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Proposição de ações para melhoria da produtividade da concretagem em edifícios verticais.; Proposition of actions to improve concrete placement labor productivity in vertical buildings.

Dantas, Manuela Modesto
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 03/07/2006 PT
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56.42%
Este trabalho tem por objetivo a proposição de um conjunto de medidas visando trazer um incremento na produtividade do serviço de concretagem em Estruturas Reticuladas de Concreto Armado (ERCA). Inicialmente o trabalho baseou-se em um amplo levantamento sobre o tema produtividade da mão-de-obra no serviço de concretagem e sobre métodos de obtenção e avaliação de opiniões de pessoas. Procedeu-se, através da realização de entrevistas e por meio de estudo de campo ao levantamento de fatores intervenientes na produtividade do serviço concretagem. A análise dos fatores apontados nas duas abordagens subsidiou a elaboração de uma proposição de ações que potencialmente levariam a melhorias nos indicadores de produtividade da concretagem; um questionário Delphi serve ao propósito de escolher, dentro do conjunto de propostas, aquelas com maior expectativa quanto à relação custo-benefício com priorização de ações mais viáveis de serem implementadas.; This research had as an objective the proposition of a group of measures that can be used to improve labor productivity in buildings structures concrete placement. At first this work raised data on the subject of labor productivity in concrete placement and on the method of obtaining and evaluating persons' opinions. By means of interview and field camp study...

Structural Transformation and Productivity in Latin America*

Ferreira, Pedro Cavalcanti Gomes; Silva, Leonardo Fonseca da
Fonte: Escola de Pós-Graduação em Economia da FGV Publicador: Escola de Pós-Graduação em Economia da FGV
Tipo: Relatório
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
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This article examines the e¤ects of sectorial shifts and structural transformation on the recent productivity path of Latin America. We use a four-sector (agriculture, industry, modern services and traditional services) general equilibrium model calibrated to the main economies in the region. The model very closely replicates labor reallocations across sectors and the growth of aggregate labor productivity from 1950 to 2005. Structural transformation explains a sizeable portion of the region s convergence in the rst decades. In most cases, the poor performance of the traditional services sector is the main cause of the slowdown in productivity growth observed in the region after the mid-1970s and is a key factor in explaining the divergence during this period.

Labor demand, productivity and business cycle: evidence from Portuguese large firms

Simões, N. N.
Fonte: Dinâmia Publicador: Dinâmia
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Publicado em //2004 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.55%
What determines the cyclical behaviour of labor productivity? This article considers intra firm and inter firm explanations for the correlation between labor productivity and aggregate shocks. From a set of 2100 Portuguese firms with more than 100 workers, between 1995 and 1999, we found that: (1) aggregate labor productivity was procyclical, although more than half of the firms revealed countercyclical productivity; (2) procyclical intra firm effects were stronger than countercyclical inter firm dynamics; (3) both intra and inter firm theories are important to understand the dynamics of labor productivity; (4) cleansing effects dominated over sullying effects; (5) only a framework integrating several intra firm theories can explain the observed evidence.

Economic growth, labor and productivity in Brazil and the United States: a comparative analysis

Maia,Alexandre Gori; Menezes,Esther
Fonte: Editora 34 Publicador: Editora 34
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2014 EN
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56.43%
The aim of this paper is to analyze the relation between economic growth and labor market dynamics in Brazil between 1981 and 2009, making a comparison with the United States. Among the findings, one can mention that economic growth in Brazil has been related to a massive incorporation of labor force in labor intensive activities, whereas, in the United States, to a substantial improvement of labor productivity in high-technology activities. Despite the favorable economic context in the 2000s, huge inequalities between these countries have widened since the structure of the Brazilian labor market remained with few or no changes.

