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As reformas trabalhista e sindical no Brasil nos Governos Cardoso e Lula : conflitos e consensos

Dal Molin, Naiara
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.59%
A longevidade da estrutura sindical brasileira de viés corporativista e as reformas neoliberais realizadas na América Latina e no Brasil a partir dos anos 1990 têm suscitado o debate sobre a necessidade de realização das reformas trabalhista e sindical. O objetivo do trabalho é analisar as propostas de reformas trabalhista e sindical nos governos Cardoso e Lula e os conflitos e consensos provocados nessas discussões envolvendo, especialmente, governo e trabalhadores. A pesquisa incluiu a análise sistemática das alterações ocorridas nas legislações que regulam as relações individuais (trabalhistas) e coletivas (sindicais) do trabalho nos governos Cardoso e Lula e analisou a posição das centrais sindicais: Central Única dos Trabalhadores, Central Geral dos Trabalhadores e Força Sindical sobre as reformas, constantes da documentação oficial das centrais e das falas de seus dirigentes. O resultado das reformas levou a maiores alterações na legislação trabalhista do que na legislação sindical, como decorrência do empenho do governo Cardoso em realizar a reforma trabalhista, essencial ao programa mais amplo de reforma do Estado, e do frágil consenso em torno da reforma sindical no governo Lula, que não permitiu sua aprovação. O estudo permite concluir que a manutenção da estrutura sindical brasileira...

A matriz institucional do mercado de trabalho brasileiro (1930-1964); The institutional matrix of the brazilian labor market (1930-1964)

Daniel Ferrer de Almeida
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 28/02/2014 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.22%
A presente dissertação analisa a matriz institucional do mercado de trabalho brasileiro constituída entre 1930 e 1964. Desta forma, perpassaremos pela criação do Ministério do Trabalho, Indústria e Comércio, pela Consolidação das Leis do Trabalho (CLT), pelo Estatuto do Trabalhador Rural, até chegarmos à reforma trabalhista instaurada pelo regime militar. Defendemos que esta denominada matriz institucional, concebida enquanto arcabouço regulatório amplo composto por instituições, normas e relações trabalhistas, cumpriu papel fundamental na execução do projeto de acumulação industrial orientado pelo Estado, a partir da década de 1930. Sustentamos que tal institucionalidade assumiu peculiar capacidade de perpetuar sua estrutura por distintos mandatos, enquanto se amoldava à correlação de forças políticas posta em cada período. Para tanto, detalharemos a trajetória do Estado brasileiro no trato da questão trabalhista, alternante entre o corporativismo e o autoritarismo, e, nesta conjuntura, as potencialidades e limites do patronato industrial e do movimento sindical. Neste mesmo intuito, examinaremos em paralelo as transformações da estrutura produtiva brasileira e a correlata estrutura ocupacional do mercado de trabalho com base nos dados dos censos industriais e demográficos.; This dissertation analyses the institutional matrix of the Brazilian labor market between 1930 and 1964. Bearing this period in mind...

Pension Reform in Southeastern Europe : Linking to Labor and Financial Market Reforms

Holzmann, Robert; MacKellar, Landis; Repansek, Jana
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.61%
The reform of public pension systems and, more generally, the review of old-age income support are on the reform agenda worldwide. The reform discussion is more intense in countries where population aging is well advanced, including the member countries of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), much of Latin America, China, Russia, and the former transition economies of Southeastern Europe (SEE). But developing countries in the global South are also awakening to the challenges of aging and old-age income support in view of changing family structures, urbanization, and migration. Over 80 percent of the increase in the numbers of persons age 65 and older up to 2050 will take place in countries with current per capita incomes of US$1,000 and below. Whereas the North grew rich before becoming old, the South risks becoming old before becoming rich. The remainder of the chapter attempts to substantiate this point. The next section briefly describes aging and its fiscal implications in the light of demographic developments in the countries of Southeastern Europe. There follows an outline of the drivers of pension reform that go beyond population aging and have to be understood when choosing among reform options. Subsequent sections take up recent international reform trends and lessons and underline key points concerning the labor market and financial market reforms needed to support pension reform. The chapter ends with some concluding remarks.

