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The portuguese active labour market policy during the period 1998-2003 - a comprehensive conditional difference-in-difference application

Nunes, Alcina; Teixeira, Paulino
Fonte: Gabinete de Estratégia e Estudos e Gabinete de Planeamento, Estratégia, Avaliação e Relações Internacionais Publicador: Gabinete de Estratégia e Estudos e Gabinete de Planeamento, Estratégia, Avaliação e Relações Internacionais
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.46%
In most studies in the literature only the participation in a single programme versus non-participation is evaluated. This approach, however, does not address the needs of a comprehensive evaluation of an active public intervention in the labour market. Active labour market programmes, like the Portuguese, are not restricted to a particular measure. Rather, in most cases, the public employment service offers a wide variety of programmes to the universe of potential participants. In this context, the issue is participation in one programme versus participation in an alternative programme. In particular, it is appropriate to investigate which programme presents a higher causal effect. Imbens (2000) and Lechner (2001) extended the traditional matching methodology to a context of multiple programme participation. The approach followed in this paper intends to go even further. Indeed, since the traditional matching methodology, which considers the conditional independence assumption, is not appropriate in the context of the Portuguese labour market analysis, we will adopt the assumption of the bias stability. Taking into consideration the selection on unobservables, the matching methodology, combined with the difference-in-differences methodology...

Linkages between pro-poor growth, social programmes and labour market : the recent Brazilian experience

Kakwani, Nanak
Fonte: Escola de Pós-Graduação em Economia da FGV Publicador: Escola de Pós-Graduação em Economia da FGV
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.49%
From a methodological point of view, this paper makes two contlibutions to the literature. One contribution is the proposal of a new measure of pro-poor growth. This new measure provides the linkage between growth rates in mean income and in income inequality. In this context, growth is defined as pro-poor (or anti-poor) if there is a gain (or loss) in the growth rate due to a decrease (or increase) in inequality. The other contribution is a decomposition methodology that explores linkages between three dimensions: growth pattems, labour market performances. and social policies. Through the decomposition analysis, growth in per capita income is explained in terms of four labour market components: the employment rate. hours of work, the labour force participation rate. and productivity. We also assess the contribution of different nonlabour income sources to growth patterns. The proposed methodologies are then applied to the Brazilian National Household Survey (PNAD) covering the period 1995-2004. The paper analyzes the evolution of Brazilian social indicators based on per capita income exploring links with adverse labour market performance and social policy change, with particular emphasis on the expansion of targeted cash transfers and devising more propoor social security benefits.

O mercado de trabalho privado não-agricola no Brasil de 1995 a 2005 e as implicações para o financiamento do Regime Geral da Previdencia Social; The private non-agricultural labour market in Brazil from 1995 to 2005 and the implications for the financing conditions of the Regime Geral da Previdencia Social (RGPS)

Carolina Verissimo Barbieri
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 14/02/2007 PT
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66.51%
Este trabalho tem por objetivo explicitar a correlação entre o mercado de trabalho privado não-agrícola e as condições de financiamento do Regime Geral da Previdência Social (RGPS). É possível provar que a evolução do desequilíbrio entre a arrecadação sobre folha salarial e o gasto com benefícios pagos aos trabalhadores do setor privado foi fortemente determinada pelas modificações ocorridas no mundo do trabalho ao longo dos anos 1990 e início dos anos 2000. Observa-se que a base mais importante de contribuição para o Orçamento da Seguridade Social, o mercado de trabalho, vem sendo corroída ao longo dos anos 1990 e início dos anos 2000. Essa corrosão teve como principais causas, não a diminuição relativa do número de ocupados contribuintes para a previdência entre 1995 e 2005, mas sim a queda real dos rendimentos do trabalho e a inserção de pessoas economicamente ativas em postos de trabalho pior remunerados do que antigamente; This study has as objective to demonstrate the correlation between the private non-agricultural labour market and the financing conditions of the Regime Geral da Previdência Social (RGPS). It is possible to prove that the evolution of the disequilibrium between the sum of contributions based on wages and the expenditure with benefits to the private sector workers was strongly determined by the changes in the labour market throughout the 1990?s and the beginning of 2000?s. The most important base of contribution for the Social Security Budget...

