Página 1 dos resultados de 75 itens digitais encontrados em 0.007 segundos

Bases para aplicação de índices biológicos no biomonitoramento de ambientes lóticos - comunidade bentônica; Bases for Biological Index use in lotic Environment Biomonitoring - Benthic Community

Watanabe, Helena Mitiko
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 18/09/2007 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.1%
A utilização da comunidade bentônica em biomonitoramento, como indicadora da qualidade de ambientes aquáticos, encontra-se atualmente bem estabelecida. Das duas abordagens sugeridas pelo Protocolo de Avaliação Rápida da USEPA, a que utiliza um único meso-hábitat mostra-se ideal para o biomonitoramento sendo, portanto, necessário estabelecer qual meso-hábitat utilizar. Este trabalho pretende avaliar a sensibilidade e adequabilidade de diferentes meso-hábitat ribeirinhos em biomonitoramento. Foram estabelecidos oito pontos de amostragem, localizados nos rios Atibainha, Cachoeira e Atibaia, na Bacia Hidrográfica do Rio Piracicaba, São Paulo. Amostras foram coletadas na estação chuvosa (março), para análise de variáveis ambientais (água e sedimento) e biótica (macroinvertebrados bentônicos). Os organismos da comunidade bentônica foram identificados ao nível de família para os principais taxa. Os dados ambientais e bióticos foram submetidos à análise de agrupamento e ordenação, e para o diagnóstico da qualidade do ambiente aquático, índices individualizados e abordagem multimétrica foram utilizados. Tanto as variáveis ambientais quanto a biótica separaram nitidamente regiões de alto (3ª e 4ª ordens) e baixo gradiente (5ª e 6ª ordens). Dos meso-hábitats analisados por meio da comunidade bentônica...

Influence of artificial reefs on fish assemblage of the Barra Bonita Reservoir (São Paulo, Brazil)

Freitas, Carlos E. C.; Petrere Jr., Miguel
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 273-278
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.54%
This paper deals with the effects of introduced artificial reefs on the diversity of freshwater fish communities in lentic and lotic zones of a very impacted river in southeastern Brazil. To accomplish this goal, artificial reefs were introduced, in December 1997, in the Barra Bonita reservoir and in the lotic zone immediately below the dam. Fish diversity was always higher in the lotic zone than in the reservoir. Accordingly, fish diversity near the artificial reefs was consistently higher than in the control areas. We propose that the higher environmental complexity in the lotic zone, as compared to the reservoir, is incremented in areas where artificial reefs were introduced; also, we present that, in both areas, diversity is mainly affected by the introduction of artificial reefs.

Artificial reefs and their effects on fish assemblages in a Brazilian reservoir and Tailrace

Freitas, Carlos E.C.; Petrere Jr, Miguel; Abuabara, Maria A.P.
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 305-313
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.59%
In this paper, we evaluate the effects of artificial reefs on fish assemblages in a hypereutrophic reservoir and in the lotic zone immediately below dam. Fish diversity was highest in the lotic zone relative to the reservoir. We also found an inverse relationship between diversity and distance from the river margin. Catches near the artificial reefs were more diverse than in control areas. A seasonal effect, possibly caused by variation in temperature, was significant in all comparisons. We argue that, in a scale of local effects, the ecological function of these structures would be similar to refuges.

Sponge spicules indicate Holocene environmental changes on the Nabileque River floodplain, southern Pantanal, Brazil

Kuerten, Sidney; Parolin, Mauro; Assine, Mario L.; McGlue, Michael M.
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 171-183
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.71%
Sponge spicules are siliceous microfossils that are especially useful for analysis of sandy fluvio-lacustrine sediments. Sponge spicules in a long sediment core (~550 cm below surface), consisting of fine sand, sandy silt, and organic-rich mud, recovered from the floodplain of the Nabileque River, southern Pantanal, Brazil (S20°16′38. 3″/W57°33′00. 0″), form the basis of a novel paleoenvironmental interpretation for this region. Optically stimulated luminescence dates constrain the timing of deposition to the middle-late Holocene and all spicules identified are typical of the Brazilian cerrado biome. The base of the section is dominated by Oncosclera navicella Carter 1881, Metaniaspinata Carter 1881, and Corvospongilla seckti Bonetto and Ezcurra de Drago 1966, which indicate a lotic to semi-lotic environment strongly influenced by an actively meandering river channel at ~6. 7-5. 7 ka BP. The appearance of Heterorotula fistula Volkmer-Ribeiro and Motta 1995, Dosilia pydanieli Volkmer-Ribeiro 1992 and Radiospongilla amazonensis Volkmer-Ribeiro and Maciel 1983 at ~340 cm downcore suggests a reduction in flowing water and a more stable lentic environment, consistent with deposition in an oxbow lake. This oxbow lake environment existed during an interval of regional aridity between ~4. 5 and 3. 9 ka BP. Spicules...