Reform and Backlash to Reform : Economic Effects of Ageing and Retirement Policy

Jensen, Svend E. Hougaard; Jorgensen, Ole Hagen
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.6%
Using a stochastic general equilibrium model with overlapping generations, this paper studies (i) the effects on both extensive and intensive labor supply responses to changes in fertility rates, and (ii) the potential of a retirement reform to mitigate the effects of fertility changes on labor supply. In order to neutralize the effects on effective labor supply of a fertility decline, a retirement reform, designed to increase labor supply at the extensive margin, is found to simultaneously reduce labor supply at the intensive margin. This backlash to retirement reform requires the statutory retirement age to increase more than proportionally to fertility changes in order to compensate for endogenous responses of the intensity of labor supply. The robustness of this result is checked against alternative model specifications and calibrations relevant to an economic region such as Europe.

Job Creation and Labor Reform in Latin America

Kaplan, David S.
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.38%
This paper studies the effects of labor-regulation reform using data for 10,396 firms from 14 Latin American countries. Firms are asked both how many permanent workers they would have hired and how many they would have terminated if labor regulations were made more flexible. I find that making labor regulations more flexible would lead to an average net increase of 2.08 percent in total employment. Firms with fewer than 20 employees would benefit the most, with average gains in net employment of 4.27 percent. Countries with more regulated labor markets would experience larger gains in total employment. These larger gains in total employment, however, would be achieved through higher rates of hiring and higher rates of termination. These results may explain why there is substantial opposition to labor reforms despite the predicted gains in efficiency and total employment.

Job Creation and Labor Reform in Latin America

Kaplan, David S.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.53%
This paper studies the effects of labor-regulation reform using data for 10,396 firms from 14 Latin American countries. Firms are asked both how many permanent workers they would have hired and how many they would have terminated if labor regulations were made more flexible. I find that making labor regulations more flexible would lead to an average net increase of 2.08 percent in total employment. Firms with fewer than 20 employees would benefit the most, with average gains in net employment of 4.27 percent. Countries with more regulated labor markets would experience larger gains in total employment. These larger gains in total employment, however, would be achieved through higher rates of hiring and higher rates of termination. These results may explain why there is substantial opposition to labor reforms despite the predicted gains in efficiency and total employment.

Labor Market Adjustment, Reform and Productivity in Colombia : What are the Factors that Matter? Volume 1, Issues and Policy Brief

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.62%
This report carries out a detailed evaluation of the 2002 labor reform in Colombia, and in doing so, it also assesses the performance of the Colombian urban labor market and identifies the main policy challenges faced in this area. The report has three broad goals: First, to provide additional evidence to inform the intense debate taking place in the country around labor market issues, especially the reform. Second, to shed light on the key factors preventing a swift recuperation of the labor market. Third, to offer sensible policy alternatives that complement the step taken with the labor reform and address those key factors. The analyses are carried out for the key labor market outcomes: employment, unemployment, formality and wages, as well as productivity. Through the analysis of these variables the report tries to enhance the understanding of issues such as informality, labor market rigidities, job creation, protection against shocks and private sector performance. By and large, these determine whether people can find gainful employment, be adequately protected against shocks and whether firms are profitable so that, on the one hand, investment and technology adoption take place and, on the other, employment and wages grow, which are the truly important concerns for policy makers. The report illustrates key problems faced by Colombia: slow growth reflecting poor productivity performance...

Labor Market Adjustment, Reform and Productivity in Colombia : What are the Factors that Matter? Volume 2 : Technical Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.62%
This report carries out a detailed evaluation of the 2002 labor reform in Colombia, and in doing so, it also assesses the performance of the Colombian urban labor market and identifies the main policy challenges faced in this area. The report has three broad goals: First, to provide additional evidence to inform the intense debate taking place in the country around labor market issues, especially the reform. Second, to shed light on the key factors preventing a swift recuperation of the labor market. Third, to offer sensible policy alternatives that complement the step taken with the labor reform and address those key factors. The analyses are carried out for the key labor market outcomes: employment, unemployment, formality and wages, as well as productivity. Through the analysis of these variables the report tries to enhance the understanding of issues such as informality, labor market rigidities, job creation, protection against shocks and private sector performance. By and large, these determine whether people can find gainful employment, be adequately protected against shocks and whether firms are profitable so that, on the one hand, investment and technology adoption take place and, on the other, employment and wages grow, which are the truly important concerns for policy makers. The report illustrates key problems faced by Colombia: slow growth reflecting poor productivity performance...