Infrastructure and Growth in South Africa: Direct and Indirect Productivity Impacts of 19 Infrastructure Measures

Fedderke, Johannes W.; Bogetić, Željko
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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Empirical explorations of the growth and productivity impacts of infrastructure have been characterized by ambiguous (countervailing signs) results with little robustness. A number of explanations of the contradictory findings have been proposed. These range from the crowd-out of private by public sector investment, non-linearities generating the possibility of infrastructure overprovision, simultaneity between infrastructure provision and growth, and the possibility of multiple (hence indirect) channels of influence between infrastructure and productivity improvements. The authors explore these possibilities using panel data for South Africa over the 1970-2000 period, and a range of 19 infrastructure measures. Using a number of alternative measures of productivity, the prevalence of ambiguous (countervailing signs) results, with little systematic pattern is also shown to hold for their data set in estimations that include the infrastructure measures in simple growth frameworks. The authors demonstrate that controlling for potential endogeneity of infrastructure in estimation robustly eliminates virtually all evidence of ambiguous impacts of infrastructure, due for example to possible overinvestment in infrastructure. Controlling for the possibility of endogeneity in the infrastructure measures renders the impact of infrastructure capital not only positive...

Labor Issues in Infrastructure Reform : A Toolkit, Module 1

Public-Private Infrastructure Advisory Facility
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
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A universal concern in infrastructure reforms is the effect such reforms have on labor. State-owned infrastructure firms often employ more people than required for efficiency, and often under favorable terms and conditions of service, leading to lower labor productivity and higher labor costs than private employers would bear. Some reform, in particular those involving private participation in infrastructure (PPI), may thus prompt surplus labor and changes in working conditions as governments adjust the work force to prepare for PPI, or as new owners or operators introduce efficiency improvements and expose enterprises to greater management discipline, new technologies, and increasing competition. The primary objective of this Toolkit is to provide practical tools and information to help policymakers handle labor issues in private participation in infrastructure (PPI). The Toolkit consists of seven modules: 1) Framework and overview of the entire toolkit; 2) Labor impacts of PPI; 3) Assessing the size and scope of labor restructuring; 4) Strategies and options; 5) Key elements of a labor program; 6) Engaging with stakeholders; 7) Monitoring and evaluation of labor programs. The Toolkit also contains a web-based CD-ROM with searchable documents...

Labor Issues in Infrastructure Reform : A Toolkit, Modules 2-7

Public-Private Infrastructure Advisory Facility
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.59%
A universal concern in infrastructure reforms is the effect such reforms have on labor. State-owned infrastructure firms often employ more people than required for efficiency, and often under favorable terms and conditions of service, leading to lower labor productivity and higher labor costs than private employers would bear. Some reform, in particular those involving private participation in infrastructure (PPI), may thus prompt surplus labor and changes in working conditions as governments adjust the work force to prepare for PPI, or as new owners or operators introduce efficiency improvements and expose enterprises to greater management discipline, new technologies, and increasing competition. The primary objective of this Toolkit is to provide practical tools and information to help policymakers handle labor issues in private participation in infrastructure (PPI). The Toolkit consists of seven modules: 1) Framework and overview of the entire toolkit; 2) Labor impacts of PPI; 3) Assessing the size and scope of labor restructuring; 4) Strategies and options; 5) Key elements of a labor program; 6) Engaging with stakeholders; 7) Monitoring and evaluation of labor programs. The Toolkit also contains a web-based CD-ROM with searchable documents...

Poland - The Functioning of the Labor, Land and Financial Markets : Opportunities and Constraints for Farming Sector Restructuring

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.52%
This study identifies several factors that inhibit efficiency improvements in the farming sector, both in themselves and through the dynamics of their mutual interaction. The study observes that incentives faced in the labor market have important implications for the land structure and, and in many ways, are at the heart of the problem of low labor productivity in agriculture. The study finds that, while rural households are increasingly diversifying their income sources out of farming, they have not moved away from rural areas because of the incentives to hold onto small agriculture plots and because of the high costs of formal employment outside agriculture. Instead, households have increasingly relied on so-called unearned income (pension benefits and other social transfers) and settled for informal employment in rural areas. This has done little to advance the social condition of rural households, or to improve agricultural productivity. This incentive to hold onto small agricultural plots, as well as other factors limiting the availability of land for commercial farming...

