Página 1 dos resultados de 2893 itens digitais encontrados em 0.008 segundos

Croatia - Living Standards Assessment : Volume 1. Promoting Social Inclusion and Regional Equity

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.3%
The paper describes the main methodological issues underlying the estimation of poverty rates for Croatia. Volume one focuses on the construction of the consumption aggregate as a summary measure of living standards which is the summary measure used to proxy living standards. Special attention is devoted to the estimation of the consumption flow from durable goods. Volume two focuses on the estimation of the (absolute) poverty line. Both elements are at the core of the poverty measurement exercises carried out in two companion papers in this volume. This paper is organized into three sections with the first dealing with the construction of the consumption aggregate. The second section describes the choice of the equivalence scale used to adjust the consumption aggregate for differences in household composition, and the third section details the procedure used to estimate the poverty line.

Croatia - Living Standards Assessment : Volume 2. Promoting Social Inclusion and Regional Equity

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.27%
The paper describes the main methodological issues underlying the estimation of poverty rates for Croatia. Volume one focuses on the construction of the consumption aggregate as a summary measure of living standards which is the summary measure used to proxy living standards. Special attention is devoted to the estimation of the consumption flow from durable goods. Volume two focuses on the estimation of the (absolute) poverty line. Both elements are at the core of the poverty measurement exercises carried out in two companion papers in this volume. This paper is organized into three sections with the first dealing with the construction of the consumption aggregate. The second section describes the choice of the equivalence scale used to adjust the consumption aggregate for differences in household composition, and the third section details the procedure used to estimate the poverty line.

Republic of Uzbekistan : Living Standards Assessment Update

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.35%
The purpose of this living standards assessment is to update and expand the first living standards assessment report that documented the poverty situation in Uzbekistan in 2000/2001. Attention has been paid to ensure the comparability of the analysis of the three years of data. The data themselves are largely comparable: the sampling methods have remained the same, as have the questionnaires and the basic implementation of the survey. However, some changes have occurred, primarily due to improved field work: these have been taken into account in the present analysis. The chapter is divided into three parts. An overview of the welfare levels in Uzbekistan from 2000-01 through 2003 is presented in section one, along with a discussion about the data sources and their strengths and weaknesses for multi-year analysis, and an analysis of the relationship between economic growth and welfare. In section two the basic indicators of living standards over the time period are presented. Section three contains information on two topics of interest for short-term and medium-term welfare: labor and education.

Turkey : Economic Reforms, Living Standards and Social Welfare Study

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.3%
As Turkey faces the 21st century, it must confront a series of critical policy questions: Can it continue to make progress in the fight against poverty? Is it possible to accelerate this improvement, which given Turkish growth rates, has been disappointing? What needs to be done to ensure that GDP growth pays off in terms of broad-based increases in employment and wages? Is it realistic to envision a future growth path in which 40 percent of employment remains in the agriculture sector? Can the widening of disparities between regions somehow be reversed? This report recommends the key elements of a strategy to improve living standards and reduce poverty include: 1) Provide a macroeconomic environment that is conducive to growth and price stability. 2) Remove biases against employment creation outside of agriculture. 3) Facilitate the outflow of resources from agriculture and provide a basis for productivity growth in the sector. 4) Invest in education, and especially in that or poor children. 5) Reallocate Government expenditures so that they are better targeted to the economically vulnerable.

Patterns of Health Care Utilization in Vietnam : Analysis of 1997-98 Vietnam Living Standards Survey Data

Trivedi, Pravin K.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.27%
The author provides an econometric analysis of health care utilization in Vietnam based on individual and household level data from the 1997-98 Vietnam Living Standards Survey. The author focuses on the major features of health care utilization patterns, including the determinants of largely self-prescribed use of pharmaceutical drugs, and the use of government hospitals, commune health centers, and private health facilities. The role of income and health insurance is emphasized. Econometric models are estimated for use probability and frequency of contact for all major categories of care, and for individual and household medical expenditure. Econometric results reveal differential responses to income changes at different levels of income. Commune health centers and self-medication are normal goods at lower income levels but inferior goods at higher income levels. The author discusses the policy implications of these results.

