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Emprego de veias preservadas em glicerol como substituto de enxerto de nervo: estudo experimental em ratos; Use of glycerol preserved veins as substitute of nerve graft: experimental study in rats

Cunha, Armando dos Santos
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 03/09/2007 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.31%
Grandes perdas de tecido neural não permitem a reparação por meio de anastomose primária. Nesses casos, a auto-enxertia de nervo é considerado o melhor tratamento. A despeito de um tratamento cirúrgico adequado, déficits funcionais são observados e melhoras quanto à recuperação funcional e diminuição das seqüelas são desejáveis. Várias são as técnicas que almejaram esse propósito. A interposição de condutores tubulares, como ponte entre os cotos proximal e distal do nervo seccionado, apresenta-se como uma técnica alternativa que oferece vantagens teóricas. A veia é um material estudado como possível condutor tubular avaliado experimentalmente e em casos clínicos. Estudos recentes têm dado importância na utilização de transplantes de tecidos armazenados em banco de tecidos. O glicerol é utilizado para preservação de tecidos, tendo sido relatado seu uso em nervos e vasos. Entretanto, não há relatos da utilização de veias preservadas em glicerol como substituto de enxerto de nervo. O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar, em ratos, o grau de regeneração neural, utilizando análise histológica e análise funcional, obtida com a interposição de enxerto autógeno de nervo, veia autógena, veia autógena preservada em glicerol e veia alógena preservada em glicerol. Com técnica microcirúrgica...

Ação de fração do hormônio paratireóideo no metabolismo ósseo: estudo experimental em ratos; Effect of human parathyroid hormone fragment on bone metabolism: experimental study in rats

Bassit, Ana Cristina Ferreira
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 18/01/2011 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.54%
O hormônio da paratireóide (PTH) tem sido utilizado como um agente anabólico ósseo para o tratamento de condições de osteopenia / osteoporose, prevenção e consolidação de fraturas. O papel do fator de crescimento semelhante à insulina I (IGF-I), como um potencial mediador dos efeitos anabólicos do PTH, é controverso. O rato dwarf pode ser adequado para o estudo dessas interações in vivo, uma vez que a os níveis séricos de hormônio do crescimento (GH) encontram-se reduzidos a cerca de 6% dos valores normais em fêmeas e os níveis séricos de IGF-I, a cerca de 10% dos valores normais, mas estes animais são saudáveis e sem malformações esqueléticas. Os objetivos deste estudo foram: 1 - Avaliar o rato dwarf (dw-/dw-) como um modelo animal para o estudo dos efeitos da deficiência do GH e do IGF-I sobre o esqueleto e o metabolismo ósseo; 2 - Comparar os efeitos do tratamento com PTH sobre o esqueleto e formação óssea em ratos dwarf e em ratos Lewis, sua linhagem de origem. A partir de 9 semanas de idade, ratas Lewis e dwarf receberam injeções por via subcutânea, diariamente, por duas semanas, com medicamento placebo ou fragmento de hormônio paratireóideo humano, hPTH 1-34, na dose de 50 g / kg de peso corpóreo (N = 7-13/grupo). Foram realizadas avaliações do peso corpóreo semanalmente e...

Recovery from Strongyloides venezuelensis infection in Lewis rats is associated with a strong Th2 response

Chiuso-Minicucci, F.; Marra, N. M.; Zorzella-Pezavento, S. F. G.; Franca, T. G. D.; Ishikawa, L. L. W.; Amarante, M. R. V.; Amarante, Alessandro Francisco Talamini do; Sartori, Alexandrina
Fonte: Wiley-Blackwell Publishing, Inc Publicador: Wiley-Blackwell Publishing, Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 74-78
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.26%
P>In this study, we investigated the characteristics of the infection and subsequent immunity induced by Strongyloides venezuelensis in Lewis rats. Animals were infected with 4000 L3 of S. venezuelensis and number of eggs per gram of faeces indicated an acute phase around day 8 and a recovery phase around day 32 after infection. A strong Th2 polarization during recovery phase was ascertained by a significant increase in IgG1 and IgE compared with that in the acute period. A shift in the cytokine profile confirmed these findings. A predominant production of IFN-gamma during the acute phase was followed by IL-10 production during recovery. Together these findings show that experimental infection of Lewis rats with S. venezuelensis presents a kinetics of parasite establishment and immunity similar to that described in other models of helminthic infection.