Planktonic diatoms in lotic and lentic environments in the Lago dos Tigres hydrologic system (Britânia, Goiás, Brazil) : Coscinodiscophyceae and Fragilariophyceae

Oliveira, Bárbara Dunck; Nogueira, Ina de Souza; Souza, Maria da Graças Machado de
Fonte: Sociedade Botânica de São Paulo Publicador: Sociedade Botânica de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.4%
Coscinodiscophyceae and Fragilariophyceae). A floristic study of Coscinodiscophyceae and Fragilariophyceae in the Lago dos Tigres hydrologic system is presented. Phytoplankton samples were collected with a plankton net (25 μm mesh) at 11 sampling stations, three in lotic areas and eight in lacustrine zones. Eleven species of Coscinodiscophyceae and eight of Fragilariophyceae were identified; descriptions, comments, their geographic distributions for the midwestern region of Brazil, type of environment (lentic/lotic), and illustrations are provided. Among the taxa found, 13 were recorded for the first time in midwestern Brazil: Aulacoseira alpigena, A. distans, A. granulata var. angustissima, A. granulata var. valida, A. muzzanensis, Discostella stelligera var. stelligera, Fragilaria capucina var. fragilarioides, F. delicatissima var. delicatissima, F. javanica, Pleurosira laevis, Staurosira acutirostrata, Staurosirella crassa, and Ulnaria ulna.

Diet of Iheringichthys labrosus (Siluriformes, Pimelodidae) in the Ibicuí River, Southern Brazil

Fagundes,Camila K.; Behr,Everton R.; Kotzian,Carla B.
Fonte: Fundação Zoobotânica do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Fundação Zoobotânica do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/03/2008 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.37%
The diet of the benthic-feeding fish Iheringichthys labrosus (Lütken, 1874) was analyzed. Samples were taken bimonthly from December 1999 to January 2002, in three sites of the Ibicuí River, a tributary of Uruguay River basin (Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil). In each sampling point the specimens were collected in lentic and lotic environments. Gillnets and trammel nets were examined every 6 hours (6h, 12h, 18h and 24h). Diet description was based on the frequency of occurrence and the volume of each food item to obtain the Alimentary Index (IAi). The average stomach fullness was adopted to detect variations in the feeding activity according to the season, the circadian rhythm and the environment. Chironomids were the most important food item, followed by mollusks, and feeding activity was highest in summer, during daylight (6h and 12h), and in the lotic environment of the second sampling point.

Planktonic diatoms in lotic and lentic environments in the Lago dos Tigres hydrologic system (Britânia, Goiás, Brazil): Coscinodiscophyceae and Fragilariophyceae

Dunck,Bárbara; Nogueira,Ina de Souza; Machado,Maria das Graças
Fonte: Sociedade Botânica de São Paulo Publicador: Sociedade Botânica de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.4%
A floristic study of Coscinodiscophyceae and Fragilariophyceae in the Lago dos Tigres hydrologic system is presented. Phytoplankton samples were collected with a plankton net (25 µm mesh) at 11 sampling stations, three in lotic areas and eight in lacustrine zones. Eleven species of Coscinodiscophyceae and eight of Fragilariophyceae were identified; descriptions, comments, their geographic distributions for the midwestern region of Brazil, type of environment (lentic/lotic), and illustrations are provided. Among the taxa found, 13 were recorded for the first time in midwestern Brazil: Aulacoseira alpigena, A. distans, A. granulata var. angustissima, A. granulata var. valida, A. muzzanensis, Discostella stelligera var. stelligera, Fragilaria capucina var. fragilarioides, F. delicatissima var. delicatissima, F. javanica, Pleurosira laevis, Staurosira acutirostrata, Staurosirella crassa, and Ulnaria ulna.