Kyrgyz Republic : Minimum Living Standards and Alternative Targeting Methods for Social Transfers

Gassmann, Franziska
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.26%
The objective of this report is twofold: first, analyze and discuss the linkages between different minimum standards currently used in the Kyrgyz Republic and with the Monthly Benefit for Poor Families (MBPF), and, secondly, to analyze the potential of alternative targeting methods and benefit levels. The analysis in this report mainly draws on data from the Kyrgyz Integrated Household Survey (KIHS) 2010. The report is structured as follows: the next section analyzes and compares different minimum living standards as currently used in the Kyrgyz Republic. Subsequently, we simulate different targeting options using static micro-simulation. Categorical targeting, proxy-means testing and the current means-test given a higher Guaranteed Minimum Income (GMI) are analyzed and eventually compared in terms of cost efficiency. The last section concludes. One of the objectives of the Strategy for Social Protection Development 2012-2014 of the Government of the Kyrgyz Republic (GoKG) is to improve the targeting performance of the MBPF. The MBPF is the only last-resort social transfer program in the Kyrgyz Republic aimed at providing a guaranteed minimum income to the population. Currently...

International inequality and polarization in living standards, 1870-2000 : evidence from the Western World

Prados de la Escosura, Leandro
Fonte: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid Publicador: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /02/2007 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.18%
A long-run view of inter-country inequality in living standards is provided for a large sample of countries in Western Europe, the European Offshoots, Japan – OECD, for short- and Latin America. A long term rise in real per capita income inequality is found. The deepening gap between OECD and Latin America was the major factor beneath this increase. Inequality in non-economic indicators of well-being (longevity, education, and human development) fell in the long run but a gap between OECD and Latin America remained by 2000. Polarization took place in the Western World during the second half of the twentieth century.

Essays on Human Capital Formation, Living Standards and Selective Migration; Aufsätze zu Humankapitalformation, Lebensstandard und selektiver Migration

Stolz, Yvonne
Fonte: Universität Tübingen Publicador: Universität Tübingen
Tipo: Dissertation; info:eu-repo/semantics/doctoralThesis
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.37%
The first scientific paper, chapter two focuses on human capital as an important determinant of living standards. Human capital is proxied with the age-heaping technique. Additionally in this article, literacy evidence is provided to cross-check the results. As an indicator of the biological standard of living, human stature is used. The chapter provides a large data set on Portuguese living standards from the early 18th to the 20th centuries. It answers the question: When and why did the Portuguese become the shortest Europeans? In order to find the answer to this question, the trend in Portuguese living standards from the 1720s until recent times is estimated with Maximum Likelihood and OLS techniques. The data shows that during the early nineteenth century average height in Portugal did not differ significantly from average height in most other European countries. But when around 1850, their anthropometric values began to climb sharply, Portugal's, however, did not. In OLS and IV panel estimations, delays in both real-wage convergence and human capital formation in Portugal are found to be the main factors hindering any improvement there in the biological standard of living. Chapter three provides data on human capital development for seven Latin Ameri-can countries from the 17th to the 20th centuries...

Slovak Republic : Living Standards, Employment, and Labor Market Study

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.38%
By most indicators the Slovak Republic has achieved a high level of human and social development. Despite the country's generally high living standards and overall level of development, there are families in Slovakia whose living conditions are below what is considered to be socially acceptable. By societal standards, these families and individuals are poor. The objective of this study is to analyze this poverty, so as to help design measures and policies to reduce it. The study also seeks to understand the phenomenon of unemployment--the main cause of poverty-and propose actions to alleviate it. The report is organized as follows: After Chapter 1, which explains the background of poverty and inequality in the Slovak Republic, Chapter 2 addresses the challenge of generating employment, including rising unemployment and inactivity, job reallocation during transition, the importance of the regional and skills mismatch, and conclusions and policy recommendations that enhance employment creation. Chapter 3 explores the role of the safety net system...