Regulation, Trade and Productivity in Romania : An Empirical Assessment

De Rosa, Donato; Iootty, Mariana; Pirlea, Ana Florina
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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Inappropriate regulation can influence productivity performance by affecting incentives to invest and adopt new technologies, as well as by directly curbing competitive pressures. Results of a labor productivity growth model for European countries suggest that improving the regulatory environment -- proxied by the Worldwide Governance Indicators regulatory quality indicator -- and boosting effective exposure to competition through increasing trade integration -- expressed as the ratio of exports plus imports to gross domestic product -- have positive effects on productivity growth. In Romania a 10 percent increase in openness to global trade over 1995-2010 would have boosted productivity growth by 9.7 percent per year. A 10 percent increase in openness to European Union trade, in particular, would have led to an annual increase in productivity of 7 percent. Realizing the benefits from trade integration depends to some extent on regulation. In this regard, the effects of regulation on productivity growth are found to be positive...

Labor Markets for Inclusive Growth

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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This policy note outlines short, and medium-term policy options for addressing critical challenges affecting labor markets in Mexico, and in particular labor productivity. As labor is the main source of income for most of the population, poverty is closely linked to underemployment and low wages. Yet labor markets have played a limited role in poverty reduction in Mexico. Labor income accounted for just 22 percent of the decline in poverty in Mexico over the last decade compared with 38 percent in the rest of the region. Between the third quarter of 2008 and the third quarter of 2011, the labor income poverty index2 continued to decline in Brazil, Ecuador, and Peru but increased in Mexico. The equivalent measure produced by CONEVAL (Consejo Nacional de Evaluation), shows the labor poverty trend to be increasing through the first quarter of 2012. Finding the right bundle of policies to improve labor productivity and the functioning of the labor markets can serve to improve economic growth and welfare outcomes.

Labor Productivity and Employment Gaps in Sub-Saharan Africa

McCullough, Ellen B.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.67%
Drawing on a new set of nationally representative, internationally comparable household surveys, this paper provides an overview of key features of structural transformation—labor allocation and labor productivity—in four African economies. New, micro-based measures of sector labor allocation and cross-sector productivity differentials describe the incentives households face when allocating their labor. These measures are similar to national accounts-based measures that are typically used to characterize structural changes in African economies. However, because agricultural workers supply far fewer hours of labor per year than do workers in other sectors, productivity gaps disappear almost entirely when expressed on a per-hour basis. What look like large productivity gaps in national accounts data could really be employment gaps, calling into question the prospective gains that laborers can achieve through structural transformation. These employment gaps, along with the strong linkages observed between rural non-farm activities and primary agricultural production...

Labor Redundancy, Retraining, and Outplacement during Privatization : The Experience of Brazil's Federal Railway

Estache, Antonio; Schmitt de Azevedo, Jose Antonio; Sydenstricker, Evelyn
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research; Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
EN_US
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One of the most complex challenges of infrastructure privatization is its impact on employment. Often (but not always) private operators' main approach to cost-cutting is labor reduction. Private operators cannot afford the low levels of labor productivity typical in public companies if they are to be competitive and to deliver on their contractual obligations to provide cheaper, more reliable infrastructure services. But labor issues are so sensitive that government's early, direct involvement is seen as a way to address what potential investors see as a risk of privatization as well as to address the social concerns of the population, including the workers. When Brazil's Federal Railway was privatized, the team in charge of privatization made a significant effort to complement the incentive for voluntary reduction with an elaborate menu of training options. The authors describe this experience in dealing with labor redundancy problems. They discuss the design of the program, highlight the connections between its components, and assess the program's achievements. All things considered, they conclude, this staff reduction program was reasonably successful. The aimed-for improvements in productivity were achieved without major problems through a government-stimulated and -sponsored combination of early retirement and voluntary retrenchment. The concessionaire was willing to make quick decisions about the number of involuntary retrenchments it wanted to make...

