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Dysfunctional vs. functional difficulties: a new perspective on learning disabilities

Gonçalves, Maria Dulce Miguéns, 1961-
Fonte: ELSIN, 16th Annual Conference Publicador: ELSIN, 16th Annual Conference
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em /07/2011 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.49%
This study was developed as part of an exploratory work on concepts and common sense beliefs about learning difficulties in the Portuguese educational community. Lay conceptions of college students were analyzed in a qualitative study in order to identify different ways of understanding learning difficulties. Students from different courses and levels of training, without specific information in this field of educational psychology, responded by writing to four open questions about learning and learning disabilities. Data were analyzed to identify the range of personal conceptions. Written responses were subjected to content analysis. Multiple categories emerged and were grouped into four main perspectives, incorporating nine different lay conceptions of learning difficulties. These common sense conceptions corresponded in a very precise way to the scientific conceptions of “learning disabilities” which were successively developed in recent decades (Poplin, 1988). Besides, more than distinguish between two types of students, with and without LD, results suggest a new distinction between two kinds of difficulties, dysfunctional versus functional difficulties. Functional difficulties are needed and should be promoted to enhance the quality of learning.

Learning disabilities: analysis of 69 children

Meister,Eduardo Kaehler; Bruck,Isac; Antoniuk,Sérgio Antônio; Crippa,Ana Chrystina de Souza; Muzzolon,Sandra Regina Baggio; Spessatto,Adriane; Gregolin,Reni
Fonte: Academia Brasileira de Neurologia - ABNEURO Publicador: Academia Brasileira de Neurologia - ABNEURO
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2001 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.48%
With this article we intend to demonstrate the importance of evaluation and follow up of children with learning disabilities, through a multidisciplinary team. As well as to establish the need of intervention. We evaluate 69 children, from Aline Picheth Public School, in Curitiba, attending first or second grade of elementary school, through general and evolutionary neurological examination, pediatric checklist symptoms, and social, linguistic and psychological (WISC-III, Bender Infantile and WPPSI-figures) evaluation. The incidence was higher in boys (84,1%), familiar history of learning disabilities was found in 42%, and writing abnormalities in 56,5%. The most frequent diagnosis was attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder, in 39,1%. With this program, we aimed to reduce the retention taxes and stress the importance of this evaluation, and, if necessary, multidisciplinar intervention in the cases of learning disabilities.

Social Skill Training Interventions for Children with Learning Disabilities in the Primary Grades (Grades 1-3)

Willoughby, Alyssa
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Project
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.43%
As interpersonal conflict constitute an integral part of a child’s social experience, individuals with LD require help in resolving interpersonal conflict in an appropriate and socially acceptable manner. Although practitioners have struggled with the best way to alleviate these problems, social skill interventions are considered to be an evidence based-method that offers hope in supporting students’ social progression. Students with learning disabilities do not learn through observation of their peers or implicit teaching. Instead, these skills must be taught directly, extensively, and explicitly. This project is organized into three chapters. Following the introductory chapter, a chapter that reviews research studies that examine social skills in students with learning disabilities is included. Particular themes found within the articles, such as interpersonal conflict, social perception, and social interventions that relate to specific social skill deficits and LD are explored. In the third chapter, I present a curriculum unit. The curriculum unit is designed to meet three goals: to have the student: (1) manage and appreciate the components that make up the context of interpersonal conflict; (2) devise alternative solutions to resolve a conflict; and (3) appreciate the consequences of the solutions they propose. After this unit has been completed...

Invisible disability, visible people: a closer look at the experiences of teachers with learning disabilities /

Kitchura, Catherine.
Fonte: Brock University Publicador: Brock University
Tipo: Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.58%
Throughout their schooling experiences, students with learning disabilities (LD) face numerous academic and socioemotional challenges. Some of these individuals rise above these obstacles to obtain a postsecondary education and become professionals. Recently, there have been a number of individuals with learning disabilities who have chosen a career in teaching. There is a lack of research that documents the experiences of teachers with learning disabilities. The purpose of this qualitative study is to gain an understanding of the challenges that the teachers with learning disabilities strive to overcome and the supports that they receive ^^^ch facilitate their inception into teaching. Four teachers with learning disabilities were the participants in this collective case study research. Data were collected through semistructured interviews. These data were coded, collapsed into themes, and the results were presented in a narrative form. The resultant 9 themes are: (a) Perspectives on School Experiences, (b) Identification and Effective Accommodations, (c) Isolation, Frustration, and Support, (d) Awareness of Learning Disability at Age 18, (e) Disclosure of Learning Disability, (f) Negative Impact of the Learning Disability Label...

A Case Study of the "Who is NOBODY?" Project: A Character Development Program for Children with Learning Disabilities

Miller, Ashley
Fonte: Brock University Publicador: Brock University
Tipo: Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.41%
This research study explored a support system for children with learning disabilities. The Learning Disabilities Association of Niagara Region (LDANR) recently expanded its Better Emotional and Social Times (B.E.S.T.) program to incorporate an innovative, character education initiative called the “Who is NOBODY?” program. The objective of this qualitative case study was two-fold. First, the study aimed to support the LDANR in assessing the efficacy of the “Who is NOBODY?” program, providing the LDANR with empirical support for their programs. Second, the study enabled a more in-depth understanding of how to best support children with LD in regards to their social and emotional well-being. The study explored the “Who is NOBODY?” program through three lenses: design, implementation, and experiences of participating children. Three primary themes emerged from these three data lenses: positive character traits, prosocial behaviour, and strong self-efficacy – leading to the promotion of strong character development and self-esteem. Taken together, the “Who is NOBODY?” program was shown to be a successful remediation program for supporting vulnerable children with LD.

