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Método para prognóstico da produtividade da mão-de-obra e consumo unitário de materiais: sistemas prediais hidráulicos.; Method for the prognosis of productivity and the unitary consumption of materials: hydraulic building systems.

Paliari, José Carlos
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 18/01/2008 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.66%
Este trabalho tem como objetivo a elaboração de um método para se prognosticar a produtividade da mão-de-obra na execução dos sistemas prediais hidráulicos e o consumo unitário de materiais destes sistemas em dois momentos distintos: fase de viabilidade do empreendimento (método simplificado) e na fase de anteprojeto ou projeto de arquitetura (método analítico). São apresentados os fundamentos que nortearam a elaboração do método proposto, envolvendo a conceituação sobre produtividade da mão-de-obra, consumo unitário de materiais e sistemas prediais. Além destes fundamentos teóricos, faz-se o detalhamento do método de coleta e processamento das informações para a obtenção destes indicadores, abordando o planejamento da coleta de dados, a coleta de dados propriamente dita e seu processamento. Os resultados sobre a produtividade da mão-de-obra são relativos a quatro canteiros de obras localizados no Estado de São Paulo, enquanto que os resultados sobre o consumo unitário de materiais são frutos da análise e levantamento de informações de 12 projetos de sistemas prediais hidráulicos de edifícios residenciais de múltiplos pavimentos. Como contribuição desta tese destaca-se a obtenção de indicadores de produtividade da mão-de-obra considerando as tarefas e subtarefas inerentes à execução dos sistemas prediais...

Trabalho produtivo em Karl Marx: novas e velhas questões; Productive labour in Karl Marx: new and old issues

Cotrim, Vera Aguiar
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 17/09/2009 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.52%
Esta pesquisa examina a conceituação de Marx acerca do trabalho produtivo, tanto em suas determinações gerais, quanto como categoria econômica particular do modo de produção capitalista. Tem por objetivo, em primeiro lugar, explicitar o critério distintivo do trabalho produtivo com relação ao trabalho improdutivo na forma de sociabilidade capitalista, analisando a relação que ambas as categorias estabelecem com o capital social, bem como entre si. Com isso, pretende-se explicitar os fundamentos da unidade da classe trabalhadora e a base de sua oposição ao capital. Em segundo lugar, temos como finalidade expor as transformações concretas que o trabalho experimenta após a subsunção ao capital, em sua relação com a categoria de trabalho produtivo. Assim, abordamos o trabalho complexo e o trabalho imaterial como formas do trabalho produtivo para o capital, em sua conexão com o desenvolvimento da produtividade do trabalho social.; This research examines Marx conception of productive labour concerning both its general determination and its existence as a particular economic category of capitalist mode of production. Firstly, it is aimed at eliciting the distinctive criteria of productive labour with regard to unproductive labour in capitalist form of sociability and analyzing the relationship that both categories establish with social capital...

The employment situation in Latin America and the Caribbean: Labour productivity and distribution issues

Fonte: ECLAC; ILO Publicador: ECLAC; ILO
Tipo: Texto
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.73%
Although the economies of Latin America and the Caribbean grew more slowly in 2011 than in 2010, there were some improvements on the employment front. Workers benefited from the region’s satisfactory economic performance in an increasingly complex international setting. The unemployment rate fell from 7.3% in 2010 to 6.7% in 2011 thanks to a halfpercentage- point gain in the urban employment rate. Both rates are at levels that have not been seen for a long time. The proportion of formal jobs with social benefits rose as well, and underemployment declined. The average wage and the minimum wage both increased in real terms, albeit only moderately. Economic performance and the employment situation varied widely among the subregions. The unemployment rate dropped by 0.6 percentage points in South America but 0.4 percentage points in the countries of the northern part of Latin America. In the countries of the Caribbean, the employment rate was up by 0.2 percentage points. The data show that substantial labour market gaps and serious labour-market insertion issues remain. This is especially the case for women and young people, for whom unemployment rates and other labour indicators are still unfavourable. The second part of this report looks at whether the fruits of economic growth and rising productivity have been distributed equitably between workers and companies. Between 2002 and 2008 (the most recent expansionary economic cycle)...

