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Racismo e sindicalismo : reconhecimento, redistribuição e ação politica das centrais sindicais acerca do racismo no Brasil (1983-2002); Racism and syndicalism : recognition, redistributions and political action by labor-unions about racism in Brazil

Jair Batista da Silva
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 27/02/2008 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.59%
Esta tese discute como as duas principais centrais sindicais abordam o racismo no Brasil. O fio condutor utilizado foi a polêmica com a teoria do reconhecimento, cuja finalidade era tornar patente que as lutas por reconhecimento estão articuladas às lutas por redistribuição. Deste modo, a pesquisa evidenciou através de sistemática análise documental como a luta econômica, política e cultural se articulam no interior do sindicalismo brasileiro para sublinhar como os ativistas sindicais pensam o racismo, o preconceito e a discriminação racial. Em outros termos, demonstra-se como a luta de classe pode, e deve, se combinar com as lutas identitárias (lutas por reconhecimento) - especialmente a luta anti-racista -, com a finalidade de transformar práticas e culturas políticas arraigadas na tradição sindical. Por isso, a investigação deteve-se ainda sobre o conceito de classe social. A pesquisa analisou teses e resoluções de congressos, plenárias, documentos conjuntos, livros, jornais e revistas etc. Se o sindicalismo brasileiro tem passado, nos últimos anos, por profundas alterações, então aos dirigentes sindicais têm aparecido novas demandas: políticas, econômicas e culturais que provocam significativas mudanças na cultura política das entidades sindicais: lutas por igualdade de gênero...

Understanding the Impact of Economic Shocks on Labor Market Outcomes in Developing Countries : An application to Indonesia and Mexico

Gutierrez, Catalina; Paci, Pierella; Park, Beom S.
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.41%
In this paper the authors use a search and matching model of multi-sector labor markets, to understand the channels through which economic shocks affect labor market outcomes in developing countries. In the model workers can be employed in agriculture, formal or informal urban jobs, or unemployed. Economic shocks are manifested as either increased turbulence in the formal/informal sectors or a decrease in overall sectoral productivity. By calibrating the model to Indonesia and Mexico, the authors are able to understand how the 1998 Indonesian crisis and the 2001 Mexican recession translated into labor market outcomes. They then venture to simulate how the current financial crisis might affect the allocation of labor and earnings across sectors, in these countries. The results suggest that in both countries past crises have increased the degree of turbulence of the formal sector, increasing job destruction. However, while in Indonesia the crisis affected the overall formal sector productivity, this was not the case in Mexico. This explains the larger blow to formal wages -- relative to the size of the shock- witnessed by Indonesian workers. The response of the informal sector was also different: In both countries the informal sector was able to act as a buffer...

Wage Subsidy and Labor Market Flexibility in South Africa

Go, Delfin S.; Kearney, Marna; Korman, Vijdan; Robinson, Sherman; Thierfelder, Karen
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.41%
In this paper, the authors use a highly disaggregate general equilibrium model to analyze the feasibility of a wage subsidy to unskilled workers in South Africa, isolating and estimating its potential employment effects and fiscal cost. They capture the structural characteristics of the labor market with several labor categories and substitution possibilities, linking the economy-wide results on relative prices, wages, and employment to a micro-simulation model with occupational choice probabilities in order to investigate the poverty and distributional consequences of the policy. The impact of a wage subsidy on employment, poverty, and inequality in South Africa depends greatly on the elasticities of substitution of factors of production, being very minimal if unskilled and skilled labor are complements in production. The desired results are attainable only if there is sufficient flexibility in the labor market. Although the impact in a low case scenario can be improved by supporting policies that relax the skill constraint and increase the production capacity of the economy especially towards labor-intensive sectors...

Labor Redundancies and Privatization

Kikeri, Sunita
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.4%
When state-owned enterprises preparing for privatization have very high levels of redundant workers and when social safety nets and redundancy provisions in labor laws are inadequate or lacking, the political and social implications of layoffs mean that the government should be involved in the design and funding of special programs to deal with unemployment and labor unrest. This note reviews the main elements of such programs severance and retirement benefits, retraining and redeployment support, employee share ownership schemes, and importantly, mechanisms to ensure labor consultation and participation. In many countries these programs need to go hand-in-hand with reforms to expand private labor markets: removing obstacles to job creation, ending restrictions on hiring and firing, and eliminating taxes that raise the cost of labor.

