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Croatia - Living Standards Assessment : Volume 1. Promoting Social Inclusion and Regional Equity

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.27%
The paper describes the main methodological issues underlying the estimation of poverty rates for Croatia. Volume one focuses on the construction of the consumption aggregate as a summary measure of living standards which is the summary measure used to proxy living standards. Special attention is devoted to the estimation of the consumption flow from durable goods. Volume two focuses on the estimation of the (absolute) poverty line. Both elements are at the core of the poverty measurement exercises carried out in two companion papers in this volume. This paper is organized into three sections with the first dealing with the construction of the consumption aggregate. The second section describes the choice of the equivalence scale used to adjust the consumption aggregate for differences in household composition, and the third section details the procedure used to estimate the poverty line.

Croatia - Living Standards Assessment : Volume 2. Promoting Social Inclusion and Regional Equity

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.11%
The paper describes the main methodological issues underlying the estimation of poverty rates for Croatia. Volume one focuses on the construction of the consumption aggregate as a summary measure of living standards which is the summary measure used to proxy living standards. Special attention is devoted to the estimation of the consumption flow from durable goods. Volume two focuses on the estimation of the (absolute) poverty line. Both elements are at the core of the poverty measurement exercises carried out in two companion papers in this volume. This paper is organized into three sections with the first dealing with the construction of the consumption aggregate. The second section describes the choice of the equivalence scale used to adjust the consumption aggregate for differences in household composition, and the third section details the procedure used to estimate the poverty line.

Republic of Uzbekistan : Living Standards Assessment Update

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.31%
The purpose of this living standards assessment is to update and expand the first living standards assessment report that documented the poverty situation in Uzbekistan in 2000/2001. Attention has been paid to ensure the comparability of the analysis of the three years of data. The data themselves are largely comparable: the sampling methods have remained the same, as have the questionnaires and the basic implementation of the survey. However, some changes have occurred, primarily due to improved field work: these have been taken into account in the present analysis. The chapter is divided into three parts. An overview of the welfare levels in Uzbekistan from 2000-01 through 2003 is presented in section one, along with a discussion about the data sources and their strengths and weaknesses for multi-year analysis, and an analysis of the relationship between economic growth and welfare. In section two the basic indicators of living standards over the time period are presented. Section three contains information on two topics of interest for short-term and medium-term welfare: labor and education.

Turkey : Economic Reforms, Living Standards and Social Welfare Study

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.28%
As Turkey faces the 21st century, it must confront a series of critical policy questions: Can it continue to make progress in the fight against poverty? Is it possible to accelerate this improvement, which given Turkish growth rates, has been disappointing? What needs to be done to ensure that GDP growth pays off in terms of broad-based increases in employment and wages? Is it realistic to envision a future growth path in which 40 percent of employment remains in the agriculture sector? Can the widening of disparities between regions somehow be reversed? This report recommends the key elements of a strategy to improve living standards and reduce poverty include: 1) Provide a macroeconomic environment that is conducive to growth and price stability. 2) Remove biases against employment creation outside of agriculture. 3) Facilitate the outflow of resources from agriculture and provide a basis for productivity growth in the sector. 4) Invest in education, and especially in that or poor children. 5) Reallocate Government expenditures so that they are better targeted to the economically vulnerable.

Patterns of Health Care Utilization in Vietnam : Analysis of 1997-98 Vietnam Living Standards Survey Data

Trivedi, Pravin K.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.11%
The author provides an econometric analysis of health care utilization in Vietnam based on individual and household level data from the 1997-98 Vietnam Living Standards Survey. The author focuses on the major features of health care utilization patterns, including the determinants of largely self-prescribed use of pharmaceutical drugs, and the use of government hospitals, commune health centers, and private health facilities. The role of income and health insurance is emphasized. Econometric models are estimated for use probability and frequency of contact for all major categories of care, and for individual and household medical expenditure. Econometric results reveal differential responses to income changes at different levels of income. Commune health centers and self-medication are normal goods at lower income levels but inferior goods at higher income levels. The author discusses the policy implications of these results.

Worldwide inequality, living standards and its determinants during the 19th and 20th centuries; Ungleichheit, Lebensstandards und deren Determinanten in globaler Perspektive im 19. und 20. Jahrhundert

Blum, Matthias
Fonte: Universidade de Tubinga Publicador: Universidade de Tubinga
Tipo: Dissertação
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.24%
In this thesis mainly anthropometric indicators are used to investigate several aspects of living standards and inequality in global and historical perspective. Chapter two uses anthropometric information as an indicator for human health and welfare in 156 countries spanning the period 1810-1989. The findings suggest that regional height levels around the world were fairly uniform throughout most of the 19th century, with two exceptions: above-average levels in Anglo-Saxon settlement regions and below-average levels in Southeast Asia. After 1880, substantial divergences began to differentiate other regions. In addition, the determinants of these divergences are assessed. The analysis suggests that protein availability was a core variable for human health and welfare as measured with anthropometric indices. Moreover, disease environment, lactose tolerance, and geography also played an important role. Those variables reduced the unobservable world differences in height by more than a half. Chapter three also deals with the determination of living standards. In contrast to chapter two, however, it emphasizes the role of state efficiency. It evaluates the quality of a country’s institutions by estimating the economic efficiency of their governments. We measure state efficiency by evaluating the process which transforms a given number of endowments...