Gram-negative intestinal indigenous microbiota from two Siluriform fishes in a tropical reservoir

Duarte,Silvana; Silva,Flávia Cristina de Paula e; Zauli,Danielle Alves Gomes; Nicoli,Jacques Robert; Araújo,Francisco Gerson
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.1%
The Gram-negative intestinal microbiota of Hypostomus auroguttatus and Pimelodus maculatus, a detritivorous and an omnivorous fish species, respectively, were compared between fishes from the reservoir and the stretch of the river below the dam of the Funil hydroelectric plant, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Four selective culture media were used under aerobic and two under anaerobic conditions. The omnivorous species had microbiota with higher population levels compared to the detritivorous species. The number of morphotypes and population levels of total bacteria, vibrio and Bacteroides tended to be higher in summer and autumn in the reservoir, and not different in the river. The number of morphotypes of enterobacteria and total bacteria were higher in the lotic environment compared with the lentic one. The bacteria Aeromonas hydrophila and Plesiomonas shigelloides and the obligate anaerobic Fusobacterium mortiferum were the most frequently identified microorganisms in the intestine of both H. auroguttatus and P. maculatus. Both season and habitat influenced the Gram-negative intestinal microbiota of H. auroguttatus and P. maculatus. Environmental factors influenced the Gram-negative intestinal microbiota of both species with possible impact on the interrelationship between the fishes and their digestive ecosystem...

Biological monitoring of lotic ecosystems: the role of diatoms

Bere,T.; Tundisi,JG.
Fonte: Instituto Internacional de Ecologia Publicador: Instituto Internacional de Ecologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.48%
Increasing anthropogenic influence on lotic environments as a result of civilisation has captured public interest because of the consequent problems associated with deterioration of water quality. Various biological monitoring methods that provide a direct measure of ecological integrity by using the response of biota to environmental changes have been developed to monitor the ecological status of lotic environments. Diatoms have been used extensively in this regard and this review attempts to summarise the basic concepts associated with biological monitoring using benthic diatoms. Where possible, examples from work carried out in Brazil are used.

Fish assemblage structure of the Ipanema River, a small lotic environment partially protected by a Conservation Unit in southeastern Brazil

Oliveira,AK; Apone,F; Birindelli,JLO; Garavello,JC
Fonte: Instituto Internacional de Ecologia Publicador: Instituto Internacional de Ecologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/05/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.4%
A study on the fish assemblage of the Ipanema River, a small affluent of the Tietê River basin in southeastern Brazil, was performed aiming to look for structural patterns of species diversity in small lowland lotic environments. Fish samplings were performed every two months from June 2003 to April 2004 at four sample sites located on the lower stretch of the river. Local assemblage showed to be species rich, with fifty-two species belonging to Characiformes (25 spp.), Siluriformes (19 spp.), Cyprinodontiformes (3 spp.), Gymnotiformes (2 spp.), Perciformes (2 spp.), and Synbranchiformes (1 sp.). Fish fauna was composed of small-sized species (<200 mm SL) and by individuals of medium (up to 400 mm SL) to large (more than 400 mm SL) sized species. The Ipanema River, such as other small lotic transitional environments in the upper Paraná River drainage, is considered important for conservation of fish fauna because they cover available habitats for persistent populations of small-sized species and for non-persistent individuals or shoals of medium and large-sized fish species, which occupy other habitats along their life-history (e. g. floodplains, oxbow lakes, main channel of great rivers). The importance of the Ipanema River basin for fish fauna conservation is also reinforced by the fact that it is located in a highly impacted region of southeastern Brazil...

Relative size of gills of Cloeodes jaragua Salles & Lugo-Ortiz, 2003 (Ephemeroptera, Baetidae) on pool and riffle areas of streams at the Atlantic Rainforest

Gonçalves,Inês Corrêa; Cid,Bruno; Mortati,Amanda Frederico; Quesado,Letícia Barbosa; Nessimian,Jorge Luiz
Fonte: Instituto Virtual da Biodiversidade | BIOTA - FAPESP Publicador: Instituto Virtual da Biodiversidade | BIOTA - FAPESP
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.51%
Physical environment of streams present many challenging factors to the organisms living under its influence. Water speed, one of the most important factors affecting such environments, has local influence on substrata, temperature, and oxygen levels. It acts determining species distributions and morphological and behavioral adaptations of organisms. The aim of this study was to assess the relative size of gills of Cloeodes jaragua on two mesohabitats: lentic environment (river dam) and lotic environment (fast flowing area of a stream) in Parque Nacional da Serra dos Órgãos (RJ, Brazil). Twenty individuals were collected on each environment and width of the head and gills were taken. Lentic environment showed nymphs with broader and more constant measurements than the lotic environment. The former, despite being composed of nymphs on different stages of development, presented individuals with narrower gills. Both, head width and environment type explained gills size, showing that streams habitat conditions are important in shaping the morphology of these animals.

