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A Streetcar Suburb for the 21st Century: Transit-Supportive Design Guidelines & Policy Recommendations for Eglinton Avenue West in Toronto

Anders, Brian
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Relatório
EN
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46.21%
This report develops a series of urban design guidelines, policy changes, and recommendations for intensification along a segment of a suburban arterial road, Eglinton Avenue West, in Toronto, Ontario to foster increased transit usage and pedestrian activity in anticipation of Phase II of the planned Eglinton Crosstown Light Rail Transit line. Existing conditions in and near the study area at time of writing are assessed, while two examples of successful transit-oriented developments are used as case studies to develop recommendations for Eglinton Avenue West. Proposals are then evaluated using a framework developed by the Transportation Research Board before final conclusions are drawn.

Urbanizing Suburban Downtowns: Transit-Supportive Design Guidelines for Downtown Mississauga

Dia, Ibrahim
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.49%
The City of Mississauga is a suburb in the Greater Toronto Area that is actively pursuing a more urbanized core. The implementation of light-rail transit (LRT) in the suburbs needs to be carefully planned in order to ensure the success of the actual system as well as the surrounding blocks, districts, and city as a whole. The purpose of this report is to develop transit-supportive design guidelines for the Downtown Mississauga LRT loop. The study will focus on how to successfully integrate LRT on suburban streets in Downtown Mississauga to create an urban street character. This report is a resource that can be used by the City of Mississauga, developers, and other municipalities who are interested in implementing light rail transit and associated developments on suburban streets. Municipalities that contain a regional mall and an existing or future light-rail transit system will benefit most from the lessons learned, best practice examples, recommendations, and design guidelines presented in this report. While not comprehensive across all aspects of urbanization, this report places a strong emphasis on built form, streets, and urban design.

Demand Side Instruments to Reduce Road Transportation Externalities in the Greater Cairo Metropolitan Area

Parry, Ian W.H.; Timilsina, Govinda R.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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36.59%
Economically efficient prices for the passenger transportation system in the Greater Cairo Metropolitan Area would account for broader societal costs of traffic congestion and accidents, and local and global pollution. A $2.20 per gallon gasoline tax (2006 US$) would be economically efficient, compared with the current subsidy of $1.20 per gallon. Removal of the existing subsidy alone would achieve about three-quarters of the net benefits from subsidy elimination and the tax. Per-mile tolls could target congestion and accident externalities more efficiently than fuel taxes, although they are not practical at present. A combination of $0.80 per gallon gasoline tax to address pollution (versus $2.20 without tolls), and $0.12 and $0.19 tolls per vehicle mile on automobiles and microbuses, respectively, to address traffic congestion and accident externalities (versus $0.22 without fuel taxes) would be most efficient. Current public bus and rail subsidies are relatively close to efficient levels in the absence of such policies; however, if automobile and microbus externalities were fully addressed through more efficient pricing, optimal subsides to public transit would be smaller than current levels.

Private Sector Participation in Urban Rail : Getting the Structure Right

Menzies, Iain; Mandri-Perrott, Cledan
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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56.66%
There is growing interest in using rail transit, trams, metros, light rail, to solve urban transportation problems, particularly road congestion and air pollution. In developing urban rail projects, a range of major cities around the world have turned to public-private partnership models, to leverage both public and private resources and expertise. Dissecting the successes and failures of public-private urban rail schemes, this note examines how policy makers can best deal with the main risks involved in designing, procuring, and implementing such schemes. It also draws lessons on best practice in developing and managing contractual arrangements that can help ensure their success and sustainability.

Results of Railway Privatization in Australia and New Zealand

Williams, Robert; Greig, David; Wallis, Ian
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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36.56%
This paper has been prepared for the World Bank as one of a series of research papers focusing on rail privatization experience throughout the world. The scope of this paper covers rail privatization experience in Australia and New Zealand, much of which occurred over the ten year period from 1993 to 2003. Overall the rail freight privatization experience in Australia and New Zealand, taken in concert with other market and structural reforms, has been positive, although not uniformly so: In Australia, the largely privatized rail freight industry is markedly stronger today than at any time over the last few decades and is competing aggressively for a greater role in the national transport and logistics market; and In New Zealand, the initial success of privatization with increased rail traffic and increased profits has not been sustained: the government has been obliged to take back the network and to commit significant public funds to address deficiencies in the network assets.