Productivity Growth in Europe

Dall'Olio, Andrea; Iootty, Mariana; Kanehira, Naoto; Saliola, Federica
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
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This paper tests whether structural or firm-specific characteristics contributed more to (labor) productivity growth in the European Union between 2003 and 2008. It combines the Amadeus firm-level data on productivity and firm characteristics with country-level data describing regulatory environments from the World Bank's Doing Business surveys, foreign direct investment data from Eurostat, infrastructure quality assessments from the Global Competitiveness Report, and credit availability from the World Development Indicators. It finds that among the 12 newest members of the European Union, country characteristics are most important for firm productivity growth, particularly the stock of inward foreign direct investment and the availability of credit. By contrast, among the more developed 15 elder European Union member countries, firm-level characteristics, such as industry, size, and international affiliation, are most important for growth. The quality of the regulatory environment, measured by Doing Business indicators...

'Green' Growth, 'Green' Jobs and Labor Markets

Bowen, Alex
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The term 'green jobs' can refer to employment in a narrowly defined set of industries providing environmental services. But it is more useful for the policy-maker to focus on the broader issue of the employment consequences of policies to correct environmental externalities such as anthropogenic climate change. Most of the literature focuses on direct employment created, with more cursory treatment of indirect and induced job creation, especially that arising from macroeconomic effects of policies. The potential adverse impacts of green growth policies on labor productivity and the costs of employment tend to be overlooked. More attention also needs to be paid in this literature to how labor markets work in different types of economy. There may be wedges between the shadow wage and the actual wage, particularly in developing countries with segmented labor markets and after adverse aggregate demand shocks, warranting a bigger and longer-lasting boost to green projects with high labor content. In these circumstances...

Labor productivity in Europe: Evidence from a sample of regions

Artige, Lionel; Nicolini, Rosella
Fonte: Conselho Superior de Investigações Científicas Publicador: Conselho Superior de Investigações Científicas
Tipo: Documento de trabajo
ENG
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66.41%
The present paper aims at analyzing the sources of productivity in Europe to account for its recent underperformance and identify potential geographic idiosyncracies. We study the productivity performance and its sources in a sample of ten European regions belonging to four countries (France, Germany, Italy and Spain). Exploiting the increasing availability of disaggregated data at regional level in Europe, we propose both a descriptive statistics and an econometric analysis of productivity sources since 1995. Our main finding is that the sources of labor productivity are rather heterogeneous across our sample but may be associated with regional or national idiosyncracies.

Labor Productivity in Spain: 1977-2002

Nicolini, Rosella
Fonte: Conselho Superior de Investigações Científicas Publicador: Conselho Superior de Investigações Científicas
Tipo: Documento de trabajo Formato: 610934 bytes; application/pdf
ENG
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Trabajo publicado como artículo en Applied Economics 43(4): 465-485 (2011).-- http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00036840903427216; This study examines the evolution of labor productivity across Spanish regions during the period from 1977 to 2002. By applying the kernel technique, we estimate the effects of the Transition process on labor productivity and its main sources. We find that Spanish regions experienced a major convergence process in labor productivity and in human capital in the 1977-1993 period. We also pinpoint the existence of a transition co-movement between labor productivity and human capital. Conversely, the dynamics of investment in physical capital seem unrelated to the transition dynamics of labor productivity. The lack of co-evolution can be addressed as one of the causes of the current slowdown in productivity.; A few parts of this study are based on the conclusions of a research project financed by the Institut d’Estudis Autònomics. R. Nicolini’s research is supported by a Ramón y Cajal contract and research grants 2005SGR00470 and SEJ2005-01427/ECON are gratefully acknowledged.; Peer reviewed

Regional Productivity Convergence in Peru

Iacovone, Leonardo; Sanchez-Bayardo, Luis F.; Sharma, Siddharth
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Working Paper; Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
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This paper examines whether labor productivity converged across Peru’s regions (“departments”) during 2002-12. Given the large differences in labor productivity across the regions of Peru, such convergence has the potential to raise aggregate productivity and incomes, and also reduce regional inequalities. The paper finds that labor productivity in the secondary sector (especially manufacturing) and the mining sector has converged across Peruvian departments. The paper does not find robust evidence for labor productivity convergence in agriculture and services. These patterns are consistent with recent cross-country evidence and with the hypothesis that productivity convergence is more likely in sectors with greater scope for market integration, because of the effects of competition and knowledge flows. The convergence in labor productivity within manufacturing and mining has been sufficient to lead to convergence in aggregate labor productivity across departments. But because services and agriculture continue to employ the majority of workers in Peru...