Trade Liberalization and Labor Reform in Latin America and the Caribbean in the 1990s

Gill, Indermit S.; Maloney, William F.; Sanchez-Paramo, Carolina
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.51%
This note synthesizes the findings of research on trade and labor in the region, including World Bank studies on: (i) trade and job quality, (ii) informality, and (iii) labor policies in the region. First, the evidence on the relationship between trade liberalization, macro-restructuring and labor market outcomes during the 1990s is reviewed. Second, labor market rigidities will be analyzed and the extent to which reform efforts facilitated formal employment creation. Finally, based on lessons learned from the 1990s, a new agenda for labor market reform is proposed which reflects more closely the new environment in which Latin American governments now operate.

Structural Reforms and Labor Market Outcomes : International Panel Data Evidence

Hollweg, Claire H.; Lederman, Daniel; Mitra, Devashish
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.58%
This paper explores the impact of structural reforms on a comprehensive set of macro-level labor-market outcomes, including the unemployment rate, the average wage index, and overall and female employment levels and labor force participation rates. Together these outcome variables capture the overall health of the labor market and the aggregate welfare of workers. Yet, there seems to be no other comprehensive empirical investigation in the existing literature of the impact of structural reforms at the cross-country macro level on labor-market outcomes other than the unemployment rate. Data were collected from a variety of sources, including the World Bank World Development Indicators, the International Monetary Fund International Financial Statistics, and the International Labor Organization Key Indicators of the Labor Market. The resulting dataset covers up to 88 countries, the majority being developing, for 10 years on either side of structural reforms that took place between 1960 and 2001. After documenting the average trends across countries in the labor-market outcomes up to 10 years on either side of each country s structural reform year...

Senate reform

Molloy, Lisa
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.64%
The has labelled the Senate a ' house of obstruction' and has called for reform of section 57 of the Constitution, which governs how deadlocks between the two Houses of Parliament are resolved. On 8 October 2003, the Howard Government released a discussion paper on resolving deadlocks. The paper canvasses two options for reform that would replace the current double dissolution mechanism: (1) allows for a joint sitting of both Houses of Parliament without the need for an election if the Senate twice rejects or fails to pass legislation that has been passed by the House of Representatives, (2) allows for a joint sitting after a general election for any legislation that was not passed during the life of the previous Parliament. Neither of these proposals for reform actually relate to reforming the powers of the Senate, instead both are designed to increase the power of the Government to have legislation implemented without Senate approval by increasing the opportunity for joint sittings of Parliament. Government legislation would usually be passed at a joint sitting because the House of Representatives is twice the size of the Senate, so the Government majority would prevail. There has been a negative response in the media to these reform proposals. It is arguable that the motivation behind the release of the Government's discussion paper at this time is to gain political advantage at the next election by putting the issue of Senate obstructionism...

Job Creation in Mozambique : Is Labor Law Reform the Answer?

Ministry of Planning and Development, Mozambique; World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Poverty Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.59%
This paper analyzes the potential economic impact of changes to the labor laws proposed in 2006. The economic logic behind these reforms is reviewed, and the conditions under which the reforms could be expected to have the maximum impact on employment are isolated. Next, the experiences of selected developing countries which have undertaken similar reforms are reviewed, which showed the importance of initial conditions and economic trends outside of the labor market in ensuring a successful reform. Third, the main provisions of the proposed reforms are explained. The analysis concludes that given Mozambique s initial conditions, including strong demand from private sector employers for change, the scope of proposed reforms, and the potential for continued economic growth, the reforms should increase firms' profit margins, and as a result, a positive employment effect is possible in the medium term. The analysis also shows that although the reforms are deep compared with the starting point, even if reforms are enacted...

Labor Market "Rigidity" and the Success of Economic Reforms across More than 100 Countries

Forteza, Alvaro; Rama, Martin
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.6%
The authors show that labor market policies and institutions affect the effectiveness of economic reform programs. They compare annual growth rates across 119 countries, using data from 449 World Bank adjustment credits and loans between 1980 and 1996. The results indicate that countries with relatively rigid labor markets experienced deeper recessions before adjustment and slower recoveries afterward. The results also disentangle the mechanisms through which labor market rigidity operates. They find that minimum wages and mandatory benefits do not hurt growth. But the relative size of organized labor (in government and elsewhere) appears to matter. Labor market rigidity seems to be relevant more for political reasons than for economic reasons. The authors' findings suggest that not enough attention has been paid to vocal groups (urban, middle-class groups) that stand to lose from economic reform. The implications of the findings for policymakers: There should be less focus on deregulating the labor market and more on defusing the opposition of (vocal) losers. The results are robust to changes in measurement...

