian Amazon using multitemporal landsat TM/ETM + IMAGES.

LU, D.; BATISTELLA, M.; MAUSEL, P.; MORAN, E.
Fonte: Land Degradation & Development, v. 18, p. 41-54, 2007. Publicador: Land Degradation & Development, v. 18, p. 41-54, 2007.
Tipo: Artigo em periódico indexado (ALICE)
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Mapping and monitoring land degradation in areas under human-induced stresses have urgent tasks in remote sensing whose importance has not yet been fully appreciated. In this study, a surface cover index (SCI) is developed to evaluate and map potential land degradation risks associated with deforestation and accompanying soil erosion in a Western Brazilian Amazon rural settlement study area. The relationships between land-use and land-cover (LULC) types and land degradation risks as well as the impacts of LULC change on land degradation are examined. This research indicates that remotely sensed data can be effectively used for identification and mapping of land degradation risks and monitoring of land degradation changes in the study area. Sites covered by mature forest and advanced successional forests have low land degradation risk potential, while some types of initial successional forests, agroforestry/perennial agriculture and pasture have higher risk potential. Deforestation and associated soil erosion are major causes leading to land degradation, while vegetation regrowth reduces such problems.; 2007

India - Land Policies for Growth and Poverty Reduction

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
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In India, land continues to be of enormous economic, social, and symbolic relevance. The main purpose of this report is to review new empirical evidence on land administration and land policy, as well as the possible interaction between the two, to derive policy conclusions. The empirical basis for the discussion of land administration is provided by a review of land records, survey and settlement, and land registration in 14 states. Chapter two describes the origin, nature, and main functions of current institutions and the ensuing problems for secure tenure and easy transferability of land. Chapter three identifies elements of a best practice approach to improving textual data (records and registration) and, based on a review of state experience, identifies the associated benefits. Chapter four reviews the extent to which lessons from improving textual records could help to give a boost to improvement of the spatial database for land administration. Chapter five concludes the discussion on land administration by assessing the scope for title registration to help improve tenure security in India and by identifying that need to be discussed. Chapter 6 highlights that land reform has helped increase accumulation of physical and human capital but that the impact is declining over time. Chapter 7 explores the functioning of land lease markets...

Reforming Supply of Policy Land in India : Policy Note

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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36.7%
This note summarizes the key findings of the attached consultant report. India is still primarily a rural, agrarian economy in which land use and land rights are an emotional issue. Prior to 1990 the presumption was that only residual land (non agricultural) would be made available for industrial use and because the state was the principal industrial investor the state would acquire any land needed. After 1990 the expectation was that private investors would act to acquire industrial land but a set of policy and institutional problems have left both investors and landholders unhappy and have impeded industrial development. This report documents the nature of the policy and institutional constraints to industrial land acquisition by the private sector and recommends policy changes to address them. The broad objectives of this study are to: identify issues related to availability of land for industry and those pertaining to purchase of land by private sector and/or purchase/acquisition of land by Government for private sector industrial investments; examine the related constraints that impede the functioning of an effective land market in the country and recommend possible solutions to address such constraints; and suggest alternatives for making suitable land available to private sector industrial investors with necessary social and environmental safeguards.

Land Titles, Investment, and Agricultural Productivity in Madagascar : A Poverty and Social Impact Analysis

Jacoby, Hanan; Minten, Bart
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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This report examines the question of land titling in Madagascar, a country where modern and informal tenure systems coexist and overlap to a significant extent. The report reviews three main arguments for land titling and their relevance for Madagascar in order to provide policy implications and evaluations. The first is that land titling serves as protection against expropriation. Second, titles may also facilitate land transactions. Last, that owning titled land improves access to formal credit or increases the volume of formal credit conditional on access. The report concludes that it is not obvious that expanded land titling, or community-based land registration, constitutes the best route to attaining distributional objectives, since wealth is increasing in landholdings. A cost benefit analysis based on the findings suggest that it would not be economical to expand the system of formal titling in rural Madagascar and that the three main arguments do not justify maintaining this system.