Mongolia : Participatory Living Standards Assessment 2000

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.35%
The Mongolia Participatory Living Standards Assessment 2000 (PLSA) was the first exercise of its kind in Mongolia to use participatory learning and action methods to broaden and deepen understanding of poverty at the national level. The PLSA was conducted by the National Statistical Office of Mongolia (NSO) with the financial and technical support of the World Bank. It forms one of the building blocks for the Government of Mongolia's evolving Poverty Reduction Strategy - both in its analysis and as part of the process of consultation and is helping to contribute to the formulation of national policies to help foster more widely shared economic growth. The PLSA documented the perspectives and priorities of community members throughout Mongolia using their own words. The conclusions that emerged from the PLSA are helping to re-orient the approach taken within the Government of Mongolia's national anti-poverty program, with the support of foreign donors and international financial institutions.

A Profile of Living Standards in Turkmenistan

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.44%
The study reviews the living standards in Turkmenistan, shaped by the Soviet legacy - whose income levels in 1989 were below the socially acceptable minimum -; by the economic decline throughout the 1990s, until recent economic resumption; and, by current approaches, and government policies. In an attempt to ensure good living standards, the country maintained one of the highest levels of subsidization of basic goods: water, gas, fuel, and social services, are mostly free. To some extent, the poor do benefit from these subsidies, but troubling issues reveal that: the costs of these non-targeted subsidies are not transparent, because they are paid by the providing agency, which in turn receives subsidized inputs. Nonetheless, real costs make it impossible to operate on a commercial basis, and, the non-payment system as it relates to maintenance and operation, has led to poor quality of services. But poverty alleviation implies much more than just subsidies, for measured in access to opportunity, it is seriously limited: few mechanisms exist for enabling the poor to benefit from most of the country's energy export earnings. Based on evidence that funding for social services represent transparent expenditures...

Slovak Republic : Living Standards, Employment, and Labor Market Study

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.38%
By most indicators the Slovak Republic has achieved a high level of human and social development. Despite the country's generally high living standards and overall level of development, there are families in Slovakia whose living conditions are below what is considered to be socially acceptable. By societal standards, these families and individuals are poor. The objective of this study is to analyze this poverty, so as to help design measures and policies to reduce it. The study also seeks to understand the phenomenon of unemployment--the main cause of poverty--and propose actions to alleviate it. The report is organized as follows: After Chapter 1, which explains the background of poverty and inequality in the Slovak Republic, Chapter 2 addresses the challenge of generating employment, including rising unemployment and inactivity, job reallocation during transition, the importance of the regional and skills mismatch, and conclusions and policy recommendations that enhance employment creation. Chapter 3 explores the role of the safety net system...

Trust, Authority, and Decision Making : Findings from the Extended Timor-Leste Survey of Living Standards; Konfiansa, autoridade, no foti-desizaun : konkluzoens husi estudu extensaun padroens moris Timor-Leste

Dale, Pamela; Himelein, Kristen; Nikitin, Denis; Bexley, Angie
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.18%
This briefing note examines perspectives on trust, authority, and responsibility for decision making in Timor-Leste, using findings from the justice module included in an extension of the 2007 Timor-Leste Survey of Living Standards (TLSLS2) and a review of relevant social-science literature. It is hoped that this report will be a valuable resource for civil servants, civil society, and donor agencies working in Timor-Leste. This note examines relationships among East Timorese, focusing on trust, views on authority, and decision-making power. It begins by discussing the relationships between individuals specifically, trust in one's neighbors and perspectives on safety. While trust is essentially about these interpersonal relationships, research has shown that high levels of trust are associated with improved economic outcomes and better maintenance of public goods. Thus, trust within a society is important for a much wider set of outcomes. In later sections, the authors move to a discussion of individuals' relationships with institutions through the lens of community participation and beliefs about responsibility for dispute resolution. Throughout...