Pension Reform : Issues and Prospects for Non-Financial Defined Contribution (NDC) Schemes

Holzmann, Robert; Palmer, Edward
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.59%
The previous decade has been one of pension reform throughout the world. In high income countries, the driving force has been the threat that current systems will become unaffordable in coming decades, with demographic developments presenting a major risk. In another setting, countries in the process of transition from a command, to a market economy are confronted with the challenge of introducing a public pension system that will provide social security in old age, but that also supports the fundamentals of a market economy. In the latter sense, it is important to examine carefully the experiences of developed market economies. Even in these countries, the driving force behind reform is demographic change and affordability. In a third setting, middle and lower-middle income countries are faced with the question of what system will best serve the interests of their specific country goals for the future. In all of these settings "NDC"-non-financial defined contribution-pension schemes have been on the agenda in discussions of possible options. Sweden is one of the few countries to have implemented an NDC scheme in the 1990s...

Visible Success and Invisible Failure in Post-Crisis Reform in the Republic of Korea : Interplay of the Global Standards, Agents, and Local Specificity

Lee, Keun; Kim, Byung-Kook; Lee, Chung H.; Yee, Jaeyeol
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.66%
The reform package in post-crisis Korea was one of the most comprehensively designed and decisively implemented. Though impressed by the quick recovery, many are now raising doubts about real changes in the economy, as the result of a cost-benefits analysis: While the business climate is more stable and supportive, the economy is suffering from weak investment and rising unemployment. This study views the Korean story as one of "visible success and invisible failure," based on the following findings: First, while some new laws were enacted and several quantifiable targets met, little real progress was made in changing institutional conventions, habits, and beliefs, such as enhancing transparency in management or trust in labor relations. Second, the reform process involved tension between global standards and local specificity, which accounts for the mixed results. Third, special interest politics at the implementation stage, plus the complexities caused by increasing democratization and globalization, have undermined the authorities' implementation capacity, which accounts for uneven outcomes of the reform. While globalization necessitates increasing flexibility, Korean managers are now facing much stronger labor unions. The outcome is not a fully flexible but segmented labor market...

A light in the dark : labor reform in Guatemala during the FRG administration, 2000-2004

Fuentes, Alberto (Alberto Jose)
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 128 p.
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.58%
Recent literature on Latin America has highlighted cases of reform by the region's governments to increase State regulation of the labor market, offset the detrimental effects of the so-called Washington Consensus, and promote economic development. In Guatemala however, the FRG Presidential administration (2000 - 2004) seemed an unlikely candidate for this task. Linked to the military and marked by a conservative record, the FRG administration was surrounded by scandals of corruption, poor national economic performance, soaring crime rates and eroding approval ratings. Surprisingly, while in power the FRG enacted and implemented the two far-reaching labor reforms that are the subject of this thesis. The first was a legal reform to the Labor Code and the second was an administrative reform of the Labor Inspection. Most importantly, the two reforms sought to increase State regulation over the labor market, and both had substantial effects in terms of enhanced State regulatory capacity. As the thesis argues, the FRG labor reforms were possible because, unlike the governments preceding (e.g. PAN) and following it (i.e. GANA), the FRG was able to exclude the largest private conglomerates in the country ("the Big Boys") and their followers in the national peak business organization CACIF from influencing and controlling the Executive branch of government.; (cont.) In the past...

El proceso del despido colectivo tras la reforma laboral de 2012

Moisil, Viorela-Andreea
Fonte: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona Publicador: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/bachelorThesis; Text Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2013 SPA
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.31%
El presente trabajo de grado, tiene por finalidad el análisis del Real Decreto 1483/2012, de 29 de octubre, por el que se aprueba el Reglamento de los procedimientos de despido colectivo y de suspensión de contratos y reducción de jornada, aprobado tras la reforma laboral de 3/2012 de 6 de julio. La inquietud principal es conocer los nuevos cambios normativos y el porqué de los mismos para conocer en qué situación quedan los trabajadores. Debido a los recientes cambios legislativos, la información bibliográfica no es muy extensa, por ello la metodología se basa en la comparación de la nueva legislación con la anterior todo ello complementado con opiniones jurisprudenciales y de distintos autores y conclusiones de la propia autora.; El present treball de grau, té com a finalitat l’anàlisi del Real Decret 1483/2012, de 29 d’octubre, pel qual s’aprova el Reglament dels procediments d’acomiadaments col·lectius i de suspensió de contractes i reducció de jornada, aprovat després de la reforma laboral de 3/2012 de 6 de juliol. La inquietud principal es conèixer els nous canvis normatius així com la seva justificació per tal de conèixer quina es la situació dels treballadors desprès d’aquests canvis. Degut als recents canvis legislatius...