Faecal examination and PCR to detect Strongyloides venezuelensis in experimentally infected Lewis rats

Marra, Nelson Mendes; Chiuso-Minicucci, Fernanda; Machado, Gabriel Capella; Zorzella-Pezavento, Sofia Fernanda Gonçalves; França, Thaís Graziela Donegá; Ishikawa, Larissa Lumi Watanabe; Amarante, Alessandro Francisco Talamini do; Sartori, Alexandrina;
Fonte: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde Publicador: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 57-61
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.26%
More sensitive methodologies are necessary to improve strongyloidiasis diagnosis. This study compared the sensitivities of the McMaster modified technique and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays, both performed in faecal samples. Lewis rats were subcutaneously infected with 4,000, 400 or 40 infective third-stage larvae, considered as high, moderate or low infection, respectively. Seven days later, they were euthanized to count adult nematodes recovered from the small intestine. Stool samples were used to count the number of eggs per gram (EPG) of faeces and to detect parasite DNA by PCR performed with a species and a genus primer pair. The sensitivity of these assays depended upon parasite burden and the primer specificity. All assays presented 100% sensitivity at the highest parasite load. In the moderate infection, EPG and PCR with the genus primer maintained 100% specificity, whereas PCR sensitivity with the species primer decreased to 77.7%. In low infection, the sensitivity was 60% for EPG, 0% for PCR with the species primer and 90% for PCR done with the genus primer. Together, these results suggest that PCR with a genus primer can be a very sensitive methodology to detect Strongyloides venezuelensisin faeces of Lewis rats infected with very low parasite burden.

Mistura de praguicidas em baixas doses: verificação de desregulação endócrina em ratos Lewis machos

Martinez, Meire França
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP) Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: 54 f. + 1 Cd-Rom
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.16%
Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES); Pós-graduação em Patologia - FMB; O presente estudo objetivou avaliar o potencial de desregulação endócrina de uma mistura de cinco praguicidas, fornecidos a ratos Lewis macho via ração em nível de seus NOELs. Os praguicidas estudados foram encontrados pela ANVISA em tomates à disposição do consumidor brasileiro. Os animais foram distribuídos em 8 grupos de acordo com a ração experimental, da seguinte maneira: Grupo 1 - ração basal, sem contaminantes; Grupo 2 (“Baixas doses”, praguicidas adicionados à ração em nível de seus respectivos NOELs) - diclorvós 0,23 mg/kg, dicofol 0,22 mg/kg, endosulfan 0,6 mg/kg, dieldrin 0,025 mg/kg, permetrina 5,0 mg/kg; Grupo 3 (“Doses efetivas”, correspondentes aos respectivos LOEL/LOAEL) - diclorvós 2,3 mg/kg, dicofol 2,5 mg/kg, endosulfan 2,9 mg/kg, dieldrin 0,05 mg/kg, permetrina 25,0 mg/kg e Grupos 4 a 8 (controles positivo) - rações contendo cada praguicida separadamente, em concentrações correspondentes aos seus respectivos LOEL/ LOAEL. Os animais foram sacrificados no final da 8ª. semana de tratamento. O modelo utilizado permitiu verificar que os praguicidas estudados, individualmente ou em misturas em “doses baixas” e em “doses efetivas”...

Infecção experimental de ratos (Rattus norvegivus) da linhagem Lewis por Strongyloides venezuelensis: dinâmica da infecção, uso de PCR para detecção do parasita e caracterização da resposta imune humoral

Marra, Nelson Mendes
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP) Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 86 f.
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.22%
Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); Pós-graduação em Ciências Biológicas (Genética) - IBB; No presente estudo foram analisadas a dinâmica da infecção primária por Strongyloides venezuelensis em ratos Lewis, a influência do sexo do hospedeiro e sua resposta imune. Também foi comparada a sensibilidade da PCR com as técnicas histológica e parasitológica na caracterização desta infecção utilizando amostras de tecidos e fezes, respectivamente. No primeiro artigo, o número de ovos por grama de fezes (OPG) foi determinado pela técnica de McMaster modificada e o DNA foi extraído para análise por PCR. Comparou-se a sensibilidade de ambos os métodos para o diagnóstico do parasita em fezes de ratos inoculados com 40, 400 e 4000 larvas infectantes (L3) e essas infecções foram consideradas leve, moderada e grave, respectivamente. Na PCR dois pares de primers foram empregados, um foi desenhado a partir da seqüência parcial de rDNA de S. venezuelensis e o outro, amplifica o rDNA de diversas espécies deste gênero. Nas amostras oriundas dos animais com infecção leve o primer específico não detectou DNA, já o primer gênero apresentou maior sensibilidade que a quantificação de OPG. No segundo artigo foi analisada a influência do sexo dos hospedeiros na suscetibilidade às infecções leve...