Benthic macroinvertebrate community structure and seasonal variation in a neotropical stream in the State of Alagoas, Brazil

Linares,Marden Seabra; Faccioli,Gregorio Guirado; Freitas,Liriane Monte
Fonte: Instituto Virtual da Biodiversidade | BIOTA - FAPESP Publicador: Instituto Virtual da Biodiversidade | BIOTA - FAPESP
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.1%
This paper presents a study on the macrobenthic community in the Salvia stream, a headwater stream that runs through a conserved Atlantic forest fragment in the state of Alagoas, Brazil, and identifies the environmental factors that most influence the community structure. Ten sampling sites were chosen, conducting each collection during the rainy season of 2010 and the dry season of 2011. At each site the macroinvertebrates were collected using a D net (0.250 mm mesh). Water samples were collected and taken to the laboratory to analyze Dissolved Oxygen, Conductivity, pH and Alkalinity. Water temperature, surface current speed and depth were measured at the site. Canonical Correspondence was used to analyze the effect of environmental factors on the macroinvertebrate community. All the environmental factors measured showed significant variation between seasons, showing the seasonality effects on the stream environment. Eighteen taxa were identified, with predominance of Palaemonidae (Decapoda) and Chironomidae (Diptera), respectively, during the rainy and dry season. The results showed that the macroinvertebrates were more correlated to pH, Alkalinity and Dissolved Oxygen, indicating that this ecosystem variation is mainly based on the organic matter decomposition process.

Resource use by the facultative lepidophage Roeboides affinis (Günther, 1868): a comparison of size classes, seasons and environment types related to impoundment

Albrecht,Miriam P.; Reis,Vanessa C. S.; Caramaschi,Erica P.
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Ictiologia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Ictiologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.26%
We report the consumption of scales and other food resources by the facultative lepidophage Roeboides affinis in the upper Tocantins River where it was impounded by the Serra da Mesa Hydroelectric Dam. We compared the diet among size classes, between dry and wet seasons, and between sites with distinct water flow characteristics (lotic vs. lentic) related to the distance from the dam and phase of reservoir development. As transparency and fish abundance increased after impoundment, we expected a higher consumption of scales in lentic sites. Likewise, habitat contraction, higher transparency and decrease in terrestrial resources availability, would promote a higher consumption of scales. Scales were consumed by 92% of individuals and represented 26% of the total volume of resources ingested by R. affinis. Diet composition varied significantly among size classes, with larger individuals consuming more scales and larger items, especially odonatans and ephemeropterans. Scale consumption was not significantly different between dry and wet seasons. Roeboides affinis incorporated some food items into the diet as a response to the impoundment, like other species. Scale consumption was higher in lotic sites, refuting our initial hypothesis...

Influence of season, environment and feeding habits on the enzymatic activity of peptidase and β-glucosidase in the gastrointestinal tract of two Siluriformes fishes (Teleostei)

Duarte,Silvana; Paiva,Marco A. R.; Lara,Camila C.; Bemquerer,Marcelo P.; Araújo,Francisco Gerson
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Zoologia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Zoologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.26%
The enzymatic activities involved in the digestion of proteins and carbohydrates were compared among three organs of the digestive track of two Siluriformes fish species, and between two areas: a reservoir, and an area downriver of it. Our aim was to test the hypothesis that the digestive organs of species with varied feeding habits have different enzymatic activities, and that the enzymatic activity differs among seasons and environmental conditions. The iliophagous/herbivorous species Hypostomus auroguttatus Kner, 1854 had higher trypsin-like, chymotrypsin-like peptidase and β-glucosidase activity in the intestine when compared with the omnivorous species Pimelodus maculatus Lacepède, 1803, whereas the latter had more hepatic trypsin-like activity than the former. The peak of activity of the three enzymes in H. auroguttatus was recorded in the winter and spring. On the other hand, P. maculatus tended to have the more prominent peptidase and β-glucosidase activity in the summer, and the smallest in the winter. The intestine of H. auroguttatus had higher enzymatic (trypsin, chymotrypsin and β-glucosidase) activity than the stomach and the liver. For P. maculatus, the highest β-glucosidase activity was found in the liver. The enzymatic activity of H. aurogutattus did not differ between lotic and lentic systems...