La descentralización de la negociación colectiva a nivel de empresa

Puertas Fernández, Sergio
Fonte: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona Publicador: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona
Tipo: Treball de recerca; info:eu-repo/semantics/bachelorThesis; Text Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2015 SPA
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.15%
La reforma laboral operada por el RDL 3/2012, encuentra en la nueva regulación del descuelgue (art. 82.3 TRLET) y de la prioridad aplicativa del convenio de empresa (art. 84.2 TRLET) los mecanismos necesarios para hacer efectiva la descentralización de la negociación colectiva, por los cuales la unidad de negociación en la empresa se postula como el ámbito de referencia para la determinación de las condiciones de trabajo. En este caso, y a debida cuenta de que los mecanismos descentralizadores producen resultados a medio y largo plazo, el propósito del presente estudio se ha centrado en efectuar un primer balance de sus efectos sobre las condiciones de trabajo y el sistema de negociación colectiva, en vinculación con la significación del término flexiguridad y la finalidad de las políticas comunitarias en materia de crecimiento económico. Es por ello que el análisis se ha centrado principalmente en atender al ámbito material descentralizado, analizando comparativamente las materias concurrentes listadas en ambos preceptos, y en la configuración de las unidades de negociación en la empresa en relación a la estructura de nuestro tejido empresarial. Por tanto, se trata de un estudio jurídico sobre la panorámica de un fenómeno que...

Recommendations for Migrant Labor Reform in Qatar to Fulfill the U.S. Foreign Policy Objective of Greater Respect for Human Rights In the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) Countries.

Tillery, Kharmika
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Masters' project
Publicado em 21/04/2012 EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.63%
POLICY QUESTION What types of migrant labor reforms should the United States Department of State propose to Doha, Qatar, a member of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) in order to fulfill the US foreign policy goal to promote greater respect for human rights in the GCC? BACKGROUND The Gulf Cooperation Council is a political and economic union of six countries that border the Persian Gulf. In 1981, the nations of Bahrain, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates (UAE), Oman, and Kuwait formed this regional and collaborative union. These six Arab nations share a common religious and cultural identity similar to that of other nations in the Middle East. They also are all major oil exporters that have experienced fast-paced growth in the labor population, and are heavily reliant on migrant labor. At the beginning of the oil era the majority of migrant laborers came from surrounding Arab nations. The largest group was composed of Yemeni and Egyptian workers looking for better economic opportunities in Saudi Arabia. The Gulf nations were also a destination for Palestinians following the Arab-Israeli war in 1948 and the occupation of Palestine. After the economic boom in 1973, the nations of the Persian Gulf were able to reach levels of development that were unmatched in many other Arab nations. This development resulted in a massive labor migration from Yemen...

Architectural design and popular participation: the formal, symbolic and political dimensions for dwelling and housing in agrarian reform settlements; ; ; ; Projeto arquitetônico e participação popular: as dimensões formais, simbólicas e políticas da moradia e da habitação em assentamentos de reforma agrária

Cardoso, Fernando de Paula; Jucksch, Ivo; Silva, Maristela Siolari da; Hironaga, Leonardo Sonoda; Castro, Augusto Duarte de
Fonte: Labor & Engenho; Labor & Engenho Publicador: Labor & Engenho; Labor & Engenho
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Artigo Avaliado pelos Pares Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 03/04/2009 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.29%
The issue of housing in settlements promoted by Agrarian Reform has been a problem due to lack of technical assistance and appropriate public policies with regard to environmental, social, economic, cultural and regional issues. As a consequence of this fact many groups of Research and Extension around the country, has coordinated with the settled families the process of architectural design of their homes. This work aims is to present partial results of research developed by researchers and extension agents from Federal University of Viçosa [MG], held by the project “Participation of households in housing projects, sanitation and production in Agrarian Reform settlements” in the settlement Olga Benário, located in Visconde do Rio Branco [MG].; ; ; ; O tema da habitação em assentamentos de Reforma Agrária tem se apresentado problemático devido à falta de assistência técnica específica e políticas públicas adequadas a aspectos ambientais, sociais, econômicos, culturais e regionais. Diante disso pesquisadores-extensionistas de várias partes do país tem coordenado junto às famílias assentadas o processo de projeto arquitetônico de suas moradias. Nesse sentido, este trabalho vem apresentar resultados parciais da pesquisa-ação desenvolvida por pesquisadores-extensionistas da Universidade Federal de Viçosa [MG]...