Labor Issues in Infrastructure Reform : A Toolkit, Module 1

Public-Private Infrastructure Advisory Facility
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
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46.4%
A universal concern in infrastructure reforms is the effect such reforms have on labor. State-owned infrastructure firms often employ more people than required for efficiency, and often under favorable terms and conditions of service, leading to lower labor productivity and higher labor costs than private employers would bear. Some reform, in particular those involving private participation in infrastructure (PPI), may thus prompt surplus labor and changes in working conditions as governments adjust the work force to prepare for PPI, or as new owners or operators introduce efficiency improvements and expose enterprises to greater management discipline, new technologies, and increasing competition. The primary objective of this Toolkit is to provide practical tools and information to help policymakers handle labor issues in private participation in infrastructure (PPI). The Toolkit consists of seven modules: 1) Framework and overview of the entire toolkit; 2) Labor impacts of PPI; 3) Assessing the size and scope of labor restructuring; 4) Strategies and options; 5) Key elements of a labor program; 6) Engaging with stakeholders; 7) Monitoring and evaluation of labor programs. The Toolkit also contains a web-based CD-ROM with searchable documents...

Labor Issues in Infrastructure Reform : A Toolkit, Modules 2-7

Public-Private Infrastructure Advisory Facility
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.61%
A universal concern in infrastructure reforms is the effect such reforms have on labor. State-owned infrastructure firms often employ more people than required for efficiency, and often under favorable terms and conditions of service, leading to lower labor productivity and higher labor costs than private employers would bear. Some reform, in particular those involving private participation in infrastructure (PPI), may thus prompt surplus labor and changes in working conditions as governments adjust the work force to prepare for PPI, or as new owners or operators introduce efficiency improvements and expose enterprises to greater management discipline, new technologies, and increasing competition. The primary objective of this Toolkit is to provide practical tools and information to help policymakers handle labor issues in private participation in infrastructure (PPI). The Toolkit consists of seven modules: 1) Framework and overview of the entire toolkit; 2) Labor impacts of PPI; 3) Assessing the size and scope of labor restructuring; 4) Strategies and options; 5) Key elements of a labor program; 6) Engaging with stakeholders; 7) Monitoring and evaluation of labor programs. The Toolkit also contains a web-based CD-ROM with searchable documents...

Exclusion and Discrimination in the Labor Market

Das, Maitreyi Bordia
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.6%
The frameworks developed in this paper are based on a review of the literature on processes of discrimination and the norms and attitudes that accompany them. Intended as a background paper to the World Development Report 2013 this paper will also feed into the Social Inclusion Flagship Report by the Social Development Department at the World Bank. It is divided into six sections. This section one is an introduction to the objectives and provides the context for this work. Section two is a brief discussion of the conceptual underpinnings and measurement of labor market discrimination from a cross-disciplinary perspective. Section three lays out a typology of processes of discrimination, while section four is a discussion of the mechanisms of discrimination and the ways in which candidates are screened. Section five addresses the question of how discriminated groups react to discrimination. The final section addresses some of the ways in which occupational and labor market mobility is possible for disadvantaged groups and what policy implications it could have.

Botswana Labor Market Signals on Demand for Skills

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.41%
Botswana has an official unemployment rate of 17.8 percent. The low labor-intensity of growth is a potential explaining factor for this high level of unemployment. It is thus essential to analyze the role of education and training in the access to employment. This note finds that the role of education has changed under the effect of schooling expansion and persistent unemployment. Labor market institutions appear to have a limited impact on employment and wage levels, while the importance of active labor market programs is growing. This note aims to identify labor market signals that point to demand for specific current and future skills. The note seeks to answer the following questions: does the labor market place a higher premium on workers literacy and numeracy skills, technical skills, or behavioral skills?; is the labor market more in need of secondary or tertiary education graduates?; and will growing economic sectors (for example, tourism) benefit more by increasing the supply of sector-specific skills (for example...

Labor Market Regulations and Outcomes in Sweden

Ulku, Hulya; Muzi, Silvia
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.42%
This paper analyzes recent trends in Swedens labor market regulations in relation to comparator economies and examines the relationship between labor market regulations and outcomes. The paper finds that the Swedish labor market responded more rapidly to the recent global financial crisis than the majority of the European Union economies, which helped Sweden to recover quickly. Swedens hiring regulations are more flexible than those of many comparator economies, however, fixed-term contracts of short duration might have adverse consequences for the economy. In addition, Swedens regulations on work during the weekly holidays and mandatory paid annual leave are stricter than those of the majority of comparator economies. Moreover, among the economies of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Sweden has one of the largest differences in employment protection between permanent and temporary employees, which could lead to a segmented labor market, where insiders enjoy high job security and outsiders are largely marginalized. This could be cause for concern...