Manufacturing employment and exchange rates in the Portuguese economy : the role of openness, technology and labour market rigidity

Alexandre, Fernando; Bação, Pedro; Silva, João C. Cerejeira da; Portela, Miguel
Fonte: Universidade do Minho. Núcleo de Investigação em Políticas Económicas (NIPE) Publicador: Universidade do Minho. Núcleo de Investigação em Políticas Económicas (NIPE)
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Publicado em //2010 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.55%
Integration into the world economy, specialization in low-technology sectors and labour market rigidity have been singled out as structural features of the Portuguese economy that are crucial for the understanding of its performance. In this paper, we explore empirically the role of openness, technology and labour market rigidity in the determination of the effect of the exchange rate on the dynamics of employment in Portugal. Our estimates indicate that employment in low-technology sectors with a high degree of trade openness and facing less rigidity in the labour market is more sensitive to movements in exchange rates. Therefore, our results provide additional evidence on the relevance of those structural features for explaining the evolution of the Portuguese economy in the last decades. In this paper the degree of labour market rigidity is measured at the sector level by means of a novel index. According to this index, high-technology sectors face less labour market rigidity. These sectors are also more exposed to international competition. However, the bulk of employment destruction has occurred in low-technology sectors. This suggests that productivity/technology may be the key variable to reduce the economy´s exposure to external shocks.; Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT) - Programa Operacional Ciência e Inovação 2010 (POCI 2010); Fundo Europeu de Desenvolvimento Regional (FEDER)

Children and the changing labour market: joblessness in families with dependent children

Gregory, R.G
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 92144 bytes; application/pdf
EN_AU
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.51%
For many Australians the labour market has become a less friendly place over the last two decades. One source of tension is the loss of full-time jobs. Since August 1975 the full-time employment-population ratio has fallen by 26 per cent among men and increased only one per cent among women. There has, however, been considerable part-time employment growth but not sufficient to offset full-time job losses.

The young have been particularly affected by this job loss and there are numerous studies of teenage unemployment. It is noticeable, however, that less attention has been directed to the impact of inadequate employment growth on families with dependent children.

Our objective in this essay is to move the focus away from measuring child poverty and direct it towards the fundamental labour market and social changes that are generating the rapid growth of government income support for children. The first question is to what extent has inadequate job growth over the last two decades found its way into families with dependent children? This is not a difficult question to answer and we provide the basic facts. Other subsequent questions that might be posed are more difficult. Why has so much joblessness located in families with dependent children...

School achievement and labour market outcomes

Marks, Gary; Ainley, John
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 72430 bytes; application/pdf
EN_AU
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.46%
Literacy and numeracy skills, it has been argued, influence labour market outcomes such as earnings and unemployment. However, achievement in these foundation skills at school has seldom been used in investigations of unemployment. Longitudinal data allow the effects of earlier school achievement to be investigated net of background factors. Higher qualifications are associated with lower levels of unemployment and higher earnings but it has not been established whether this arises from the qualifications themselves or because more academically able young people tend to obtain higher qualifications. Longitudinal data are required to investigate the extent to which qualifications influence employment and earnings.

In addition many aspects of social background and environments are associated with school achievement, school completion and labour market outcomes (Williams, 1989). For that reason the effects of factors such as age, aspects of social background and prevailing level of unemployment need to be incorporated in investigations of labour market outcomes. This paper reports on analyses of the influence of various factors, including school achievement and attainment, on the employment and earnings of young adults. It uses longitudinal data from four cohorts of young people who were followed from school into their twenties over the 1980s and 1990s. More detailed analyses are reported in two research reports (Marks & Fleming...

Competing with dad: changes in the intergenerational distribution of male labour market income

Gregory, R.G
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 72715 bytes; application/pdf
EN_AU
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.69%
Two decades ago a discussion of the interactions between expenditure on the welfare system and labour market changes would have focussed on the impact of changing unemployment levels. Today, the unemployment-welfare expenditure link is still important but another factor has been added. Increasingly welfare policy discussions are focussing on the relationship between wage changes and welfare payments. There are three important recurring themes.

First, the labour market has been generating wage falls among the low paid and changing the financial balance between low wages and social security benefits. After long periods of high unemployment, particularly long term unemployment, questions are increasingly raised as to whether a significant proportion of unemployment may be attributable to unemployment benefits that are too generous relative to employment at low wages.