Growth, Employment and Living Standards in Pre-Accession Poland, Volume 1; Wzrost, zatrudnienie I standardy Zycia W Polsce doby akcesji

World Bank
Fonte: Warsaw: World Bank Publicador: Warsaw: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH,POLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.27%
This report builds on the wealth of existing literature on living standards and inequality in Poland and is intended to continue the ongoing debate. The focus is on lack of access to economic opportunities as the most important dimension of poverty in Poland and one that is strongly associated with social exclusion, vulnerability and other dimensions of poverty. The report ' s main objectives are to: (i) describe what happened to Polish living standards after the " shock therapy " of the early 1990s and in the less prosperous last five years; (ii) highlight the main factors behind the recent increase in poverty and inequality; (iii) identify the main risk factors associated with social exclusion and " transient " and " permanent " poverty in pre-accession Poland; (iv) address the growth of a hard-core of chronic poverty; and (v) point to policy measures that may help Poland to move closer to the Lisbon targets for employment and social inclusion. This report consists of two volumes. Volume 1 presents the main findings and their policy implications. It begins with a general overview of the macroeconomic climate and its changes over the transition period. It then moves on to address the links between economic growth and poverty reduction in the high growth years (when poverty declined considerably) and in the following slow-down in growth (during which poverty increased). A description of the poverty profile and its changes over the last decade follows and leads to an analysis of the strong link between skills levels...

Growth, Employment and Living Standards in Pre-Accession Poland, Volume 2. Background Papers; Wzrost, zatrudnienie I standardy Zycia W Polsce doby akcesji

World Bank
Fonte: Warsaw: World Bank Publicador: Warsaw: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.27%
This report builds on the wealth of existing literature on living standards and inequality in Poland and is intended to continue the ongoing debate. The focus is on lack of access to economic opportunities as the most important dimension of poverty in Poland and one that is strongly associated with social exclusion, vulnerability and other dimensions of poverty. The report ' s main objectives are to: (i) describe what happened to Polish living standards after the " shock therapy " of the early 1990s and in the less prosperous last five years; (ii) highlight the main factors behind the recent increase in poverty and inequality; (iii) identify the main risk factors associated with social exclusion and " transient " and " permanent " poverty in pre-accession Poland; (iv) address the growth of a hard-core of chronic poverty; and (v) point to policy measures that may help Poland to move closer to the Lisbon targets for employment and social inclusion. This report consists of two volumes. Volume 1 presents the main findings and their policy implications. It begins with a general overview of the macroeconomic climate and its changes over the transition period. It then moves on to address the links between economic growth and poverty reduction in the high growth years (when poverty declined considerably) and in the following slow-down in growth (during which poverty increased). A description of the poverty profile and its changes over the last decade follows and leads to an analysis of the strong link between skills levels...

Growth, Employment and Living Standards in Pre-Accession Poland

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Poverty Assessment; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.35%
This report builds on the wealth of existing literature on living standards and inequality in Poland and is intended to continue the ongoing debate. The focus is on lack of access to economic opportunities as the most important dimension of poverty in Poland and one that is strongly associated with social exclusion, vulnerability and other dimensions of poverty. The report's main objectives are to: (i) describe what happened to Polish living standards after the "shock therapy" of the early 1990s and in the less prosperous last five years; (ii) highlight the main factors behind the recent increase in poverty and inequality; (iii) identify the main risk factors associated with social exclusion and "transient" and "permanent" poverty in pre-accession Poland; (iv) address the growth of a hard-core of chronic poverty; and (v) point to policy measures that may help Poland to move closer to the Lisbon targets for employment and social inclusion. This report consists of two volumes. Volume 1 presents the main findings and their policy implications. It begins with a general overview of the macroeconomic climate and its changes over the transition period. It then moves on to address the links between economic growth and poverty reduction in the high growth years (when poverty declined considerably) and in the following slow-down in growth (during which poverty increased). A description of the poverty profile and its changes over the last decade follows and leads to an analysis of the strong link between skills levels...