International inequality and polarization in living standards, 1870-2000 : evidence from the Western World

Prados de la Escosura, Leandro
Fonte: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid Publicador: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /02/2007 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.04%
A long-run view of inter-country inequality in living standards is provided for a large sample of countries in Western Europe, the European Offshoots, Japan – OECD, for short- and Latin America. A long term rise in real per capita income inequality is found. The deepening gap between OECD and Latin America was the major factor beneath this increase. Inequality in non-economic indicators of well-being (longevity, education, and human development) fell in the long run but a gap between OECD and Latin America remained by 2000. Polarization took place in the Western World during the second half of the twentieth century.

Slovak Republic : Living Standards, Employment, and Labor Market Study

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.28%
By most indicators the Slovak Republic has achieved a high level of human and social development. Despite the country's generally high living standards and overall level of development, there are families in Slovakia whose living conditions are below what is considered to be socially acceptable. By societal standards, these families and individuals are poor. The objective of this study is to analyze this poverty, so as to help design measures and policies to reduce it. The study also seeks to understand the phenomenon of unemployment--the main cause of poverty-and propose actions to alleviate it. The report is organized as follows: After Chapter 1, which explains the background of poverty and inequality in the Slovak Republic, Chapter 2 addresses the challenge of generating employment, including rising unemployment and inactivity, job reallocation during transition, the importance of the regional and skills mismatch, and conclusions and policy recommendations that enhance employment creation. Chapter 3 explores the role of the safety net system...

A Profile of Living Standards in Turkmenistan

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.37%
The study reviews the living standards in Turkmenistan, shaped by the Soviet legacy - whose income levels in 1989 were below the socially acceptable minimum -; by the economic decline throughout the 1990s, until recent economic resumption; and, by current approaches, and government policies. In an attempt to ensure good living standards, the country maintained one of the highest levels of subsidization of basic goods: water, gas, fuel, and social services, are mostly free. To some extent, the poor do benefit from these subsidies, but troubling issues reveal that: the costs of these non-targeted subsidies are not transparent, because they are paid by the providing agency, which in turn receives subsidized inputs. Nonetheless, real costs make it impossible to operate on a commercial basis, and, the non-payment system as it relates to maintenance and operation, has led to poor quality of services. But poverty alleviation implies much more than just subsidies, for measured in access to opportunity, it is seriously limited: few mechanisms exist for enabling the poor to benefit from most of the country's energy export earnings. Based on evidence that funding for social services represent transparent expenditures...

Slovak Republic : Living Standards, Employment, and Labor Market Study

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.28%
By most indicators the Slovak Republic has achieved a high level of human and social development. Despite the country's generally high living standards and overall level of development, there are families in Slovakia whose living conditions are below what is considered to be socially acceptable. By societal standards, these families and individuals are poor. The objective of this study is to analyze this poverty, so as to help design measures and policies to reduce it. The study also seeks to understand the phenomenon of unemployment--the main cause of poverty--and propose actions to alleviate it. The report is organized as follows: After Chapter 1, which explains the background of poverty and inequality in the Slovak Republic, Chapter 2 addresses the challenge of generating employment, including rising unemployment and inactivity, job reallocation during transition, the importance of the regional and skills mismatch, and conclusions and policy recommendations that enhance employment creation. Chapter 3 explores the role of the safety net system...

Growth, Employment and Living Standards in Pre-Accession Poland, Volume 1; Wzrost, zatrudnienie I standardy Zycia W Polsce doby akcesji

World Bank
Fonte: Warsaw: World Bank Publicador: Warsaw: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH,POLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.2%
This report builds on the wealth of existing literature on living standards and inequality in Poland and is intended to continue the ongoing debate. The focus is on lack of access to economic opportunities as the most important dimension of poverty in Poland and one that is strongly associated with social exclusion, vulnerability and other dimensions of poverty. The report ' s main objectives are to: (i) describe what happened to Polish living standards after the " shock therapy " of the early 1990s and in the less prosperous last five years; (ii) highlight the main factors behind the recent increase in poverty and inequality; (iii) identify the main risk factors associated with social exclusion and " transient " and " permanent " poverty in pre-accession Poland; (iv) address the growth of a hard-core of chronic poverty; and (v) point to policy measures that may help Poland to move closer to the Lisbon targets for employment and social inclusion. This report consists of two volumes. Volume 1 presents the main findings and their policy implications. It begins with a general overview of the macroeconomic climate and its changes over the transition period. It then moves on to address the links between economic growth and poverty reduction in the high growth years (when poverty declined considerably) and in the following slow-down in growth (during which poverty increased). A description of the poverty profile and its changes over the last decade follows and leads to an analysis of the strong link between skills levels...