Genetic Variation within a Lotic Population of Janthinobacterium lividum

Saeger, Jennifer L.; Hale, Alan B.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/1993 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.26%
An understanding of the genetic variation within and between populations should allow scientists to address many problems, including those associated with endangered species and the release of genetically modified organisms into the environment. With respect to microorganisms, the release of genetically engineered microorganisms is likely to increase dramatically given the current growth in the bioremediation industry. In this study, genetic variation within a lotic, bacterial population of Janthinobacterium lividum was measured with restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Chromosomal DNA from 10 Kettle Creek (Hawk Mountain Sanctuary, Kempton, Pa.) J. lividum isolates was digested with six restriction endonucleases and probed with a 7.5-kb pKK3535 fragment containing the E. coli rrnB rRNA operon. Genetic variation, as measured in terms of nucleotide diversity, was high within the population. The 0.0781 value for genetic variation was especially high given the conservative nature of the genetic probe. The average percent similarity among isolates within the population was 67.25%. Pairwise comparisons of nucleotide diversity values (π) and similarity coefficients (F) yielded values ranging from 0.0032 to 0.1816 and 0.3363 to 0.9808...

Efeitos da resolução taxonômica de invertebrados bentônicos no diagnóstico da qualidade de ecossistemas lóticos; Effects of taxonomic resolution of benthic invertebrates in the assessment of lotic ecosystem's quality

Mazzini, Flávia
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 14/09/2007 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.26%
Nas últimas décadas, tem-se observado uma expressiva queda da qualidade ambiental e perda de biodiversidade nos ecossistemas aquáticos em função de múltiplos impactos advindos de atividades antrópicas. Dessa forma, considerando-se que a estrutura das comunidades pode ser alterada por tais perturbações, diversos métodos têm sido propostos para avaliações da qualidade nesses ecossistemas, destacando-se, entre eles, o uso dos macroinvertebrados bentônicos. Alguns estudos empregando estes indicadores defendem a sua identificação ao nível genérico por fornecer maior número de informações, resultar em classificações ambientais mais confiáveis e apresentar melhor capacidade de distinção entre os pontos, quando comparado aos níveis de resolução mais abrangentes. Entretanto, na maioria dos trabalhos a identificação desse grupo restringe-se ao nível de família, principalmente em função da economia nos recursos despendidos durante a identificação o que não se justifica caso este nível não retenha informações suficientes para que os objetivos sejam alcançados. Neste trabalho, esse conflito foi avaliado através da comparação de avaliações biológicas decorrentes da aplicação de índices estruturais baseados na identificação de Chironomidae...

Trophic ecology of Lontra longicaudis (Carnivora, Mustelidae) in lotic and semilotic environments in southeastern Brazil

Santos,Lívia B.; Reis,Nelio R. dos; Orsi,Mário L.
Fonte: Fundação Zoobotânica do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Fundação Zoobotânica do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.56%
Lontra longicaudis (Olfers, 1818) (Carnivora, Mustelidae) is a semi-aquatic animal spread through the Central and South America, except in Chile. The implantation of a hydroelectric power plant along a river alters the dynamics of the watercourse, transforming a lotic environment into a lentic or semilotic one, what can damage the otter's feeding. From April 2008 to March 2009 we analysed the otter's food habits in lotic (streamlet) and semilotic (hydroelectric reservoir) environments of Paranapanema Valley, in southeastern Brazil. Aiming to compare the otter's diet of these two environments, we analyzed statistically the frequency of occurrence of main items in the scats. Fishes represent the base of the diet both in the reservoir and in the streamlet and, despite of the total otter's diet showing up similarities in the two environments, the results evidenced modifications on the fish species consumed between them. In the reservoir the otters ate more exotic fish Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) probably because it is an easy capture prey in this place. The fact that the otters get established and feed in the reservoir doesn't mean that this structure is benefic to the species because the food supplied for it consists mainly of exotic fish species.