Structural Transformation and Productivity Growth in Africa; Uganda in the 2000s

Ahmed, Sabin; Mengistae, Taye; Yoshino, Yutaka; Zeufack, Albert G.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Working Paper; Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.66%
Uganda’s economy underwent significant structural change in the 2000s whereby the share of non-tradable services in aggregate employment rose by about 7 percentage points at the expense of the production of tradable goods. The process also involved a 12-percentage-point shift in employment away from small and medium enterprises and larger firms in manufacturing and commercial agriculture mainly to microenterprises in retail trade. In addition, the sectoral reallocation of labor on these two dimensions coincided with significant growth in aggregate labor productivity. However, in and of itself, the same reallocation could only have held back, rather than aid, the observed productivity gains. This was because labor was more productive throughout the period in the tradable goods sector than in the non-tradable sector. Moreover, the effect on aggregate labor productivity of the reallocation of employment between the two sectors could only have been reinforced by the impacts on the same of the rise in the employment share of microenterprises. The effect was also strengthened by a parallel employment shift across the age distribution of enterprises that raised sharply the employment share of established firms at the expense of younger ones and startups. Not only was labor consistently less productive in microenterprises than in small and medium enterprises and larger enterprises across all industries throughout the period...

Labor productivity of the knowledge worker; A produtividade do trabalho do trabalhador do conhecimento; La productividad del trabajo del trabajador del conocimiento

Santos, Armando Cuesta; Rodríguez, Marino Valencia
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Economia, Administração e Contabilidade Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Economia, Administração e Contabilidade
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/12/2010 SPA
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66.45%
Realizam-se, neste artigo, considerações acerca da concepção de produtividade do trabalho e seu aumento desenvolvida por Marx, a qual tem total validade na determinação da produtividade do trabalho do trabalhador do conhecimento. Destaca-se a vinculação dessa produtividade do trabalhador do conhecimento com uma singular organização do trabalho e uma formação contínua inerente a uma organização de aprendizagem permanente.; Se realizan consideraciones acerca de la concepción de la productividad del trabajo y su aumento desarrollada por Marx, la cual tiene total validez en la determinación de la productividad del trabajo del trabajador del conocimiento. Y se destaca la vinculación de esa productividad del trabajador del conocimiento con una singular organización del trabajo y una formación continua inmanente a una organización de aprendizaje permanente.; Considerations are made about the concept of labor productivity and its incrementation, as developed by Marx, since it is entirely valid to determine labor productivity of those who work with knowledge. Noteworthy is the attachment of this productivity of the knowledge worker with a singular organization of work and the continued education inherent in an organization of constant learning.

New series of Portuguese population and employment, 1950-2007: implications for GDP per capita and labor productivity

Amaral,Luciano
Fonte: Instituto de Ciências Sociais da Universidade de Lisboa Publicador: Instituto de Ciências Sociais da Universidade de Lisboa
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/10/2009 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The two most important international databases with Portuguese GDP per capita and productivity from the 1950s onwards (GGDC and Ameco) offer two contrasting pictures of its evolution, especially during the slowdown of 1973 to the mid-1980s. The main problem is the low quality of the underlying data for population and employment. This paper offers new estimates for population and employment and recalculates GDP per capita and productivity between 1950 and 2007. Although confirming the main idea advanced in GGDC (a similar slowdown of GDP per capita and productivity), the series are different, and should be viewed as the new benchmark for the Portuguese economy