Brazil : Assessment of the Bolsa Escola Programs

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Pre-2003 Economic or Sector Report; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.19%
The report assesses the "Bolsa Escola" programs in Brazil, which are poverty-targeted social assistance programs, that provide cash grants to poor families with school-age children between the ages of seven to fourteen. These programs aim at increasing educational attainment, to reduce current, and future poverty, as well as child labor, and, implicitly, to act as a partial safety net. The rationale for these programs should be considered in the context of the current picture of poverty in the country, where the strongest correlates of current poverty is low education. The programs under discussion have widespread support, and fit well into Brazil's larger social protection, and poverty reduction strategies, because they explicitly target the poor, with sound criteria for beneficiary selection, based on a score system, comprising living standards indicators. Preliminary evidence suggests the programs have been reasonably successful in targeting, and points to improvements in education, and poverty outcomes...

Growth, Employment and Living Standards in Pre-Accession Poland

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Poverty Assessment; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.31%
This report builds on the wealth of existing literature on living standards and inequality in Poland and is intended to continue the ongoing debate. The focus is on lack of access to economic opportunities as the most important dimension of poverty in Poland and one that is strongly associated with social exclusion, vulnerability and other dimensions of poverty. The report's main objectives are to: (i) describe what happened to Polish living standards after the "shock therapy" of the early 1990s and in the less prosperous last five years; (ii) highlight the main factors behind the recent increase in poverty and inequality; (iii) identify the main risk factors associated with social exclusion and "transient" and "permanent" poverty in pre-accession Poland; (iv) address the growth of a hard-core of chronic poverty; and (v) point to policy measures that may help Poland to move closer to the Lisbon targets for employment and social inclusion. This report consists of two volumes. Volume 1 presents the main findings and their policy implications. It begins with a general overview of the macroeconomic climate and its changes over the transition period. It then moves on to address the links between economic growth and poverty reduction in the high growth years (when poverty declined considerably) and in the following slow-down in growth (during which poverty increased). A description of the poverty profile and its changes over the last decade follows and leads to an analysis of the strong link between skills levels...

Designing Household Survey Questionnaires for Developing Countries : Lessons from 15 Years of the Living Standards Measurement Study, Volume 3

Grosh, Margaret; Glewwe, Paul
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.16%
The objective of this book is to provide detailed advice on how to design multi-topic household surveys based on the experience of past household surveys. The book will help identify define objectives, identify data needed to analyze objectives, and draft questionnaires to collect such data. Much of the book is based on the experience of the World Bank's Living Standard's Measurement Study (LSMS) program, established in 1980 to explore ways the accuracy, timeliness, and policy relevance of household survey data collected in developing countries. It is part of an attempt to extend the range of policy issues that can be analyzed with LSMS data; to increase the reliability and accuracy of the surveys; and to make it easier to implement LSMS surveys. The books first discuss the "big picture" concerning the overall design of surveys, modules to be used, and procedures for combining modules into questionnaires and questionnaires into surveys. Individual modules are discussed in depth as well as major policy issues. The process of manipulating modules to form a better 'fit' in the case of a specific survey is examined. Specific modules include: consumption...

Designing Household Survey Questionnaires for Developing Countries : Lessons from 15 Years of the Living Standards Measurement Study, Volume 2

Grosh, Margaret; Glewwe, Paul
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.16%
The objective of this book is to provide detailed advice on how to design multi-topic household surveys based on the experience of past household surveys. The book will help identify define objectives, identify data needed to analyze objectives, and draft questionnaires to collect such data. Much of the book is based on the experience of the World Bank's Living Standard's Measurement Study (LSMS) program, established in 1980 to explore ways the accuracy, timeliness, and policy relevance of household survey data collected in developing countries. It is part of an attempt to extend the range of policy issues that can be analyzed with LSMS data; to increase the reliability and accuracy of the surveys; and to make it easier to implement LSMS surveys. The books first discuss the "big picture" concerning the overall design of surveys, modules to be used, and procedures for combining modules into questionnaires and questionnaires into surveys. Individual modules are discussed in depth as well as major policy issues. The process of manipulating modules to form a better 'fit' in the case of a specific survey is examined. Specific modules include: consumption...