Uzbekistan - Living Standards Assessment : Policies to Improve Living Standards, Volume 1. Summary Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Poverty Assessment; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.49%
Since independence, Uzbekistan has followed a distinct economic strategy, entailing gradual transformation of the economy, while emphasizing social stability. The "Uzbek Model" of development has focused on developing industrial and manufacturing capacity in a predominantly agricultural economy, using direct and substantial state guidance. An important objective of the strategy has been to raise living standards and expand employment opportunities, while protecting vulnerable groups against abject poverty. Has this approach alleviated the problems of poverty inherited by the country? This report provides the first national level picture of living standards in Uzbekistan since independence. It has three main goals: (i) to examine the current status of living standards in Uzbekistan (ii) to identify key challenges and constraints to improving living standards, and (iii) to suggest priority policy actions that are needed for broad based improvements in living standards in the country. The report was prepared in close collaboration with a working group from the Government of Uzbekistan...

Uzbekistan - Living Standards Assessment : Policies to Improve Living Standards, Volume 2. Full Report

World Bank
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Poverty Assessment; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.49%
Since independence, Uzbekistan has followed a distinct economic strategy, entailing gradual transformation of the economy, while emphasizing social stability. The "Uzbek Model" of development has focused on developing industrial and manufacturing capacity in a predominantly agricultural economy, using direct and substantial state guidance. An important objective of the strategy has been to raise living standards and expand employment opportunities, while protecting vulnerable groups against abject poverty. Has this approach alleviated the problems of poverty inherited by the country? This report provides the first national level picture of living standards in Uzbekistan since independence. It has three main goals: (i) to examine the current status of living standards in Uzbekistan (ii) to identify key challenges and constraints to improving living standards, and (iii) to suggest priority policy actions that are needed for broad based improvements in living standards in the country. The report was prepared in close collaboration with a working group from the Government of Uzbekistan...

The Quest for Equitable Growth in the Slovak Republic : A World Bank Living Standards Assessment

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Poverty Assessment; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.22%
There is wide agreement that the radical and comprehensive package of reforms implemented by the 2002 government has positioned the Slovak Republic well-not only in relation to other EU8 countries but also in relation to the EU15-in terms of increased competitiveness and employment opportunities, two of the main aims of the EU Lisbon Strategy for Employment and Social Inclusion. However, concerns have also been voiced about the potential negative effect of the reforms on the other dimension of the Lisbon strategy: the drive for social inclusion. The argument is that in view of the pre-existing inequalities in access to employment across regions and individuals, the increased emphasis on work as an individual's right and duty, and as the main route out of poverty, may amplify the economic disadvantages and increase the social exclusion of those who face strong and complex barriers to employment. Little systematic effort has been made to monitor the impact of the reform process begun in 1998 because of data limitations. Within this context, this report provides the following: 1) A baseline analysis of the current performance of the Slovak economy in the areas of employment, labor market segmentation and social exclusion, against which future development can be assessed and evaluated. 2) An assessment (to the extent possible...

Energy Policies and Multitopic Household Surveys : Guidelines for Questionnaire Design in Living Standards Measurement Studies

O'Sullivan, Kyran; Barnes, Douglas F.
Fonte: Washington, DC : World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC : World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.25%
Analysis using data on household energy use from Living Standards Measurement Study (LSMS) surveys can help policymakers to identify which households are affected by energy poverty and then design policies that will accelerate the household energy transition. This paper shows that LSMS can provide accurate data on household energy use, combined with other data on household wellbeing (including consumption, income, health, and education), to monitor the progress in the household energy transition from traditional biomass fuels to modern fuels and electricity and to evaluate the effect of government energy policies on living conditions.