Handshake, No. 6 (July 2012)

International Finance Corporation
Fonte: International Finance Corporation, Washington, DC Publicador: International Finance Corporation, Washington, DC
Tipo: Periódico
EN_US
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36.3%
Air and sea transport power the global economy. Since the vast majority of trade is physical, it must travel by plane or ship to reach its market. In fact, high value, time-sensitive goods usually fly through at least two airports, and almost every container passes through at least two seaports. When ports are efficient, people receive the goods theyre waiting for, sellers receive payment, and global economic development is strengthened. Public-private partnerships (PPPs) push this development forward with greater speed and richer benefits. In this issue, handshake turns its attention to air and sea transport (expect a companion issue on road and rail in October 2012). In the air, we deconstruct myths surrounding airport PPPs, learn brutally honest lessons from experiences in airline privatization, and revisit the liberalization of African skies. For seaports, the authors examine private investment, glimpse the post concession era, and witness the PPP evolution.

Handshake, No. 7 (October 2012)

International Finance Corporation
Fonte: International Finance Corporation, Washington, DC Publicador: International Finance Corporation, Washington, DC
Tipo: Periódico
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.53%
This issue includes the following headings: road: Brazils competitive drive; rail: speeding toward tomorrow; logistics: MIT expert on why logistics clusters matter; and interview: UPSs sustainable strategies.

Private Participation in Urban Rail

Pulido, Daniel; Hirschhorn, Fabio
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Tipo: Brief
EN_US
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46.5%
Cities in the developing world are relying more on public-private partnerships (PPPs) to carry out the most complex and demanding of public works initiatives - the development of new urban heavy rail, or metros, usually involving underground lines. Most of the world’s metro systems are operated and were funded and built by public agencies. But developing country governments are shying away from the high cost and complexity of such systems and are acquiring more experience partnering with the private sector on infrastructure projects. Hence, the PPP approach, tried for metros with mixed results in the 1990s, has become more attractive. In the past five years, 2010-2014, five cities in Latin America and developing Asia have initiated seven new urban heavy rail lines using PPPs. In four of these projects, the PPPs are fully bundled, that is, they encompass design, financing, construction, and operations. It is too early to judge the overall performance of these seven projects, but some recommendations can be drawn from them as well as from earlier urban rail PPPs. The central lessons are the critical importance of a robust planning and management capacity in the public sector partner and the value of strong efficiency incentives for the private sector partners.

How to expand subway and urban railway networks: light rail extensions in Madrid, Spain

de O??a, Juan; Calvo, Francisco J.; Garach, Laura; de O??a, Roc??o; L??pez Maldonado, Griselda
Fonte: Transportation Research Board of the National Academies Publicador: Transportation Research Board of the National Academies
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.6%
Residential areas of detached houses were built in north and east Madrid, Spain, during the last decade of the 20th century. Because the popula- tion density in those areas is low, implementing an efficient transport system is complicated. In south Madrid in the 1960s, however, huge commuter towns developed. Some of them were linked to a suburban network at some point, whereas others were far away. The Madrid region promoted the construction of several light rail lines to resolve this issue. The lines function as extensions to the existing rail network (subway or suburban trains). The determining factors that enabled these lines to be implemented and operated successfully are analyzed. The recommen- dations for implementing a light rail transit system, on the basis of that analysis, are: (a) the lines should not be very long; (b) they should have a segregated right-of-way; (c) the quality of service should be good; and (d) they should be coordinated with other modes of transport. Apart from public funding, they could be funded by additional resources col- lected from property tax and the concessionaire company (private fund- ing). A concessionaire consortium may comprise construction companies, transport operators, financial institutions...

Where do novice and experienced drivers direct their attention on approach to urban rail level crossings?

Young, Kristie L.; Lenné, Michael G.; Beanland, Vanessa; Salmon, Paul M.; Stanton, Neville A.
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 11 pages
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.3%
Crashes at rail level crossings (RLXs) remain a persistent but ill-defined safety issue. In urban areas, RLXs are typically located in areas of high workload and visual clutter, such as busy shopping strips. Despite this, the impact of such environments on driver behaviour and compliance with RLX controls is not well understood. This study sought to examine where drivers direct their attention on approach to urban RLXs located in busy shopping strip areas, and whether this differs between novice and experienced drivers. Participants drove an instrumented vehicle around a pre-defined urban route containing several active (flashing light with boom barriers) RLXs. Drivers' visual scanning behaviour and cognitive processes were examined on approach to RLXs. The results suggest that RLXs were not a key focus of drivers' attention. Further, rather than actively scanning, participants were over-reliant on RLX warning signals and the behaviour of surrounding vehicles to alert them to the presence of both trains and RLXs. This study provides important insights into drivers' visual and cognitive behaviour on approach to urban RLXs located in areas of high visual demand.; This project is funded by ARC Linkage Grant (LP100200387) to Monash University in partnership with the University of Sunshine Coast and the University of Southampton...