Uzbekistan - Living Standards Assessment : Policies to Improve Living Standards, Volume 1. Summary Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Poverty Assessment; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.35%
Since independence, Uzbekistan has followed a distinct economic strategy, entailing gradual transformation of the economy, while emphasizing social stability. The "Uzbek Model" of development has focused on developing industrial and manufacturing capacity in a predominantly agricultural economy, using direct and substantial state guidance. An important objective of the strategy has been to raise living standards and expand employment opportunities, while protecting vulnerable groups against abject poverty. Has this approach alleviated the problems of poverty inherited by the country? This report provides the first national level picture of living standards in Uzbekistan since independence. It has three main goals: (i) to examine the current status of living standards in Uzbekistan (ii) to identify key challenges and constraints to improving living standards, and (iii) to suggest priority policy actions that are needed for broad based improvements in living standards in the country. The report was prepared in close collaboration with a working group from the Government of Uzbekistan...

Uzbekistan - Living Standards Assessment : Policies to Improve Living Standards, Volume 2. Full Report

World Bank
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Poverty Assessment; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.25%
Since independence, Uzbekistan has followed a distinct economic strategy, entailing gradual transformation of the economy, while emphasizing social stability. The "Uzbek Model" of development has focused on developing industrial and manufacturing capacity in a predominantly agricultural economy, using direct and substantial state guidance. An important objective of the strategy has been to raise living standards and expand employment opportunities, while protecting vulnerable groups against abject poverty. Has this approach alleviated the problems of poverty inherited by the country? This report provides the first national level picture of living standards in Uzbekistan since independence. It has three main goals: (i) to examine the current status of living standards in Uzbekistan (ii) to identify key challenges and constraints to improving living standards, and (iii) to suggest priority policy actions that are needed for broad based improvements in living standards in the country. The report was prepared in close collaboration with a working group from the Government of Uzbekistan...

Quality of Government and Living Standards

Grigoli, Francesco; Ley, Eduardo
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.04%
It is generally acknowledged that a government's output is difficult to define and its value is hard to measure. The practical solution adopted by national accounts systems is to equate output value to input costs, but well-documented inefficiencies in government activities make this approximation questionable. One solution is to purge from gross domestic product (GDP) the fraction of government inputs that is wasted. This note illustrates such a correction, computing corrected per capita GDP on the basis of two studies that estimate efficiency scores for several dimensions of government activities. Results show that the correction could be significant and reorder the rankings of living standards.

The Quest for Equitable Growth in the Slovak Republic : A World Bank Living Standards Assessment

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Poverty Assessment; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.17%
There is wide agreement that the radical and comprehensive package of reforms implemented by the 2002 government has positioned the Slovak Republic well-not only in relation to other EU8 countries but also in relation to the EU15-in terms of increased competitiveness and employment opportunities, two of the main aims of the EU Lisbon Strategy for Employment and Social Inclusion. However, concerns have also been voiced about the potential negative effect of the reforms on the other dimension of the Lisbon strategy: the drive for social inclusion. The argument is that in view of the pre-existing inequalities in access to employment across regions and individuals, the increased emphasis on work as an individual's right and duty, and as the main route out of poverty, may amplify the economic disadvantages and increase the social exclusion of those who face strong and complex barriers to employment. Little systematic effort has been made to monitor the impact of the reform process begun in 1998 because of data limitations. Within this context, this report provides the following: 1) A baseline analysis of the current performance of the Slovak economy in the areas of employment, labor market segmentation and social exclusion, against which future development can be assessed and evaluated. 2) An assessment (to the extent possible...

Living Standards and Poverty in Moldova

Beegle, Kathleen G.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Working Paper; Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.14%
Poverty in Moldova is widespread and endemic, with poverty rates averaging 60 percent from 1997 to 2002. As a starting point for a profile of poverty rates and a description of recent trends, it is useful to put the macroeconomic situation in context2. Following significant declines in GDP in the early nineties, GDP per capita began to recover through 1997, only to suffer due to vulnerability of the Moldovan economy to the Russian crisis. GDP fell by more than 6 percent in 1998; by 1999, GDP per capita was similar to levels in 1994. Overall, GDP declined by over 65 percent between 1990 until 2000. The movement in the poverty rate in recent years has paralleled these significant macroeconomic developments. In the context of the rapid economic changes in Moldova, the objective of this report is to examine multiple indicators of well-being to provide greater insight into the profile and dynamics of poverty in Moldova. A profile of poverty is crucial to the design of effective anti-poverty measures that will enable the country to reduce poverty more effectively while promoting economic growth. The next sections of this report describe: (i) an overview of expenditure-based poverty and inequality measures...