Estudo da participação da iNOS e do TNF-alfa na evolução da neurite experimental auto-imune em ratos Lewis; A study of iNOS and TNF-alfa participation in the evolution of experimental autoimmune neuritis in Lewis rats

Cristiane Lucia Rodriguez de la Hoz
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 17/08/2007 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.38%
A isoforma induzível da sintase do óxido nítrico (iNOS) e o fator de necrose tumoral-alfa (TNF-α) estão envolvidos em processos inflamatórios desmielinizantes como a síndrome de Guillain Barré e seu modelo animal, a neurite experimental auto-imune (EAN). A presença dessas moléculas foi investigada no sistema nervoso periférico de ratos Lewis em diferentes fases da EAN. Raízes nervosas oriundas dos segmentos medulares torácico 12 (T12) a lombar 3 (L3) (raízes adjacentes à intumescência lombar), cauda eqüina e nervos ciáticos foram coletados e processados para dupla imunofluorescência. Paralelamente, esses espécimes foram analisados quanto à desmielinização e degeneração axonal, por meio de histoquímica de Sudan Black e imunofluorescência para neurofilamentos, respectivamente. Todos os animais com EAN apresentaram células inflamatórias com imunorreatividade para iNOS e TNF-α, correspondendo a macrófagos e polimorfonucleares (neutrófilos). Essas células contendo iNOS e TNF-α foram observadas nos ratos Lewis exibindo os primeiros sinais clínicos da EAN. Sua população tornou-se numerosa durante a fase de agravamento do quadro clínico, diminuiu no decorrer da fase de recuperação e não foi observada nos animais clinicamente recuperados. Conforme o estágio da EAN...

Faecal examination and PCR to detect Strongyloides venezuelensis in experimentally infected Lewis rats

Marra,Nelson Mendes; Chiuso-Minicucci,Fernanda; Machado,Gabriel Capella; Zorzella-Pezavento,Sofia Fernanda Gonçalves; França,Thaís Graziela Donegá; Ishikawa,Larissa Lumi Watanabe; Amarante,Alessandro FT; Sartori,Alexandrina; Amarante,Mônica RV
Fonte: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde Publicador: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/02/2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.26%
More sensitive methodologies are necessary to improve strongyloidiasis diagnosis. This study compared the sensitivities of the McMaster modified technique and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays, both performed in faecal samples. Lewis rats were subcutaneously infected with 4,000, 400 or 40 infective third-stage larvae, considered as high, moderate or low infection, respectively. Seven days later, they were euthanized to count adult nematodes recovered from the small intestine. Stool samples were used to count the number of eggs per gram (EPG) of faeces and to detect parasite DNA by PCR performed with a species and a genus primer pair. The sensitivity of these assays depended upon parasite burden and the primer specificity. All assays presented 100% sensitivity at the highest parasite load. In the moderate infection, EPG and PCR with the genus primer maintained 100% specificity, whereas PCR sensitivity with the species primer decreased to 77.7%. In low infection, the sensitivity was 60% for EPG, 0% for PCR with the species primer and 90% for PCR done with the genus primer. Together, these results suggest that PCR with a genus primer can be a very sensitive methodology to detect Strongyloides venezuelensisin faeces of Lewis rats infected with very low parasite burden.