Capacity-based cost modeling for light rail and bus rapid transit systems

Hsu, Lo Rosa
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.21%
Choosing between Light Rail Transit (LRT) and Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) systems is often controversial and not an easy task for transportation planners who are contemplating the upgrade of their public transportation services. These two transit systems provide comparable services for medium-sized cities from the suburban neighborhood to the Central Business District (CBD) and utilize similar right-of-way (ROW) categories. The research is aimed at developing a method to assist transportation planners and decision makers in determining the most feasible system between LRT and BRT. ^ Cost estimation is a major factor when evaluating a transit system. Typically, LRT is more expensive to build and implement than BRT, but has significantly lower Operating and Maintenance (OM) costs than BRT. This dissertation examines the factors impacting capacity and costs, and develops cost models, which are a capacity-based cost estimate for the LRT and BRT systems. Various ROW categories and alignment configurations of the systems are also considered in the developed cost models. Kikuchi's fleet size model (1985) and cost allocation method are used to develop the cost models to estimate the capacity and costs. ^ The comparison between LRT and BRT are complicated due to many possible transportation planning and operation scenarios. In the end...

Rail and Subway Concessions in Rio de Janeiro

Rebelo, Jorge M.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Viewpoint; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.3%
To help address a budgetary crisis in early 1995, the Rio de Janeiro state government began reforms aimed at selling or concessioning to the private sector loss-making state-owned enterprises. In the transport sector this meant selling or concessioning subway, commuterrail, bus, and ferry services, at the time requiring subsidies of US $363 million annually. This note describes the concessioning of Rio's subway, the Metro, in December 1997 and its commuter rail service, Flumitrens, in July 1998. Together they accounted for 80 percent of the subsidies. The reform was expected to eliminate subsidies for the Metro and reduce them by two-thirds for Flumitrens, to improve service, and to clear the backlog of maintenance and investment.

Investment Commitments in Sub-Saharan Africa Stayed at a Peak Level in 2007

Izaguirre, Ada Karina; Perard, Edouard
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.33%
Investment commitments to infrastructure projects with private participation in Sub-Saharan Africa amounted to almost US$11 billion in 2007, the second highest level since 1990, according to just-released data from the private participation in infrastructure project database. The region accounted for 7 percent of the year's total investment commitments in developing countries. Investment commitments in 2007 were down 10 percent from the level in 2006, the highest in 1990-2007. The regional peak in that year, however, was driven in part by an unusually large project: the US$3.4 billion Gautrain light rail project in South Africa, which had government cash support of around US$3 billion. If that project were excluded, investment in 2007 would be the highest ever in the region. Investment in 2007 was driven mostly by projects implemented in previous years. Projects reaching financial closure in 1990-2006 attracted US$7.6 billion, while the 24 new projects implemented in 2007 accounted for US$3.3 billion. Investment in physical assets declined by 22 percent to US$8.5 billion...

Transit ITS Implementation Guidance : Part 1. Introduction to Transit ITS

World Bank
Fonte: Beijing Publicador: Beijing
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.39%
There has been increased interest throughout the world in improving transit services through the introduction of intelligent transportation systems (ITS). ITS can be defined as a set of technologies intended to improve the quality or efficiency of transit services primarily by providing the appropriate information at the appropriate time in an appropriate form to transit staff and transit customers. The World Bank has participated in the financing of several ITS systems in China. Given the complexity of these projects and their potential for dramatic transformation of transit operating agencies, it is worthwhile to provide some guidance to senior staff from transit systems contemplating ITS projects as well as decision-makers external to the transit operating organizations The World Bank commissioned a series of three papers to assist in this effort. This first paper is a description of the key ITS applications for transit operations and where they are most beneficial. This second paper reviews a number of previous installations and reports on lessons learned...

Private Sector Participation in Light Rail-Light Metro Transit Initiatives

Mandri-Perrott, Cledan; Menzies, Iain
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
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46.3%
This book aims to help governments and public authorities to establish effective light rail-light metro transit (LRMT) systems, and focuses on use of Public-Private Participation (PPP) arrangements. Rather than identify a single approach, authors present options and discuss practical issues related to preparing and implementing new LRMT PPP schemes. The approach is focused on providing information that can be used to make informed decisions, adapted to local policy and objectives. The material presented is intended as a practical guide to developing LRMT PPPs in both developed and developing countries. This work endeavors to provide answers to readers' questions regarding how to successfully incorporate private sector participation in LRMT with a lesser emphasis on why LRMT and the private sector may be beneficial. The primary focus of this text is guiding the reader from design through to project implementation. It starts from the premise that underlying transport policy decisions will have already been made and that LRMT has already been identified as the appropriate transport solution. The authors have included some limited discussion of policy and technical issues where these directly impact the LRMT PPP approach. The approach is presented in nine sections...