Economic Performance under NAFTA : A Firm-Level Analysis of the Trade-Productivity Linkages

De Hoyos, Rafael E.; Iacovone, Leonardo
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.46%
Did the North American Free Trade Agreement make Mexican firms more productive? If so, through which channels? This paper addresses these questions by deploying an innovative microeconometric approach that disentangles the various channels through which integration with the global markets (via international trade) can affect firm-level productivity. The results show that the North American Free Trade Agreement stimulated the productivity of Mexican plants via: (1) an increase in import competition and (2) a positive effect on access to imported intermediate inputs. However, the impact of trade reforms was not identical for all integrated firms, with fully integrated firms (i.e. firms simultaneously exporting and importing) benefiting more than other integrated firms. Contrary to previous results, once self-selection problems are solved, the analysis finds a rather weak relationship between exports and productivity growth.

Creative Destruction and Policy Reforms : Changing Productivity Effects of Firm Turnoverin Moroccan Manufacturing

Hallward-Driemeier, Mary; Thompson, Fraser
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.52%
How important is firm turnover to national productivity growth? The literature points to the contribution of creative destruction being strongest in more developed countries or where market institutions are strongest. This paper looks at the case of Morocco, spanning 16 years, during which reform initiatives aiming to strengthen market forces were introduced. The paper argues that it is important to take into account i) the timing of how decompositions are structured (capturing the effects of high growth among young firms as part of the benefit of increased entry) and ii) the additional indirect impacts of firm dynamics on agglomeration externalities and competition. The paper shows there are striking differences in the productivity paths of entering and exiting firms compared with incumbents, and that restricting the time horizon of productivity decompositions to the actual year of entry or exit underestimates the productivity effects of turnover. Although it has been hypothesized that conducting decompositions over longer horizons would increase the positive contribution of net turnover...

Exports and Productivity – Comparable Evidence for 14 Countries

The International Study Group on Exports and Productivity
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.58%
The authors use comparable micro level panel data for 14 countries and a set of identically specified empirical models to investigate the relationship between exports and productivity. The overall results are in line with the big picture that is by now familiar from the literature: Exporters are more productive than non-exporters when observed and unobserved heterogeneity are controlled for, and these exporter productivity premia tend to increase with the share of exports in total sales; there is strong evidence in favour of self-selection of more productive firms into export markets, but nearly no evidence in favour of the learning-by-exporting hypothesis. The authors document that the exporter premia differ considerably across countries in identically specified empirical models. In a meta-analysis of their results the authors find that countries that are more open and have more effective government report higher productivity premia. However, the level of development per se does not appear to be an explanation for the observed cross-country differences.

Lao PDR - Labor Standards and Productivity in the Garments Export Sector : A Survey of Managers and Workers

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.77%
This report describes labor practices in the Lao garments export sector as seen by both management and labor. The main objective of this report is to present the differing perspectives on working conditions between managers and workers, and to explore ways in which the Lao garment sector could break out of this unsustainable situation. More specifically, insights on management practices, working conditions and worker motivation, as well as industry technology and workflow practices, are drawn from the survey and recommendations made on what firms, industry, government and development partners can do to boost productivity in the sector. This study seeks to investigate further possible factors contributing to low-productivity including management practices, working conditions and worker motivation, as well as industry technology and workflow practices. In order for the garment sector to progress, this study points to possibilities to increase worker wellbeing, reduce turnover and improve productivity through mutually reinforcing actions. Possible interventions include: a transition support program and improved labor market information systems to support labor force entry; better worker representation and dispute resolution mechanisms; and...