Strain-dependent effects of diazepam and the 5-HT2B/2C receptor antagonist SB 206553 in spontaneously hypertensive and Lewis rats tested in the elevated plus-maze

Takahashi,R.N.; Berton,O.; Mormède,P.; Chaouloff,F.
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/05/2001 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.42%
The 5-HT2B/2C receptor antagonist SB 206553 exerts anxiolytic effects in rat models of anxiety. However, these effects have been reported for standard rat strains, thus raising the issue of SB 206553 effects in rat strains displaying different levels of anxiety. Herein, the effects of SB 206553 in a 5-min elevated plus-maze test of anxiety were compared to those of the reference anxiolytic, diazepam, in two rat strains respectively displaying high (Lewis rats) and low (spontaneously hypertensive rats, SHR) anxiety. Diazepam (0.37, 0.75, or 1.5 mg/kg; 30 min before testing) increased in a dose-dependent manner the behavioral measures in SHR, but not in Lewis rats. On the other hand, SB 206553 (1.25, 2.5, or 5 mg/kg; 30 min before testing) failed to alter the anxiety parameters in both strains, whereas it increased closed arm entries in Lewis rats, suggesting that it elicited hyperactivity in the latter strain. Accordingly, the hypolocomotor effect of the nonselective 5-HT2B/2C receptor agonist m-chlorophenylpiperazine (1.5 mg/kg ip 20 min before a 15-min exposure to an activity cage) was prevented by the 1.25 and 2.5 mg/kg doses of SB 206553 in Lewis rats and SHR, respectively. Compared with SHR, Lewis rats may display a lower response to benzodiazepine-mediated effects and a more efficient control of locomotor activity by 5-HT2B/2C receptors.

Arthritogenicity of genetically manipulated Yersinia enterocolitica serotype O8 for Lewis rats.

Gaede, K I; Heesemann, J
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/1995 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.32%
Yersinia enterocolitica strains of serotype O8 but not strains of other human pathogenic serotypes (e.g., O3 or O9) are able to induce a reactive arthritis-like disease in Lewis rats after intravenous inoculation (J. L. Hill and D. T. Yu, Infect. Immun. 55:721-726, 1987). To assess which bacterial components or pathogenic factors are crucial for arthritis induction, six genetically manipulated Y. enterocolitica O8 derivatives have been compared with the parental strain in Lewis rats. Neither differences in the length of the lipopolysaccharide side chain (smooth to semirough) of Y. enterocolitica O8 nor replacement of the virulence plasmid (pYVO8) of Y. enterocolitica O8 with that of the nonarthritogenic Y. enterocolitica O9 (pYVO9) had a significant influence on arthritogenic potential or virulence in rats. Transposon insertional inactivation of the plasmid gene yadA encoding the Yersinia adhesin and the collagen-binding protein or of the secretion of YopH resulted in decreased arthritogenicity (increase of the arthritogenic infectious dose) and pathogenicity (decreased persistence of the pathogen in spleens and livers of rats and increase of the 50% lethal dose for mice). However, mutants impaired in yersiniabactin production or uptake proved to be nonarthritogenic for rats...

Lewis rats are more sensitive than Fischer rats to successive negative contrast, but less sensitive to the anxiolytic and appetite-stimulating effects of chlordiazepoxide

Freet, Christopher S.; Tesche, Jason D.; Tompers, Dennie M.; Riegel, Katherine E.; Grigson, Patricia S.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.5%
Lewis rats show greater anticipatory contrast effects than Fischer 344 rats. Specifically, relative to Fischer rats, Lewis rats exhibit greater avoidance of a saccharin cue when it predicts the future availability of a preferred sucrose reward [Grigson, P.S., Freet, C.S. The suppressive effects of sucrose and cocaine, but not lithium chloride, are greater in Lewis than in Fischer rats: evidence for the reward comparison hypothesis. Behav Neurosci 2000;114:353–363.]. Experiment 1 was designed to determine whether Lewis rats also would demonstrate greater contrast in another paradigm, successive negative contrast (SNC). The results demonstrated a tendency for greater SNC in Lewis rats and then slower recovery from the unexpected loss of reward relative to the Fischer rats. Pretreatment with the anxiolytic agent, chlordiazepoxide (CDP), effectively eliminated contrast in the Fischer rats, but served to prolong recovery from contrast in the Lewis rats. Finally, the results of Experiment 2 demonstrated that Fischer rats, but not Lewis rats, increase consumption of a 0.1 M sucrose solution following pretreatment with CDP. Together, the results show that, while both Lewis and Fischer rats demonstrate SNC, the effect is more sustained in the Lewis rats and these rats are insensitive to both the anxiolytic and the appetite-stimulating effects of CDP.