Second, there are increasing calls to adopt labour market policies to weaken centralised wage fixing and unions and, in this way, encourage low wages to fall further. In order to avoid the rapid growth of the working poor that may result from these initiatives, it is often suggested that labour market deregulation policies should be accompanied by income subsidies for the low paid. Under these circumstances...

Labour market outcomes in the UK, NZ, Australia and the US: observations on the impact of labour market and economic reforms

Gregory, R.G
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 65331 bytes; application/pdf
EN_AU
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.58%
There is no doubt that large changes in government policy towards economic reform are vitally important: some two decades ago Myanmar (Burma) was among the Asian nations with the highest per capita income but, by turning away from economic reform, government policy prevented the economy from opening to the world, accepting foreign investment and developing a free enterprise culture. As a result Myanmar has not shared in the rapid rise in income in Asia. China is another example. Once economic reform began and international trade and domestic product markets were liberalised, economic growth began to proceed quite rapidly. But how much influence do less radical shifts in economic reform policy have on the macro economies of mature democracies with a high standard of living? Do increases in the pace of reform deliver a noticeable increase in the rate of economic growth in countries such as New Zealand, Australia and the UK?

Once the task of assessing the impact of economic reforms is begun a number of important lessons are learnt very quickly. Perhaps the most important is that assessment is not a straightforward exercise.

The isolation of reform impacts is a difficult problem that is often handled by construction of a computer model of the pre-reform economy that is then subject to the reform change and the reform results simulated. The obvious inadequacy with this approach is that the model is often designed to deliver good results from the reforms. The arguments for reforms and the design of the model are based on the same theoretical view of the economy. The counterfactual problem therefore will always remain.

In this paper we focus on labour market and economic reforms and their impact on economic growth...

The Effects of Social and Labour Market Policies of EU-countries on the Socio-Economic Integration of First and Second Generation Immigrants from Different Countries of Origin

FLEISCHMANN, Fenella; DRONKERS, Jaap
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: 590396 bytes; application/pdf; digital
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.49%
In this article, we analyse four different dimensions of socio-economic integration of first and second generation immigrants into the labour markets of 13 EU countries and we assess, taking into account a number of individual characteristics, the effects of the countries of origin and the countries of destination on this integration. We find that participation in the labour market, unemployment, occupational status and the chances of reaching the upper middle-class are different, although interrelated, dimensions of the socio-economic integration of immigrants and they work differently for men and women. In the countries of destination, the level of employment protection legislation and the conservative welfare regime affect this integration negatively. Most indicators of national policies aimed at the integration of immigrants have no effects on the socio-economic integration of immigrants. Furthermore, we find a number of origin effects which continue to have an impact on second generation immigrants. Political stability and political freedom in origin countries have positive and negative effects on socio-economic integration. The emigration rate of the origin countries has a negative effect. The higher levels of socio-economic integration amongst immigrants from other EU-countries demonstrates the functioning of the European Union as an integrated labour market .Controlling for individual religious affiliation turns out to be very useful...

Informal Labour Market Governance: The Case of the British and German Media Production Industries

BAUMANN, Arne
Fonte: Sage Publications Ltd Publicador: Sage Publications Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.55%
This article is concerned with labour market transactions in the occupational labour markets (OLM) of the media production industries of Germany and the UK. In both countries, labour markets are characterized by a high inter-firm mobility of workers and patterns of short-term employment and freelance work. In this environment, missing standards produce uncertainty about skill levels of workers and qualification needs of firms, As a result, co-operation costs increase and opportunism becomes possible. It will be argued that, in the absence of manifest labour market institutions such as apprenticeships or skill certificates, which traditionally safeguard OLM transactions, the use of intermediaries and restriction of access will take over as informal mechanisms for governing the labour market. Labour market data from interviews with media firms in Germany and the UK and from surveys on German and British media professionals, are used in order to test this hypothesis.