Land Tenure for Social and Economic Inclusion in Yemen : Issues and Opportunities

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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The report, Land Tenure for Social and Economic Inclusion in Yemen: Issues and Opportunities was completed in December 2009. The report addresses the problems of land ownership in Yemen and the various social and economic problems associated with the system of land ownership. Property rights under Yemeni Law are expressed both in custom and statute, but both are informed by shari a (Islamic law), which provides the basic property categories for land in Yemen. There are unfortunately no reliable official statistics for the amount of land within these categories, or how much arable land (a small percentage of total land area) falls within each. It is clear however that certain groups suffer from disadvantages in accessing land and land rights. Daughters are disadvantaged by shari a rules which limit their inheritance shares to only half that of a son. Youth, unable to inherit until the demise of their parents and lacking the capital to buy land, lack access to land and other employment opportunities, which endangers social stability. There are occupational castes (artisans) who are discriminated in land holdings and ethnic minorities...

Sri Lanka : Land and Conflict in the North and East

Korf, Benedikt; Lavadenz, Isabel
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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36.71%
This report analyzes land issues in Sri Lanka, which cannot be seen in isolation from the ethnic and political conflict and, at the same time, even though land conflict is often linked with the ethnic conflict in Sri Lanka, a large number of land conflicts in the North and East can be resolved prior to a full and national political solution to the ethnic situation. This report analyzes constraints and opportunities for an effective governance framework for land access and land tenure security in the conflict-affected areas of Sri Lanka, develops a comprehensive typology of land-related conflicts to inform policy dialogue and to identify types of conflict that may be resolvable in the current situation and to distinguish them from those which are not, identifies policy criteria to further ensure a conflict-sensitive approach in a post-conflict and post-tsunami context whereby regional, religious and ethnic balances in the allocation and/or restitution of land and property rights are to be addressed. The report synthesizes existing studies...

A Systemic Analysis of Land Markets and Land Institutions in West African Cities : Rules and Practices--The Case of Bamako, Mali

Durand-Lasserve, Alain; Durand-Lasserve, Maylis; Selod, Harris
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
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This paper presents a new type of land market analysis relevant to cities with plural tenure systems as in West Africa. The methodology hinges on a systemic analysis of land delivery channels, which helps to show how land is initially made available for circulation, how tenure can be formalized incrementally, and the different means whereby households can access land. The analysis is applied to the area of Bamako in Mali, where information was collected through (i) interviews with key informants, (ii) a literature review on land policies, public allocations, and customary transfers of land, (iii) a press review on land disputes, and (iv) a survey of more than 1,600 land transfers of un-built plots that occurred between 2009 and 2012. The analysis finds that land is mostly accessed through an informal customary channel, whereby peri-urban land is transformed from agricultural to residential use, and through a public channel, which involves the administrative allocation of residential plots to households. The integrated analysis of land markets and land institutions stresses the complexity of procedures and the extra-legality of practices that strongly affect the functioning of formal and informal markets and make access to land costly and insecure...

Indigenous land and community security: a (radical) planning agenda

Lane, Marcus B.
Fonte: Land Tenure Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison Publicador: Land Tenure Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison
Tipo: Relatório
Publicado em //2001 EN
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This paper argues that the capacity of indigenous groups to engage effectively in environmental planning activities, at different levels, is crucial to securing land justice and community security. This argument is made against the backdrop of tensions between indigenous peoples residing in post-settler societies and nation states such as Australia, Canada, and New Zealand over questions of resource sovereignty. The paper argues that effective planning is central to (i) successful acquisition of lands through legal land claim processes, (ii) protecting indigenous interests by engaging the planning activities of the state, and (iii) realization of community goals by establishment of effective community-based planning processes.; http://digital.library.wisc.edu/1793/21955; Marcus B. Lane