Urban Rail Development in China : Issues and Options

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.57%
The Institute of Comprehensive Transport (NDRC) and the World Bank jointly carried out a study of urban rail development in China. The joint study team visited several selected cities that have developed or are developing urban rail systems, including Beijing, Chongqing, Wuhan, Changsha, Hangzhou, and Zhengzhou, and held discussions with relevant agencies at the central and local levels. This paper summarizes the key findings. It highlights the positive outlook for urban rail development in China and the strengths of China's circumstances and institutions in responding to that outlook. It also identifies the key areas where strengthening of institutions and processes of urban rail planning would enhance the contribution of urban railways to sustainable urban development and improve value for money from specific urban rail investments. It makes seven recommendations aimed at such strengthening. The study is intended to contribute both to urban rail policy and planning in China's cities and also to help the World Bank target its institutional support in this important sub-sector of China's transport system.

Transit-oriented development and the Hudson-Bergen Light Rail : shaping urban design patterns in northern New Jersey

Aranda, Marlon Patrick
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 148 p.
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.39%
This thesis investigates the influence of a new transit system on mature urban environments. The confluence of evolving socio-economic trends, cultural travel behaviors, and existing urban contexts, is changing how cities develop. The added value of convenient transit access provides unique urban design opportunities. Transit-oriented development (TOD) addresses these opportunities through attention to the pedestrian environment, coordinated land uses, and an emphasis on the holistic urban experience. The new Hudson-Bergen Light Rail (HBLR) provides a much needed North-South transit line along the New Jersey's congested Hudson River waterfront. Since NJ Transit announced their commitment to increase regional mobility in the mid-1990s, parcels adjacent to the HBLR stations have experienced unprecedented growth The various urban design and planning strategies address many contemporary issues, such as the role of the automobile in the city, the impact of increased densities, and the marketable pedestrian networks. By looking at the different urban development experiences of three different cities along the light rail, the thesis will illustrate transit-oriented opportunities for urban design and development.; by Marlon Patrick Aranda.; Thesis (M.C.P.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology...

Sistemas de transporte público urbano : análise comparativa entre modais de alta capacidade

Petzhold, Guillermo Sant'Anna
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Trabalho de Conclusão de Curso Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.21%
O crescente aumento da frota de veículos privados no País e suas consequentes externalidades, traduzidas por meio de congestionamentos e emissões de poluentes, justificam a necessidade da adoção de políticas para o incentivo ao transporte em massa, como, por exemplo, a Política Nacional de Mobilidade Urbana (PNMU). Tendo isso em vista, este trabalho versa sobre sistemas de transporte público urbano de alta capacidade, abordando os seguintes modais: metrô, VLT (veículo leve sobre trilhos) e BRT (bus rapid transit). Seu principal foco é a elaboração de uma comparação entre os sistemas com a qual se possa determinar faixas em que cada um deles opera através do uso do benchmarking e da utilização de KPI (key performance indicators). Para a realização disso, dez sistemas de cada modal foram selecionados, tendo como critério o seu carregamento diário (passageiros/dia útil) e sua integração ao meio urbano. Através da revisão da literatura e da disponibilidade da informação foram definidos os indicadores a serem coletados para a mensuração do desempenho de cada sistema. Esses parâmetros foram classificados em dois grupos distintos: características gerais da região metropolitana e características gerais do sistema. Tendo isso definido e estando de posse dos dados...

Connecting Workforce Affordable Housing and Light Rail in North Carolina’s Triangle Region

Alunkal, Maya
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Masters' project
Publicado em 26/04/2012
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.4%
In many metropolitan regions across the country, higher housing costs around urban cores, job centers, and public transit are forcing lower-wage workers to move farther away from work to find more affordable housing. The link between public transportation and affordable workforce housing is especially important to the Research Triangle region in North Carolina due to the proposed rail investment, which could raise housing values near the stations. Therefore in order to mitigate gentrification and displacement in the region, this report analyzes 15 possible policy tools related to the Triangle’s housing infrastructure. Using multi-attribute utility analysis, a ranking of the 15 policy tools is generated; Federal Low Income Housing Tax Credits ranked number one, Inclusionary Zoning ranked last. Going a step further, the best combination of policy tools, along with potential applicable rail stops, is determined for workforce housing preservation and creation of rental and owner units. The product is a management and policy guide for client, local policy-makers, and housing developers to place workforce housing near light rail.

Neighborhood design plays a critical role in affecting auto ownership around light rail transit developments

Cao, Jason; Cao, Xiaoshu
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 08/07/2014 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.45%
There is a growing interest in exploring the relationship between auto ownership and rail transit investment. However, gaining insight into this relationship is challenging, as researchers must disentangle the impact of rail transit on auto ownership from the influences of the built environment and residential self-selection. In a new research centered on the Minneapolis-St. Paul Metropolitan area, Jason Cao and Xiaoshu Cao examine the effects of light rail transit (LRT), neighborhood design, and self-selection on auto ownership. They find that neighborhood design and residential self-selection influences auto ownership and that LRT does not have an independent impact on auto ownership beyond neighborhood design and self-selection. Their results point to the importance of neighborhood design in rail transit development.