Immigrant Performance in the Labour Market: Bonding and bridging social capital

LANCEE, Bram
Fonte: AUP Publicador: AUP
Tipo: Livro
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.58%
To what extent can different forms of social capital help immigrants make headway on the labour market? An answer to this pressing question begins here. Taking the Netherlands and Germany as case studies, the book identifies two forms of social capital that may work to increase employment, income and occupational status and, conversely, decrease unemployment. New insights into the concepts of bonding and bridging arise through quantitative research methods, using longitudinal and cross-sectional data. Referring to a dense network with ‘thick’ trust, bonding is measured as family ties, coethnic ties and trust in the family. Bridging is seen in terms of inter-ethnic ties, thus implying a crosscutting network with ‘thin’ trust. Immigrant Performance in the Labour Market reveals that although bonding allows immigrants to get by, bridging enables them to get ahead.; Preface Abstract List of figures List of tables --1. Introduction and research questions Research questions Structure of the book --2. Social capital theory Introduction Collective versus individual-level social capital Bonding social capital Bridging social capital Conclusion --3. Immigrants in Germany and the Netherlands Introduction Migration history and background of the ethnic groups included Immigration regime and integration policy The labour market Social capital in Germany and the Netherlands The economic returns of immigrants’ social capital in Germany and the Netherlands Differences and similarities in the macro context --4. Immigrants’ social capital and labour market outcomes Introduction Labour market outcomes Hypotheses referring to bridging Hypotheses referring to bonding Human capital Social capital and labour market outcomes for men and women Conclusion --5. The case of the Netherlands Introduction Data and measurement Results Conclusion --6. The case of Germany Introduction Data and measurement Results Conclusion --7. Inter- and intra-ethnic friendships and unemployment duration for Turkish immigrants and native Germans Introduction Hypotheses Data and measurement Conclusion --8. Conclusions on immigrants’ bonding and bridging social capital Overview Findings Open questions Appendix The measurement of social capital using cumulative scaling References; (Published version of EUI PhD thesis...

Desarrollo de una aplicación ontológica para evaluar el mercado de trabajo español en Biblioteconomía y Documentación; An ontological method for evaluating the Spanish labour market in Library and Information Science

Moreiro González, José Antonio; Sánchez Cuadrado, Sonia; Morato Lara, Jorge Luis; Moreno, Valentín
Fonte: CSIC Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas Publicador: CSIC Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; info:eu-repo/semantics/article
Publicado em //2009 SPA
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.51%
La tarea de evaluar la adecuación de las habilidades y competencias profesionales de los estudiantes de Biblioteconomía y Documentación es necesaria para el diseño de los planes de estudio de la especialidad. Sin embargo, esta labor conlleva un gran esfuerzo a los investigadores. Para facilitar el estudio se ha diseñado una metodología que simplifica su estudio periódico. Para validar la metodología se ha recopilado un corpus con los planes de estudio de la titulación y otro corpus formado por ofertas de empleo. A partir del corpus procedente de los planes de estudio se ha creado un tesauro que muestra la terminología del dominio. Con dicho tesauro se ha indizado automáticamente las ofertas de empleo. La comparación estadística entre los términos de las ofertas y los planes de estudio denota necesidades y carencias en la adecuación de los planes de estudio a las ofertas de trabajo. La metodología empleada permite presentar, de forma coherente y periódica la adecuación de planes de estudios a las demandas del mercado laboral. La comparación con estudios previos ha validado la idoneidad de la propuesta.; The assessment of how well the skills and professional competence of students of Library and Information Science meet current labour market demands is necessary for the design of appropriate curricula. Such work...

The Migrant Worker Factor in Labour Market Policy Reform

DEVITT, Camilla
Fonte: Sage Publications Ltd Publicador: Sage Publications Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.51%
Research on labour market policy reform in Western Europe has given insufficient attention to the 'migrant worker factor'. Concerns about reduced availability of migrant workers, as well as more traditional concerns regarding labour market competition and socio-cultural integration, can catalyze a shift in labour market policy. I present recent cases of reform in the vocational education and training arena in Ireland and the UK, which were partly stimulated by these concerns. It appears that the 'migrant worker factor' contributes to labour market policy reforms which increase the role of the state in the economy.

Labour market outcomes and Egypt's migration potential

AMER, Mona; FARGUES, Philippe
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.49%
Will the radical political changes Egypt has gone through since early 2011 have an impact on emigration from the country? This all depends on young Egyptian adults, who are the potential migrants of tomorrow. In order to understand the consequences of the Egyptian revolution might for migration, a questionnaire survey was conducted amongst Egyptian youth in 2013. The objective of this paper is to analyse the Egyptian labour market together with Egyptian migration to see whether changing conditions in the labour market, in particular after the revolution of 25 January 2011, may affect migration. This study is divided into three parts. The first analyses recent trends – from 2007 to 2011 – of the labour market and in particular the evolution of the labour force in terms of participation rate and unemployment rate according to gender, age group and educational level. The second part outlines the demographic and socio-economic characteristics of Egyptian migrants, in general, and according to region of migration (Gulf Cooperation Countries and other Arab countries as opposed to OECD countries). It also presents an analysis of unemployment against the education and skill levels of Egyptian migrants. Finally, the last part presents the findings of a survey on orientation towards migration of Egyptian youth. This survey was designed by the Migration Policy Centre and was conducted through phone interviews by the Egyptian Centre for Public Opinion Research (Baseera) in 2013.