Pakistan Labor Market Study : Regulation, Job Creation, and Skills Formation in the Manufacturing Sector

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: PSD, Privatization and Industrial Policy; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.63%
In an effort to improve employment outcomes and industrial productivity, the Government of Pakistan (GoP) has launched a dual-track reform process involving broad-based overhaul of labor laws and institutions, and expansion and reform of the Vocational and Technical Training (VTT) system. Labor market regulation and laws are useful economic and social institutions designed to protect workers from undesirable consequences of market failure such as arbitrary or discriminatory actions by employers. They also help stabilize employment and household incomes against aggregate business cycles and shocks. Labor regulation is also an important element of society's instruments for the provision of social security and the maintenance of health, safety, and environmental standards in economic activities. Labor regulation in Pakistan is excessive by international standards, as can be seen from data on a number of indicators of labor market flexibility. All things considered, Pakistani industry and workers will seem to be better off with a more flexible labor market. The report analyzes the existing labor laws and institutions...

Job Creation in Mozambique : Is Labor Law Reform the Answer?

Ministry of Planning and Development, Mozambique; World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Poverty Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.41%
This paper analyzes the potential economic impact of changes to the labor laws proposed in 2006. The economic logic behind these reforms is reviewed, and the conditions under which the reforms could be expected to have the maximum impact on employment are isolated. Next, the experiences of selected developing countries which have undertaken similar reforms are reviewed, which showed the importance of initial conditions and economic trends outside of the labor market in ensuring a successful reform. Third, the main provisions of the proposed reforms are explained. The analysis concludes that given Mozambique s initial conditions, including strong demand from private sector employers for change, the scope of proposed reforms, and the potential for continued economic growth, the reforms should increase firms' profit margins, and as a result, a positive employment effect is possible in the medium term. The analysis also shows that although the reforms are deep compared with the starting point, even if reforms are enacted...

Case Study 2 - Porto Alegre, Brazil : Participatory Approaches in Budgeting and Public Expenditure Management

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.31%
Run by dictators for over 20 years (1964-1985), Brazil only had a democratic constitution promulgated in 1998 that allowed an already active civil society to function more freely. A country of 156 million, Brazil has been dubbed one of the most unequal, with one of the largest numbers of poor people among comparable middle-income countries. After the end of dictatorship in 1998, people who had earlier opposed dictatorships formed the Workers Party (PT) to seriously take up the agenda of deepening democracy through "popular administration" of government. Having won several municipal elections in 1989, including Sao Paolo with over 10 million people, the PT began a creative experiment of engaging a wide spectrum of people to formulate city budgets. The Porto Alegre case has, in particular, having been nominated by the 1996 UN Summit on Human Settlements in Istanbul as an exemplary 'urban innovation', stood out for demonstrating an efficient practice of democratic resource management. The largest industrial city in Rio Grande do Sul with 1.3 million inhabitants...

A Practicioner's Guide to Evaluating the Impacts of Labor Market Programs

Fitzsimons, Emla; Vera-Hernandez, Marcos
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.38%
This note provides an introduction to the impact evaluation of labor market programs, with particular reference to developing countries. Its focus is on the main issues that need to be considered when planning an impact evaluation, including the importance of rigorous design for an evaluation, and on the statistical techniques used to estimate program impacts. To help the exposition, a prototype of a training program is referred to intermittently throughout the note. This hypothetical training program, which authors call get-to-work, provides training to the unemployed to help them find work. The note describes some general issues that are important for any impact evaluation of employment programs, both in the design and analysis stages, regardless of the specific evaluation techniques used. It then describes the main evaluation techniques, including the data requirements and the main assumptions invoked by each.

Do Remittances Have a Flip Side? A General Equilibrium Analysis of Remittances, Labor Supply Responses, and Policy Options for Jamaica

Bussolo, Maurizio; Medvedev, Denis
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.39%
Econometric analysis has established a negative relationship between labor supply and remittances in Jamaica. The authors incorporate this ex-post evidence in a general equilibrium model to investigate economywide effects of increased remittance inflows. In this model, remittances reduce labor force participation by increasing the reservation wages of recipients. This exacerbates the real exchange rate appreciation, hurting Jamaica's export base and small manufacturing import-competing sector. Within the narrow margins of maneuver of a highly indebted government, the authors show that a revenue-neutral policy response of a simultaneous reduction in payroll taxes and increase in sales taxes can effectively counteract these potentially negative effects of remittances.

Labor Market Reforms, Growth, and Unemployment in Labor-Exporting Countries in the Middle East and North Africa

Agénor, Pierre-Richard; Nabli, Mustapha K.; Yousef, Tarik; Jensen, Henning Tarp
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.6%
This paper studies the impact of labor market policies on growth and unemployment in labor-exporting countries in the Middle East and North Africa. The analysis is based on a framework that captures many of the main features of the labor market in these countries. We conduct a variety of policy experiments, including a reduction in payroll taxation, cuts in public sector wages and employment, an increase in employment subsidies, a reduction in trade unions' bargaining power, and a composite reform program. Our key message is that to foster broad-based growth and job creation in the region, labor market reforms must not be viewed in isolation but rather as a component of a comprehensive program of structural reforms.

Fifteen Years of Inequality in Latin America : How Have Labor Markets Helped?