The Export-Productivity Link in Brazilian Manufacturing Firms

Cirera, X.; Lederman, D.; Máñez, J.A.; Rochina, M.E.; Sanchis, J.A.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.5%
This paper explores the link between exports and total factor productivity in Brazilian manufacturing firms over the period 2000–08. The Brazilian experience is instructive, as it is a case of an economy that expanded aggregate exports significantly, but with stagnant aggregate growth in total factor productivity. The paper first estimates firm-level total factor productivity under alternative assumptions (exogenous and endogenous law of motion for productivity) following a GMM procedure. In turn, the analysis uses stochastic dominance techniques to assess whether the ex ante most productive firms are those that start exporting (self-selection hypothesis). Finally, the paper tests whether exporting boosts firms’ total factor productivity growth (learning-by-exporting hypothesis) using matching techniques to control for the possibility that selection into exports may not be a random process. The results confirm the self-selection hypothesis and show that starting to export yields additional growth in total factor productivity that emerges since the firm’s first year of exporting but lasts only one year. Further...

Development of SMEs in the Indonesian economy

Hayashi, Mitsuhiro
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 133655 bytes; 360 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
EN_AU
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.45%
This paper examines the development of manufacturing SMEs (small- and medium-scale enterprises) in Indonesia during 1986-96, using unpublished data of BPS (Statistics Indonesia). The contribution of SMEs to total manufacturing value added has remained relatively small, but their contribution to the Indonesian economy in terms of employment generation is significant. The analysis suggests that, in broad terms, SMEs can coexist with LEs (large-scale enterprises), by producing a unit of output with less capital but more labour than LEs. Labour productivity in SMEs and LEs increased at a similar rate during the period under study. Increase in labour productivity of SMEs in the machinery industry was faster than in other main product sectors. SMEs in the machinery industry also increased their TFP markedly, compared with both SMEs in other sectors and LEs in the same sector. Overall, these results question whether subcontracting can support the development of SMEs and improve their performance.; no

Productivity and comparative advantage in rice agriculture in Southeast Asia since 1870

van der Eng, Pierre
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 253757 bytes; 369 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
EN_AU
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.57%
Rice long dominated the agricultural economies of Southeast Asia. Given the economic predominance of agriculture, the development of rice production had a significant bearing on the economies in the region. This article explains why the countries of mainland Southeast Asia long dominated the international rice market. It quantifies labour productivity in rice production and argues that simple, low-cost and labour-extensive, but low-yielding production technology allowed farmers in mainland Southeast Asia to achieve significantly higher levels of labour productivity than in the more densely populated rice-producing areas in Southeast Asia and Japan. High levels of labour productivity were a major source of comparative advantage in rice production for Burma, Thailand and Southern Vietnam.

Labour productivity and cyclical dynamics in the service sector

Maroto Sánchez, Andrés
Fonte: Universidad de Alcalá. Instituto Universitario de Análisis Económico y Social Publicador: Universidad de Alcalá. Instituto Universitario de Análisis Económico y Social
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.41%
Un hecho ampliamente documentado empíricamente es que la productividad aparente del trabajo decae durante las recesiones y crece en las expansiones económicas, es decir, tiene un comportamiento procíclico. A corto plazo, el crecimiento de la producción y la productividad tienden a moverse conjuntamente en la mayoría de países y sectores de actividad económica. En los últimos años, ha aumentado la importancia de esta observación, ya que las diferentes explicaciones que se han dado para esa prociclicidad tienen importantes implicaciones al modelizar el ciclo económico y estimar el cambio tecnológico. Eliminando la influencia del ciclo económico, es posible aislar los cambios estructurales, o crecimiento a largo plazo, de la productividad y analizar su papel en el crecimiento económico. El objetivo de este documento de trabajo es profundizar en los cambios a corto plazo del crecimiento de la productividad dentro de las actividades de servicios, necesariamente diferentes de aquellas dentro del sector manufacturero. Otros objetivos son estudiar si la prociclicidad se mantiene cuando el sector servicios es el centro de análisis, y si este hecho es homogéneo entre las diferentes ramas que lo componen. Se presenta evidencia empírica para el caso de la economía española durante el período 1980-2002.; A longstanding basis of empirical economics is that average labour productivity declines during recessions and increases during booms...