Use of shelters and marking sites by Lontra longicaudis (Olfers, 1818) in lotic and semilotic environments

Santos,Lívia Bertolla; Reis,Nelio Roberto dos
Fonte: Instituto Virtual da Biodiversidade | BIOTA - FAPESP Publicador: Instituto Virtual da Biodiversidade | BIOTA - FAPESP
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/03/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.74%
The Neotropical otter Lontra longicaudis (Olfers, 1818) (Carnivora: Mustelidae) is a semi-aquatic species spread throughout Central and South America, except Chile. It uses cavities on the river banks or spaces amidst dense vegetation as shelter and defecates in conspicuous places as a means of territorial marking. The study was conducted between April 2008 and March 2009, aiming to compare and correlate the frequency of shelter use and marking by the otters, considering vertical vegetation cover, height, distance, disturbance degree and type of structure/substrate factors, in a lotic environment (Sapé stream, São Paulo state, Brazil) and a semi-lotic environment (Canoas I hydroelectric reservoir, Paranapanema Valley, São Paulo and Paraná states, also in Brazil). The aim was to compare and correlate the frequency of shelter use and marking by the otters, considering factors like vertical vegetation cover, height, distance, degree of disturbance and type of structure/substrate in two areas. It was evidenced that the otter's shelters show visual protection differences in each environment. Around the reservoir, the otters make greater use of areas with higher degrees of disturbance and are selective about the type of shelter structure. Along the stream...

Characterization of the microbial community in a lotic environment to assess the effect of pollution on nitrifying and potentially pathogenic bacteria

Medeiros,JD; Araújo,LX; Silva,VL. da; Diniz,CG; Cesar,DE; Del'Duca,A; Coelho,CM
Fonte: Instituto Internacional de Ecologia Publicador: Instituto Internacional de Ecologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.37%
This study aimed to investigate microbes involved in the nitrogen cycle and potentially pathogenic bacteria from urban and rural sites of the São Pedro stream. Water samples were collected from two sites. A seasonal survey of bacterial abundance was conducted. The dissolved nutrient content was analysed. PCR and FISH analysis were performed to identify and quantify microbes involved in the nitrogen cycle and potentially pathogenic bacteria. The seasonal survey revealed that the bacterial abundance was similar along the year on the rural area but varied on the urban site. Higher concentration of dissolved nutrients in the urban area indicated a eutrophic system. Considering the nitrifying microbes, the genus Nitrobacter was found, especially in the urban area, and may act as the principal bacteria in converting nitrite into nitrate at this site. The molecular markers napA, amoA, and nfrA were more accumulated at the urban site, justifying the higher content of nutrients metabolised by these enzymes. Finally, high intensity of amplicons from Enterococcus, Streptococcus, Bacteroides/Prevotella/Porphyromonas, Salmonella, S. aureus, P. aeruginosa and the diarrheagenic lineages of E. coli were observed at the urban site. These results indicate a change in the structure of the microbial community imposed by anthrophic actions. The incidence of pathogenic bacteria in aquatic environments is of particular importance to public health...

Environmental influences on egg and clutch sizes in lentic- and lotic-breeding salamanders; Influência do ambiente sobre o tamanho do ovo e da desova em salamandras que se reproduzem em corpos d'água lênticos e lóticos

Davenport, Jon M.; Summers, Kyle
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiróz Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiróz
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/12/2010 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.26%
Recent research indicates that social and environmental factors influenceegg and clutch sizes in amphibians. However, most of this work is based on the reproductively diverse order Anura (frogs and toads), whereas less research has been conducted on Caudata (salamanders) and Gymnophiona (caecilians). Researchers have suggested that a relationship exists between social and environmental factors and egg and clutch sizes in salamanders, but studies controlling for phylogenetic context are lacking. We could not identify a sufficient number of comparisons for social influences on egg and clutch sizes; therefore, we focused on environmental influences for this study. Data on eggsize, clutch size, environmental factors, and phylogenies for salamanders were assembledfrom the scientific literature. We used independent, pair-wise comparisons to investigatethe association of larval salamander habitat and egg size and the association of larvalsalamander habitat with clutch sizes within a phylogenetic framework. There is a significant association between larval habitat and egg size; specifically, stream-breeding species produce larger eggs. There is no significant association between larval habitat and clutch size. Our study confirms earlier reports that salamander egg size is associated with larval environments...