Genetic resistance to the induction of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in Lewis rats. I. Genetic analysis of an apparent mutant strain with phenotypic resistance to experimental allergic encephalomyelitis

Fonte: The Rockefeller University Press Publicador: The Rockefeller University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/01/1981 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.47%
Clinical resistance to the induction of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis was observed in a closed colony of Lewis (designated Le-R) rats. Disease susceptibility in randomly bred animals appeared to increase with increasing age. In the small group of young Le-R rats, which were susceptible, disease onset was delayed, severity of symptoms was reduced, and duration of clinical signs was abbreviated compared to conventional Lewis rats. The severity of histologic neural tissue lesions correlated with clinical observations. Breeding experiments indicated that most Le-R rats were resistant to disease induction regardless of whether their ancestors had been selected for susceptibility or resistance. The F3 generation of resistant lineage was uniformly resistant at all ages tested. Virtually all (Lewis X Le- R)F1 rats of either sex were resistant when challenged at 7-8 wk of age indicating that resistance was a dominant autosomal trait. Approximately half of (F1 X Lewis) backcross rats developed paralytic EAE whereas one-fourth were entirely resistant, suggesting that disease resistance may be mediated by one or two genes. Le-R rats shared at least some of the Lewis rat major histocompatibility antigens. Resistance apparently did not reflect a nonspecific impairment of cellular immune responsiveness. Le-R rats...

Chronic Treatment with the G Protein-Coupled Receptor 30 Agonist G-1 Decreases Blood Pressure in Ovariectomized mRen2.Lewis Rats

Lindsey, Sarah Hoffmann; Cohen, Jonathan A.; Brosnihan, K. Bridget; Gallagher, Patricia E.; Chappell, Mark C.
Fonte: The Endocrine Society Publicador: The Endocrine Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.32%
The mRen2.Lewis congenic strain is an estrogen-sensitive model of hypertension whereby estrogen depletion produces a significant and sustained increase in blood pressure. The recent identification of G protein-coupled receptor 30 (GPR30) as a third estrogen receptor isotype prompted us to test the hypothesis that this novel receptor exhibits beneficial cardiovascular actions in the hypertensive female mRen2.Lewis rat. Intact female, ovariectomized female (OVX), and male mRen2.Lewis rats were treated with the selective GPR30 agonist G-1 or vehicle via osmotic minipump for 2 wk. G-1 significantly reduced systolic blood pressure in OVX (178 ± 7 to 142 ± 10 mm Hg, P < 0.001, n = 8) but not intact female (144 ± 3 to 143 ± 5 mm Hg, P > 0.05, n = 5) or male mRen2.Lewis rats (207 ± 7 to 192 ± 5 mm Hg, P > 0.05, n = 7). G-1 did not alter uterine or body weight in OVX, suggesting activation of a receptor distinct from estrogen receptor-α and -β. In isolated aortic rings from OVX, G-1 reduced constriction in response to angiotensin II. Vascular angiotensin-converting enzyme and angiotensin type 1 receptor mRNA were also lower, whereas angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 mRNA was increased. G-1 treatment in OVX was not associated with alterations in either endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression or acetylcholine-induced relaxation. Immunohistochemical staining for GPR30 was evident in both the intima and media of the aorta. We conclude that the novel estrogen receptor GPR30 may contribute to the beneficial cardiovascular actions of estrogen in female mRen2.Lewis rats through regulation of vascular components of the renin-angiotensin system.

Impact of predatory threat on fear extinction in Lewis rats

Goswami, Sonal; Cascardi, Michele; Rodríguez-Sierra, Olga E.; Duvarci, Sevil; Paré, Denis
Fonte: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press Publicador: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.37%
Humans with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are deficient at extinguishing conditioned fear responses. A study of identical twins concluded that this extinction deficit does not predate trauma but develops as a result of trauma. The present study tested whether the Lewis rat model of PTSD reproduces these features of the human syndrome. Lewis rats were subjected to classical auditory fear conditioning before or after exposure to a predatory threat that mimics a type of traumatic stress that leads to PTSD in humans. Exploratory behavior on the elevated plus maze 1 wk after predatory threat exposure was used to distinguish resilient vs. PTSD-like rats. Properties of extinction varied depending on whether fear conditioning and extinction occurred before or after predatory threat. When fear conditioning was carried out after predatory threat, PTSD-like rats showed a marked extinction deficit compared with resilient rats. In contrast, no differences were seen between resilient and PTSD-like rats when fear conditioning and extinction occurred prior to predatory threat. These findings in Lewis rats closely match the results seen in humans with PTSD, thereby suggesting that studies comparing neuronal interactions in resilient vs. at-risk Lewis rats might shed light on the causes and pathophysiology of human PTSD.