Azevedo, João Pedro; Dávalos, María Eugenia; Diaz-Bonilla, Carolina; Atuesta, Bernardo; Castañeda, Raul Andres
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.39%
Household income inequality has declined in Latin America in the past decades, contributing significantly to poverty reduction in the region. Although available evidence shows that changes in the labor income are among the main factors behind these inequality trends, few studies have analyzed more closely the labor market dynamics that have led to a decline in total income inequality in some countries, but also to an increase in others. Using household survey data for a sample of 15 countries in Latin America from 1995 to 2010, this paper uses an extension of the Juhn-Murphy-Pierce methodology to decompose changes in labor income inequality (hourly wages) into a quantity effect (capturing changes in the distribution of workers' skills), price effect (reflecting returns to skills), and unobservables effect (other components, within skill groups, affecting labor income). The results show that falling returns to skills for both education and experience is, on average, driving the decline in labor income inequality in Latin America. The quantity effect...

Visible Success and Invisible Failure in Post-Crisis Reform in the Republic of Korea : Interplay of the Global Standards, Agents, and Local Specificity

Lee, Keun; Kim, Byung-Kook; Lee, Chung H.; Yee, Jaeyeol
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.66%
The reform package in post-crisis Korea was one of the most comprehensively designed and decisively implemented. Though impressed by the quick recovery, many are now raising doubts about real changes in the economy, as the result of a cost-benefits analysis: While the business climate is more stable and supportive, the economy is suffering from weak investment and rising unemployment. This study views the Korean story as one of "visible success and invisible failure," based on the following findings: First, while some new laws were enacted and several quantifiable targets met, little real progress was made in changing institutional conventions, habits, and beliefs, such as enhancing transparency in management or trust in labor relations. Second, the reform process involved tension between global standards and local specificity, which accounts for the mixed results. Third, special interest politics at the implementation stage, plus the complexities caused by increasing democratization and globalization, have undermined the authorities' implementation capacity, which accounts for uneven outcomes of the reform. While globalization necessitates increasing flexibility, Korean managers are now facing much stronger labor unions. The outcome is not a fully flexible but segmented labor market...

Striking a Better Balance : Volume 4. Workshop and Project Visit Reports; Vers un nouvel equilibre Hacia un mejor equilibrio

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.31%
In July 2001, the extractive industries review (EIR) was initiated with the appointment of Dr. Emil Salim, former Minister of the Environment for Indonesia, as eminent person to the review. The EIR was designed to engage all stakeholders-governments, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), indigenous peoples' organizations, affected communities and community-based organizations, labor unions, industry, academia, international organizations, and the World Bank Group (WBG) itself-in a dialogue. The basic question addressed was, can extractive industries projects be compatible with the WBG's goals of sustainable development and poverty reduction? The EIR believes that there is still a role for the WBG in the oil, gas, and mining sectors-but only if its interventions allow EI to contribute to poverty alleviation through sustainable development. And that can only happen when the right conditions are in place. This report makes major recommendations on how to restore the balance in the WBG - promote pro-poor public and corporate governance in the EI...

Trade, Capital Accumulation, and Structural Unemployment: An Empirical Study of the Singapore Economy

Looi Kee, Hiau; Teck Hoon, Hian
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.8%
The past three and a half decades witnessed a distinctly declining trend in Singapore's unemployment rate, which dropped from an average annual rate of 7.85 percent in 1966-70 to 2.74 percent in 1991-2000. The authors seek to identify and empirically examine the factors that have influenced Singapore's unemployment rate in an environment of low and stable inflation. They incorporate a union bargaining framework into a standard-factors trade model, in which an increase in the relative price or capital stock in the export sector raises the demand wage that firms can afford to pay relative to workers' fall-back income, and consequently lowers equilibrium unemployment. The magnitude of the effects depends on the fall-back income, the weight unions attach to employment, and the elasticity of labor demand, which the authors estimate using data on Singapore. The results show that labor unions in Singapore care more about employment than wages. Together with a small fall-back income and elastic labor demand, the authors show that given the same percentage change in relative export prices and capital accumulation in the export sector...

A influência dos sindicatos nos salários do setor sucroalcooleiro; The influence of labor unions on wage formation in the sugarcane sector

MORAES, Márcia Azanha Ferraz Dias de
Fonte: Editora 34 Publicador: Editora 34
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.5%
The aim of this paper is to identify the determinants of the income of the employees of the sugarcane sector, and also for the sugar and ethanol industries. Special attention is given to union's role. Earnings equations were estimated for these sectors and information on union's action were collected in a field research. In the regressions estimated, the coefficients of the following variables were significant and had the expected signs: (i) gender (ii) region, (iii) education, (iv) threshold effect of education, (v) membership to labor unions. It was verified the existence and also the influence of labor unions on wage formation