[Works on the Australian Aborigines by Charles P. Mountford]; Aboriginal paintings from Australia; Records of the American-Australian scientific expedition to Arnhem Land. Vol. 1, Art, myth and symbolism; Ayers Rock : its people, their beliefs and their art; Conception beliefs of the Australian Aborigines [manuscript]; Nomads of the Australian desert [manuscript]; Rainbow serpent myths of Australia; Tiwi : their art, myth and ceremony; Winbaraku and the myth of Jarapiri

Mountford, Charles P. (Charles Pearcy), 1890-1976; American-Australian Scientific Expedition to Arnhem Land (1948); International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences (9th : 1973 : Chicago, Ill.)
Fonte: 1976 Publicador: 1976
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 3318358 bytes; application/pdf
Publicado em //1976 EN
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A collection of monographs, created by a dedicated amateur ethnologist and anthropologist. Mountford developed his appreciation of Australian Aboriginal people and their customs, beliefs and art over many years of expeditions, making it his life's work. Although he didn't receive formal qualifications until later in life, Mountford conducted numerous expeditions to central Australia and Arnhem Land, including north east Arnhem Land. He was determined to record Aboriginal culture.; Thesis (D.Litt.)--University of Adelaide, 1976; Collective title supplied by cataloguer.; Includes bibliographical references and indexes.; Charles Pearcy Mountford (1890-1976), OBE, Dip. Anthrop. (Cantab), MA (Adel.), D. Litt (Melbourne and Adelaide), was an ethnologist and anthropologist who advanced from amateur status to become an important figure in the field of anthropology in Australia. He was born at Hallett in 1890. His field work was conducted in South Australia, Western Australia and the Northern Territory from 1925-1963. His published works were based on the journals and photographs he made on these expeditions. Mountford was a founding member, and later president of the Anthropological Society of SA; and founder of the Australian Anthropological Society in 1936.; 8 v. :; Title page...

An analysis of debates on the privatisation of communally owned Aboriginal land: a philosophical and historical contect

Lovell, Melissa E
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
Relevância na Pesquisa
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In October 2005, the Commonwealth government announced changes to the Land Rights Act 1976 (Cth) to allow for long term leasing (for up to 99 years) of whole townships on aboriginal land with the intention that leased towns could then be subleased to individuals and businesses. A key concern of the Commonwealth government was encouraging home ownership in aboriginal communities in the Northern Territory and providing security of tenure for the establishment of business . It should be noted that the current system of land tenure on aboriginal land in the Northern Territory is a communal form of ownership in which aboriginal land is held by a Land Trust for the benefit of all traditional owners of that land and traditional owners must agree to all leases of that land . The proposed amendment to the Land Rights Act would require traditional owner consent for the lease of aboriginal townships but not for individual sub-leases for business or housing . The announcement of changes to the Land Rights Act is only the latest episode in a fierce debate. Key aspects of this debate have included the appropriateness of communal ownership of aboriginal land in the Northern Territory and the potential of privatisation policies (such as the plan to develop individual subleased housing and business plots in towns) to deliver good economic and housing outcomes for aboriginal people in the Northern Territory. This report has sought to analyse and comment upon the current debate on privatisation of aboriginal land in the Northern Territory. It focused primarily on exploring current debates on land rights from a philosophical and historical perspective. In particular...

Land Policy Dialogues : Addressing Urban-Rural Synergies in World Bank Facilitated Dialogues in the Last Decade

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Infrastructure Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
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Land policy, administration and management are areas of strong client demand for technical advice and operational support. This review sought to help the Bank better position itself to present coherent advice on policy, institutional arrangements and practice. The potential implications are a lowering of reputational risk to the Bank; greater efficiency in the process including joint data gathering; and building of greater momentum and ownership of national land policy dialogues. The review found that dialogues are not as divergent as initially thought. Positions that are central to the Bank's message on tenure security, land market efficiencies, administrative integration, proactive and economically efficient land use management and encouragement of rental markets, all receive consonant reflection from the prescriptive policy advice generated by the Bank. The review notes that especially in democratic environments, policy prescriptions are to be judged in the dynamics of political economy and that land is one component where the bargaining becomes most contested. Finally the review suggests the need to go beyond the desk review that was possible in this undertaking and to use more extensive consultations with task team leaders and sector managers to convert the background paper produced under the current exercise into a position paper with a wider audience.