Arbeitsmarktpolitische Wandlungsfähigkeit : Dänemark, die Niederlande und die Bundesrepublik Deutschland im Vergleich; Mutability of labour market policy : Danmark, the Netherlands and the Federal Republic of Germany in comparision

Zaiser, Helmut
Fonte: Universität Tübingen Publicador: Universität Tübingen
Tipo: ResearchPaper; info:eu-repo/semantics/other
DE_DE
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.56%
Die positive Beschäftigungs- und Arbeitsmarktentwicklung in Dänemark und den Niederlanden lässt sich unter anderem auf einen beschäftigungspolitisch und wohlfahrtsstaatlich eingebetteten Wandel der Arbeitsmarktpolitik zurückführen. Das Fehlen eines solchermaßen qualifizierbaren arbeitsmarktpolitischen Wandels in der Bundesrepublik kann als eine Ursache für die vergleichsweise schlechte Arbeitsmarkt- und Beschäftigungsperformanz sowie als ein Bestandteil des allgemeinen politischen Immobilismus in Deutschland betrachtet werden. Im vorliegenden Beitrag erfolgt eine begrifflich-konzeptionelle Erfassung des Politikfeldes 'Arbeitsmarktpolitik' und ein Vergleich der jeweiligen Arbeitsmarktpolitiken. Dessen Gegenstand ist die komparative Konstrastierung von Wandel und Beständigkeit der verschiedenen Formen von Arbeitsmarktpolitik. Auf dieser Grundlage werden Erklärungsfaktoren für die unterschiedliche Fähigkeit zum arbeitsmarktpolitischen Wandel in den drei Vergleichsländern herausgerarbeitet.; The positive development of occupation and job market in Denmark and the Netherlands can be attributed among other things to occupation-policy and welfare-state-politics embedded change of the labour market policy. The absence of a qualifyable change in labour market policy of the Federal Republic of Germany can be regarded as a cause for comparatively bad performance of labour market and employment as well as a constituent of the general political immobilism in Germany. In this article a conceptual-conceptional entry of the political field 'labour market policy' and a comparison of the respective labour policies of three compared countries take place. On this basis assertion factors for the different ability to change the labour market.are worked out.

The changing pattern of immigrants' labour market experiences

Cobb Clark, Deborah A; Chapman, Bruce
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 172126 bytes; application/pdf
EN_AU
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.6%
This report extends the initial analysis of the first wave of the Longitudinal Survey of Immigrants to Australia (LSIA) conducted in 1995. Most immigrants in the survey have been interviewed a second time, starting in March of 1995 (approximately 18 months after arrival), and it is now possible to begin to assess what has happened to them over the first year and a half of the settlement process.

The analysis is concerned with changes in immigrant labour market outcomes, and how these are related to, among other things, visa category, State/Territory of residence, age, gender, educational level, marital status, English language ability, and whether or not an immigrant visited Australia prior to migration. Extensive cross-tabulations are reported, and these results are supplemented with regression analysis.

Chapter 2 examines changes in the labour market status of immigrants. Both participation and employment rates are associated with location, demographic and human capital characteristics, and visa category. In particular, immigrants in Queensland have better outcomes than others, and English language ability is critical. So too are pre migration experiences – immigrants who visited Australia prior to migration have much more successful labour market outcomes than others. This latter finding is important because it has not received attention before...

Issues in labour market statistics; The new indicators, a review; The new indicators, an alternative interpretation; Beyond NEET's

STYLIANIDOU, NIKI
Fonte: La Sapienza Universidade de Roma Publicador: La Sapienza Universidade de Roma
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.55%
It is a collection of three distinct documents about the labour market indicators within the official statistics framework. The first two documents are about the new supplementary to unemployment indicators. Limits are important to respect but also a new dual interpretation of the labour market is possible. There are two types of persons regardless if they work or not: the ones that are happy with their labour status and the ones that are not happy. This in now possible to say with the unemployment halos indicators. An application of the proposed approach is given, using the Italian longitudinal data of the Labour Force Survey for the years 2004 until 2010. Transition matrices and the 6 year dynamic matrix have been produced using the new indicators. The Italian labour force steady state is given. On the last document it is proposed a new composite indicator alternative to the NEET one. The motivating reasons are in the document.