Fischer rats are more sensitive than Lewis rats to the suppressive effects of morphine and the aversive κ-opioid agonist spiradoline

Freet, Christopher S.; Wheeler, Robert A.; Leuenberger, Ellen; Mosblech, Nicole A. S.; Grigson, Patricia S.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.4%
Data suggest that rats avoid intake of an otherwise palatable saccharin cue when paired with a drug of abuse, at least in part, because the value of the taste cue pales in anticipation of the availability of the highly rewarding drug. Earlier support for this hypothesis was provided by the finding that relative to the less sensitive Fischer rats, Lewis rats exhibit greater avoidance of a saccharin cue when paired with a rewarding sucrose or cocaine unconditioned stimulus (US), but not when paired with the aversive agent, lithium chloride (LiCl). More recent data, however, have shown that Fischer rats actually exhibit greater, not less, avoidance of the same saccharin cue when morphine serves as the US. Therefore, Experiment 1 evaluated morphine-induced suppression of intake of the taste cue in Lewis and Fischer rats when the morphine US was administered subcutaneously, rather than ip. Experiment 2 examined the effect of strain on the suppression of intake of the saccharin cue when paired with spiradoline, a selective κ-opioid receptor agonist. The results confirm that Fischer rats are more responsive to the suppressive effects of morphine than Lewis rats and that Fischer rats also exhibit greater avoidance of the saccharin cue when paired with spiradoline...

Decreased production of TNF-alpha by lymph node cells indicates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis remission in Lewis rats

Seger,Juliana; Zorzella-Pezavento,Sofia Fernanda Gonçalves; Pelizon,Ana Cláudia; Martins,Douglas Rodrigues; Domingues,Alexandre; Sartori,Alexandrina
Fonte: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde Publicador: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/05/2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.13%
Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is mediated by CD4+ Th1 cells that mainly secrete IFN-γ and TNF-α, important cytokines in the pathophysiology of the disease. Spontaneous remission is, in part, attributed to the down regulation of IFN-γ and TNF-α by TGF-β. In the current paper, we compared weight, histopathology and immunological parameters during the acute and recovery phases of EAE to establish the best biomarker for clinical remission. Female Lewis rats were immunised with myelin basic protein (MBP) emulsified with complete Freund's adjuvant. Animals were evaluated daily for clinical score and weight prior to euthanisation. All immunised animals developed the expected characteristics of EAE during the acute phase, including significant weight loss and high clinical scores. Disease remission was associated with a significant reduction in clinical scores, although immunised rats did not regain their initial weight values. Brain inflammatory infiltrates were higher during the acute phase. During the remission phase, anti-myelin antibody levels increased, whereas TNF-α and IFN-γ production by lymph node cells cultured with MBP or concanavalin A, respectively, decreased. The most significant difference observed between the acute and recovery phases was in the induction of TNF-α levels in MBP-stimulated cultures. Therefore...

Resistance to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis development in Lewis rats from a conventional animal facility

Zorzella,Sofia Fernanda Gonçalves; Seger,Juliana; Martins,Douglas Rodrigues; Pelizon,Ana Claudia; Sartori,Alexandrina
Fonte: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde Publicador: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2007 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.29%
Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an inflammatory disease of the brain and spinal cord that is mediated by CD4+ T lymphocytes specific to myelin components. In this study we compared development of EAE in Lewis rats from two colonies, one kept in pathogen-free conditions (CEMIB colony) and the other (Botucatu colony) kept in a conventional animal facility. Female Lewis rats were immunized with 100 µl of an emulsion containing 50 µg of myelin, associated with incomplete Freund's adjuvant plus Mycobacterium butyricum. Animals were daily evaluated for clinical score and weight. CEMIB colony presented high EAE incidence with clinical scores that varied from three to four along with significant weight losses. A variable disease incidence was observed in the Botucatu colony with clinical scores not higher than one and no weight loss. Immunological and histopathological characteristics were also compared after 20 days of immunization. Significant amounts of IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha and IL-10 were induced by myelin in cultures from CEMIB animals but not from the Botucatu colony. Significantly higher levels of anti-myelin IgG1 were detected in the CEMIB colony. Clear histopathological differences were also found. Cervical spinal cord sections from CEMIB animals showed typical perivascular inflammatory foci whereas samples from the Botucatu colony showed a scanty inflammatory infiltration. Helminths were found in animals from Botucatu colony but not...