Insecurity of Land Tenure, Land Law and Land Registration in Liberia

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Agricultural Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.71%
To implement the vision of fostering economic development, social equity, and a transparent and effective government, the Government of Liberia has outlined key transitions that need to be accomplished. These include the development of infrastructure (roads, electricity), schools, job creation and transition from war, civil conflict and social polarization to a well functioning society in which economic opportunities are fostered and distributed equitably. Yet clearly, reform of the land tenure system is also a priority of Government. This is because effective land policy makes an enormous contribution to improve the investment climate of Liberia, ensure maximum use efficiency of land; increase land based revenues and improves equity in the access and use of land, thereby reducing social polarization and violence. Today, security of land tenure in today's Liberia is weak to non-existent. Some of the key problems include the following: a) the legal distinction between public land and tribal lands lacks clarity...

India : Land Policies for Growth and Poverty Reduction

World Bank
Fonte: New Delhi: Oxford University Press Publicador: New Delhi: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
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In India, land continues to be of enormous economic, social, and symbolic relevance. The way in which land can be accessed and its ownership documented is at the core of the livelihood of the large majority of the poor, especially in rural and tribal areas and determines the extent to which increasingly scarce natural resources are managed. Land policies and administration are critical determinants of the transaction cost associated with modalities to access land for productive, residential, and business use and, through the ease of using land as collateral for credit, the development of the financial sector. Land is also a major source of government revenue and a key element for implementing government programs. This implies that land policies and institutions will have a far-reaching impact on the ability to sustain India's current high rate of growth, the extent to which such growth reaches the poor, and the level and spatial distribution of economic activity. At the same time, the policies put in place by different states and the institutions tasked to implement them often fail to live up to the importance of the issue. In fact...

Colombia : Land Policy in Transition

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Rural Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.71%
Unequal land distribution and the negative social and economic implications resulting from such polarization in Colombia have long been of concern to policymakers. A 1950 World Bank mission identified unequal land distribution as a key impediment to economic and social development in the country. Since then, a wide range of policies has been adopted to deal with this issue and its consequences. Numerous studies show that the success of these policies was often limited by a combination of an inappropriate policy environment, limited financial resources, cumbersome processes loaded with bureaucratic obstacles, drug money, and violence. This report uses new empirical evidence to describe the dimensions and impact of the problem of land access and land distribution and past policies to deal with this issue, and to identify possible avenues to address land issues in an integrated manner in future interventions. It complements contemporaneous studies by the Bank on rural finance and agricultural competitiveness...

Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia : Options for Strengthening Land Administration

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: City Development Strategy (CDS)
ENGLISH,AMHARIC
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Over the coming decades, land policy and administration, for urban as well as rural areas, will be critical for Ethiopia's development. The vast majority of people making up the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia's (FDRE) predominantly agricultural economy live in rural areas. Finally, land policies and administration can contribute significantly to the objectives of promoting gender equality and protecting vulnerable groups in Ethiopia. This report aims to assist the government of Ethiopia in improving the performance of its land administration system based on a detailed review and lessons from Ethiopia and other countries. The three key areas for improvements and options for improving the land administration system summarized in the action matrix below are the: a) legal and regulatory framework; b) administrative capacity and organizational set-up; and, based on these, c) provision of efficient, cost-effective, and sustainable land administration services and land management.

Securing Africa's Land for Shared Prosperity : A Program to Scale Up Reforms and Investments

Byamugisha, Frank F. K.
Fonte: Washington, DC: Agence Française de Développement and the World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: Agence Française de Développement and the World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.71%
This is covers land administration and reform in Sub-Saharan Africa, and is highly relevant to all developing countries around the world. It provides simple practical steps to turn the hugely controversial subject of "land grabs" into a development opportunity by improving land governance to reduce the risks of dispossessing poor landholders while ensuring mutually beneficial investors' deals. This book shows how Sub Saharan Africa can leverage its abundant and highly valuable natural resources to eradicate poverty by improving land governance through a ten point program to scale up policy reforms and investments at a cost of USD 4.5 billion. And it`s points out formidable challenges to implementation including high vulnerability to land grabbing and expropriation with poor compensation as about 90 percent of rural lands in Sub Saharan Africa are undocumented, but also timely opportunities since high commodity prices and investor interest in large scale agriculture have increased land values and returns to investing in land administration. It argues that success in implementation will require participation of many players including Pan-African organizations...