Spanish agricultural production and productivity 1890-1936

Simpson, James
Fonte: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid Publicador: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /12/1993 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.35%
In the first section new estimates for final agricultural output between 1892 and 1936 are presented. These indicate that only from 1909/13 did land and labour productivity start to increase. In the second section estimates for 1929/33 are provided on a provincial basis, and reasons why some of the major local differences occurred are suggested. Finally, the changes in regional productivity between 1909/13 and 1929/33 are shown, shedding light especially on the poor performance of Andalucian agriculture.

The Gender Gap in Agricultural Productivity; The Role of Market Imperfections

Palacios-López, Amparo; López, Ramón
Fonte: Taylor and Francis Publicador: Taylor and Francis
Tipo: Journal Article; Publications & Research; Publications & Research :: Journal Article
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.5%
This paper hypothesises that labour and credit market imperfections – by discouraging off-farm income-generating activities and restricting access to inputs, respectively – affect female farm productivity more deeply than male productivity. The paper develops a theoretical model, which decomposes the contribution of various market imperfections to the gender productivity gap. Empirically we show that agricultural labour productivity is, on average, 44 per cent lower on female-headed plots than on those managed by male heads. 34 per cent of this gap is explained by differences in labour market access and 29 per cent by differences in credit access.

Stylized Facts on Productivity Growth : Evidence from Firm-level Data in Croatia

Iootty, Mariana; Correa, Paulo; Radas, Sonja; Skrinjaric, Bruno
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.59%
Drawing on a representative sample of firms, this paper presents some microeconomic evidence on the productivity growth process in Croatia since the onset of recession (2008-12). Four types of results are highlighted. First, there is a persistent (and increasing) heterogeneity in the performance of Croatian firms along outcome measures. Second, Croatia lags behind regional peers in entrepreneurship measures, which suggests a comparatively lower economic dynamism. Third, the lack of dynamism displayed by the Croatian economy is confirmed when looking at the firm entry and exit process: the analytical results point to reduced firm dynamism compared with Croatia's peers in Europe and Central Asia. Fourth, the contribution of net entry to overall productivity growth in Croatia is surprisingly negative. This is contrary to what would be expected based on the literature and suggests that the process of "destructive creation" in Croatia has not been efficient, as the market might be eliminating firms that are potentially productive. Policies that foster market contestability should be pursued...

Social networks and labor productivity in Europe: an empirical investigation

Di Guilmi, C; Clementi, F; Di Matteo, Tiziana; Gallegati, M
Fonte: Springer Publicador: Springer
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.35%
This paper uses firm-level data recorded in the Amadeus database to investigate the distribution of labour productivity in different European countries. We find that the upper tail of the empirical productivity distributions follows a decaying power-law,

Electricity Diffusion and Trend Acceleration in Inter-War Manufacturing Productivity

Ristuccia, Cristiano A.; Solomou, Solomos
Fonte: Universidade de Cambridge Publicador: Universidade de Cambridge
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: 172080 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
EN_GB
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.48%
This paper evaluates the link between the diffusion of electricity and the increase in labour productivity growth in the manufacturing sector during the inter-war period. A comparative analysis of the USA, Britain, Germany, and Japan shows that the trend acceleration in labour productivity is common to all these countries except Germany and is correlated with electricity diffusion. Germany? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ??? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ??? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ??s labour productivity growth was nevertheless sustained in 1925 - 1938. The USA saw an earlier acceleration because the diffusion of electricity-based general-purpose technologies in production was much faster than in the other countries examined.

Long and short-term effects of the financial crisis on labour productivity, capital and output

Oulton, Nicholas; Sebastiá-Barriel, María
Fonte: Centre for Economic Performance, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Centre for Economic Performance, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /01/2013 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.5%
The behaviour of labour productivity in the United Kingdom since the onset of the recessionin early 2008 constitutes a puzzle. Over four years after the recession began labourproductivity is still below its previous peak level. This paper considers the hypothesis thateconomic capacity can be permanently damaged by financial crises. A model which allows afinancial crisis to have both a short-run effect on the growth rate of labour productivity and along-run effect on its level is estimated on a panel of 61 countries over 1955-2010. The mainfinding is that a banking crisis as defined by Reinhart and Rogoff on average reduces theshort-run growth rate of labour productivity by between 0.6 and 0.7 per year and thelong-run level by between 0.84 and 1.1 (depending on the method of estimation), foreach year that the crisis lasts. A banking crisis also reduces the long-run level of capital perworker by an average of about 1. The effect on GDP per capita is about double the effecton GDP per worker since there is a long-run, negative effect on the employment ratio.