Prevention of adjuvant arthritis in Lewis rats by neonatal bacille Calmette–Guérin (BCG) infection

ESAGUY, N; ÁGUAS, A P
Fonte: Blackwell Science Inc Publicador: Blackwell Science Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/1996 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.44%
Tolerization of pathogenic antigens is one of the experimental strategies that has been proposed to prevent autoimmune disease. We have investigated here whether neonatal intraperitoneal infection of Lewis rats with Mycobacterium bovis-BCG has any effect on the expression of adjuvant arthritis (AA), an autoimmune disease that is produced by immunization of the rats with dead mycobacteria in mineral oil (i.e. Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA)). We found that neonatal infection with 108 viable BCG bacilli rendered all Lewis rats resistant to the expression of AA after FCA immunization. This BCG-induced protection from reactive arthritis was not seen in Lewis rats infected with smaller inocula (106 BCG bacilli) or if the infection was performed after the neonatal period (e.g. at 3 weeks of age). Neonatal administration of 65-kD mycobacterial heat shock protein (hsp65, a key antigen in the etiopathogenesis of AA) failed to protect Lewis rats from AA; injection of lactoferrin (an autoantigen that may be involved in the physiopathology of autoimmune arthritis) to newborn Lewis rats decreased the severity of AA observed after FCA immunization of the animals. Western blotting revealed that Lewis rats that had acquired resistance to AA also showed changes in their repertoire of antibody specificities; among these alterations was decreased anti-hsp65 reactivity. We conclude that neonatal infection with BCG...

Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in pituitary-grafted Lewis rats

Esquifino, Ana I; Cano, Pilar; Zapata, Agustín; Cardinali, Daniel P
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 23/08/2006 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.32%
Treatment of susceptible rats with dopaminergic agonists that reduce prolactin release decreases both severity and duration of clinical signs of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE). To assess to what extent the presence of an ectopic pituitary (that produces an increase in plasma prolactin levels mainly derived from the ectopic gland) affects EAE, 39 male Lewis rats were submitted to pituitary grafting from littermate donors. Another group of 38 rats was sham-operated by implanting a muscle fragment similar in size to the pituitary graft. All rats received subcutaneous (s.c.) injections of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) plus spinal cord homogenate (SCH) and were monitored daily for clinical signs of EAE. Animals were killed by decapitation on days 1, 4, 7, 11 or 15 after immunization and plasma was collected for prolactin RIA. In a second experiment, 48 rats were immunized by s.c. injection of a mixture of SCH and CFA, and then received daily s.c. injections of bromocriptine (1 mg/kg) or saline. Groups of 8 animals were killed on days 8, 11 or 15 after immunization and plasma prolactin was measured. Only sham-operated rats exhibited clinical signs of the disease when assessed on day 15 after immunization. A progressive decrease in plasma prolactin levels was observed in pituitary-grafted rats...

Cellular mRNA expression of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), IL-4 and IL-10 relates to resistance to experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis (EAMG) in young Lewis rats

SHI, F-D; ZHANG, G-X; BAI, X-F; VAN DER MEIDE, P-H; LINK, H
Fonte: Blackwell Science Inc Publicador: Blackwell Science Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/1997 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.33%
Age-related alterations in the immune system, including changes in lymphocyte subset composition, result in changes of cytokine patterns and might thereby influence the incidence and severity of autoimmune diseases. To investigate the age-related resistance to EAMG, an animal model for human MG, young (4-week-old) and adult (8–10-week-old) female Lewis rats were immunized with Torpedo acetylcholine receptor (AChR) and Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA). Adult Lewis rats showed severe weight loss and progressive muscular weakness after immunization, while young rats developed minor clinical signs of EAMG after a prolonged interval post-immunization. By comparison with adult rats, the young had lower AChR-specific T and B cells responses, and less muscle AChR loss. In situ hybridization performed on mononuclear cells (MNC) from lymph nodes revealed that young rats had lower levels of AChR-specific IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-10 mRNA-expressing cells compared with adult rats. Since IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-10 promote the development of EAMG, the low expression of these cytokines might contribute to EAMG resistance in young Lewis rats.