Reflections on 20 Years of Land-Related Development Projects in Central America : 10 Things You Might Not Expect, and Future Directions

Siegel, P.B.; Childress, M.D.; Barham, B.L.
Fonte: International Land Coalition, Rome Publicador: International Land Coalition, Rome
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.66%
This paper takes a critical view of the challenges that lie ahead for land?related development projects in Central America. Drawing upon several sources of information and types of analysis, including literature reviews, field visits and rapid participatory assessments, along with decades of professional experience, the authors examine land-related development policies and projects over the past two decades in Central America (although monitoring and evaluation is admittedly weak). Reflections on past land?related development policies and projects in Central America are based on their contributions to growth and poverty reduction. The reflections, which are really stylized facts, are presented using a 'top ten list' of things that you might not expect from land policy reforms and projects in post?conflict Central America. In short, for a variety of initially unforeseen reasons, land?related development policies and projects have not fully lived up to expectations in terms of poverty reduction for rural residents...

The land where dreams come true

Ballesteros Velasquez, Claudia Bibiana
Fonte: Medicina Narrativa Publicador: Medicina Narrativa
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Artículo Formato: application/pdf
SPA
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Dicen por ahí que el que no sueña, no vive. Quizás por esto nos dejamos engañar por una idea, un pensamiento o una frase. La frase que muchos aspirantes y amantes de aventuras y de la vida, escuchan y se enamoran cuando llegan a Estados Unidos: “The land where dreams come true”. Comerciales, vallas, carteleras, anuncios, propagandas... Esta por todos lados. Hasta el aire parece tener algún químico, que produce un éxtasis y promueve la idea. ¡La tierra donde los sueños se hacen realidad! Desde el momento que pisas suelo americano, el cerebro y el corazón hacen un pacto misterioso. Y enseguida comienza esta obra maleficente, esta traición. Se produce esta idea y empezamos a sentirnos capaces de alcanzar todos los sueños, metas e ideas que alguna vez fueron inalcanzables. ¡Puff! como magia. Ya todo es posible y está al alcance de tus manos.

Land reform, regional planning and socioeconomic development in Brazil

Souza, Saulo
Fonte: University of Cambridge; Department of Land Economy; Darwin College Publicador: University of Cambridge; Department of Land Economy; Darwin College
Tipo: Thesis; doctoral; PhD
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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In this dissertation, we examine the socioeconomic impact of land reform schemes and discuss the policy implications of combining aspects of both state-led and market-based approaches to land reallocation through regional planning. We focus on land reform settlements in Northeast Brazil, where both approaches operated over the same time frame (1997-2002). Empirically, we identify the effects of various indicators on the socioeconomic growth of a sample of rural territories and localities, giving emphasis to the influence of the market-based Land Bill Programme (PCT) and the traditional state-led scheme (INCRA) on that growth through panel data analysis, cross-section regressions and field-based analysis. It has been concluded that: i) The scope for plan-led strategies towards sustainable development in the countryside has been given less than sufficient emphasis in the land reform literature; ii) There is not clear evidence that the market-based approach leads to higher socioeconomic growth regionally than does the state-led approach, or vice versa; iii) Although the market-based scheme contributed to improved access to title, the PCT settlements failed to impact positively settlers? welfare in the majority of sites; iv) Securing both higher access to land rights and better living conditions through land reform requires an approach that combines both state-led and market-based elements; v) Securing measurable positive impacts on the regional economy requires a land reform strategy that has a regional scope. As a policy implication...