Productivity loss due to premature mortality caused by blood cancer: a study based on patients undergoing stem cell transplantation

Ortega-Ortega,Marta; Oliva-Moreno,Juan; Dios Jiménez-Aguilera,Juan de; Romero-Aguilar,Antonio; Espigado-Tocino,Ildefonso
Fonte: Gaceta Sanitaria Publicador: Gaceta Sanitaria
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; journal article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: text/html; application/pdf
Publicado em 01/06/2015 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.6%
Introduction: Stem cell transplantation has been used for many years to treat haematological malignancies that could not be cured by other treatments. Despite this medical breakthrough, mortality rates remain high. Our purpose was to evaluate labour productivity losses associated with premature mortality due to blood cancer in recipients of stem cell transplantations. Methods: We collected primary data from the clinical histories of blood cancer patients who had undergone stem cell transplantation between 2006 and 2011 in two Spanish hospitals. We carried out a descriptive analysis and calculated the years of potential life lost and years of potential productive life lost. Labour productivity losses due to premature mortality were estimated using the Human Capital method. An alternative approach, the Friction Cost method, was used as part of the sensitivity analysis. Results: Our findings suggest that, in a population of 179 transplanted and deceased patients, males and people who die between the ages of 30 and 49 years generate higher labour productivity losses. The estimated loss amounts to over €31.4 million using the Human Capital method (€480,152 using the Friction Cost method), which means an average of €185,855 per death. The highest labour productivity losses are produced by leukaemia. However...

Determinants of labour productivity convergence in the european agricultural sector

Cuerva,María Carmen
Fonte: Colegio de Postgraduados Publicador: Colegio de Postgraduados
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.53%
The EU agriculture, in spite of the market integration process, shows important differences in terms of productivity and efficiency. It is thus important to determine whether there is a convergence process in agricultural productivity and what factors would explain the observed disparities. To respond to these two questions, the dynamic of the agricultural labour productivity of 125 EU regions was analysed. The methodology was an estimation of the convergence equation with cross-section data for the period 1985-2004. The results showed that there is a very slow process of absolute convergence in productivity among the EU agricultures. Besides, productivity growth is related to agricultural out-migration and higher levels of physical capital. On the contrary, Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) support to the agricultural sector does not seem to have contributed to the productivity growth.

Productivity loss due to premature mortality caused by blood cancer: a study based on patients undergoing stem cell transplantation

Ortega-Ortega,Marta; Oliva-Moreno,Juan; Dios Jiménez-Aguilera,Juan de; Romero-Aguilar,Antonio; Espigado-Tocino,Ildefonso
Fonte: Ediciones Doyma, S.L. Publicador: Ediciones Doyma, S.L.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.6%
Introduction: Stem cell transplantation has been used for many years to treat haematological malignancies that could not be cured by other treatments. Despite this medical breakthrough, mortality rates remain high. Our purpose was to evaluate labour productivity losses associated with premature mortality due to blood cancer in recipients of stem cell transplantations. Methods: We collected primary data from the clinical histories of blood cancer patients who had undergone stem cell transplantation between 2006 and 2011 in two Spanish hospitals. We carried out a descriptive analysis and calculated the years of potential life lost and years of potential productive life lost. Labour productivity losses due to premature mortality were estimated using the Human Capital method. An alternative approach, the Friction Cost method, was used as part of the sensitivity analysis. Results: Our findings suggest that, in a population of 179 transplanted and deceased patients, males and people who die between the ages of 30 and 49 years generate higher labour productivity losses. The estimated loss amounts to over €31.4 million using the Human Capital method (€480,152 using the Friction Cost method), which means an average of €185,855 per death. The highest labour productivity losses are produced by leukaemia. However...