The Tendencies in the Woman Employment in Brazilian Labour Market between the Years 2004-2012 : Examining the Gender Pay Gap = As tendências do emprego da mulher no mercado de trabalho brasileiro entre os anos de 2004- 2012: examinando as disparidades salariais de gênero; As tendências do emprego da mulher no mercado de trabalho brasileiro entre os anos de 2004- 2012 : examinando as disparidades salariais de gênero

Basak Kocadost
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 19/11/2014 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.55%
O Brasil experimentou grandes mudanças socio-econômicas durante a primeira década do século 21, especialmente a partir do ano 2004, e mesmo depois da crise financeira nos anos de 2008 e 2009, que terminou por melhorar as condições dos trabalhadores de uma maneira geral. No entanto, apesar dos avanços notáveis gerais nesse período, tais como a criação de novos postos de trabalho em número elevado, o declínio da taxa de desemprego e um aumento significativo do salário mínimo real, o mercado de trabalho brasileiro ainda está muito desigual. A taxa de emprego das mulheres não mudou significativamente nesse período, aumentando de 54,4% em 2004 para apenas 55,7% em 2012. Além disso, a taxa de desemprego das mulheres é quase duas vezes maior do que a dos homens e as mulheres ainda constituem a grande maioria da população não economicamente ativa. Uma vez que o mercado de trabalho brasileiro tem sido historicamente caracterizado como heterogêneo e segregado, ganha importância examinar o desempenho de diferentes segmentos do mercado de trabalho nesse período e reconsiderar a dinâmica recente do mercado de trabalho em termos de diferentes grupos sociais. Neste trabalho, tratou-se em termos de desigualdade de gênero...

The Inter-generational costs of flexicurity, labour market transitions of young workers in nordic and southern european countries

Madsen, Per K.; Molina Romo, Óscar; Møller-Pedersen, Jesper; Lozano, Mariona
Fonte: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona Publicador: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona
Tipo: Relatório Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2012 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.57%
The economic crisis has revived the interest on the increasingly vulnerable position of youth in the labour market. In this paper we analyze flexicurity policies in the Nordic and in Southern European countries in the period previous to the crisis and explore whether they contribute to explain this trend and differences across countries. First of all, it is argued how the disadvantaged position of this group in the labour market has long-running causes and is not just the consequence of deterioration in labour market conditions as a result of the crisis. Labour market policies under the flexicurity umbrella haven’t been able to mitigate the increasing dualization of many EU labour markets. This also applies to young workers that are more exposed to the flexibility envisaged under this paradigm and in many countries less protected by the compensating security measures. However, the analysis shows how the crisis is widening the gap between countries in the degree and form of uncertainty facing young workers. Those in countries with labour market policies closer to the flexicurity paradigm perform better before and after the crisis compared to countries with institutional configurations far from the flexicurity ideal-type. It is finally argued how record youth unemployment jeopardises the sustainability of welfare state arrangements across European Social models and poses serious challenges to social cohesion.

Labour market trajectories and occupational assimilation of immigrants. A comparative Perspective: Spain, United Kingdom, Canada

Martin, Antonio; Meardi, Guglielmo; Molina Romo, Óscar; Vanderberg, Axel
Fonte: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona Publicador: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona
Tipo: Relatório Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2012 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.46%
This paper aims to analyse labour market trajectories and mobility of immigrants in Spain, in a comparative perspective with the UK and Canada. This approach gives us information about risks and uncertainty, which different working groups are exposed to (Crouch, 2008; 2009)1. Today‘s interest for labour mobility rests on its importance in the European Employment Strategy and the OECD goals (2009). This two institutions call for a more flexible labour market through a major mobility, thus reducing unemployment, poverty, and providing social upward progression and a better supplydemand adjustment. Hence, it allows workers to improve their occupational and social status, and therefore limiting their risk of poverty. In other words, labour upward mobility brings security, as well as it contributes to reduce risk and uncertainties among workers.