The Use of a Computer Graphic Organizer for Persuasive Composition Writing by Hispanic Students with Specific Learning Disabilities

Unzueta, Caridad H
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.31%
Many culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) students with specific learning disabilities (SLD) struggle with the writing process. Particularly, they have difficulties developing and expanding ideas, organizing and elaborating sentences, and revising and editing their compositions (Graham, Harris, & Larsen, 2001; Myles, 2002). Computer graphic organizers offer a possible solution to assist them in their writing. This study investigated the effects of a computer graphic organizer on the persuasive writing compositions of Hispanic middle school students with SLD. A multiple baseline design across subjects was used to examine its effects on six dependent variables: number of arguments and supporting details, number and percentage of transferred arguments and supporting details, planning time, writing fluency, syntactical maturity (measured by T-units, the shortest grammatical sentence without fragments), and overall organization. Data were collected and analyzed throughout baseline and intervention. Participants were taught persuasive writing and the writing process prior to baseline. During baseline, participants were given a prompt and asked to use paper and pencil to plan their compositions. A computer was used for typing and editing. Intervention required participants to use a computer graphic organizer for planning and then a computer for typing and editing. The planning sheets and written composition were printed and analyzed daily along with the time each participant spent on planning. The use of computer graphic organizers had a positive effect on the planning and persuasive writing compositions. Increases were noted in the number of supporting details planned...

The Relationship Between Educational Placement, Instructional Practices, and Achievement Gains of Black Students with Specific Learning Disabilities in Secondary Urban School Settings

Phillips, Deidre Marshall
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.52%
Black students, in general, are underserved academically (Darling-Hammond, 2000; Townsend, 2002) and overrepresented in special education (Donovan & Cross, 2002). Black students with disabilities are further overrepresented in more restrictive educational environments (Skiba, Poloni-Staudinger, Gallini, Simmons & Feggins-Azziz, 2006). Although the National Longitudinal Transition Study 2 (NLTS2) revealed that the academic performance of students with learning disabilities is positively related to the percentage of courses taken in the general education setting (Newman, 2006), the research specifically on placement of Black students with disabilities, particularly at the secondary level, as it relates to academic achievement is lacking. While previous studies have sought to determine which placement is better for students with disabilities, no study was found that specifically examined the impact of placement specific to Black students with specific learning disabilities (SLD) in urban settings (Fore, III, Hagan-Burke, Burke, Boon & Smith, 2008; Rea, McLaughlin & Walther-Thomas, 2002). This study examined educational placement, instructional best practices, and achievement gains of Black students with SLD in urban secondary settings using an ex post facto research design. Achievement...

The Use of Computer Graphic Organizers For Narrative Writing By Elementary School Students With Specific Learning Disabilities

Gonzalez-Ledo, Mary K
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.35%
Writing is an academic skill critical to students in today’s schools as it serves as a predominant means for demonstrating knowledge during school years (Graham, 2008). However, for many students with Specific Learning Disabilities (SLD), learning to write is a challenging, complex process (Lane, Graham, Harris, & Weisenbach, 2006). Students SLD have substantial writing challenges related to the nature of their disability (Mayes & Calhoun, 2005). This study investigated the effects of computer graphic organizer software on the narrative writing compositions of four, fourth- and fifth-grade, elementary-level boys with SLD. A multiple baseline design across subjects was used to explore the effects of the computer graphic organizer software on four dependent variables: total number of words, total planning time, number of common story elements, and overall organization. Prior to baseline, participants were taught the fundamentals of narrative writing. Throughout baseline and intervention, participants were read a narrative writing prompt and were allowed up to 10 minutes to plan their writing, followed by 15 minutes for writing, and 5 minutes of editing. During baseline, all planning was done using paper and pencil. During intervention...

The Use of a Computer Graphic Organizer for Persuasive Composition Writing by Hispanic Students with Specific Learning Disabilities

Unzueta, Caridad H
Fonte: SelectedWorks Publicador: SelectedWorks
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.31%
Many culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) students with specific learning disabilities (SLD) struggle with the writing process. Particularly, they have difficulties developing and expanding ideas, organizing and elaborating sentences, and revising and editing their compositions (Graham, Harris, & Larsen, 2001; Myles, 2002). Computer graphic organizers offer a possible solution to assist them in their writing. This study investigated the effects of a computer graphic organizer on the persuasive writing compositions of Hispanic middle school students with SLD. A multiple baseline design across subjects was used to examine its effects on six dependent variables: number of arguments and supporting details, number and percentage of transferred arguments and supporting details, planning time, writing fluency, syntactical maturity (measured by T-units, the shortest grammatical sentence without fragments), and overall organization. Data were collected and analyzed throughout baseline and intervention. Participants were taught persuasive writing and the writing process prior to baseline. During baseline, participants were given a prompt and asked to use paper and pencil to plan their compositions. A computer was used for typing and editing. Intervention required participants to use a computer graphic organizer for planning and then a computer for typing and editing. The planning sheets and written composition were printed and analyzed daily along with the time each participant spent on planning. The use of computer graphic organizers had a positive effect on the planning and persuasive writing compositions. Increases were noted in the number of supporting details planned...

Supporting students with learning disabilities to explore linear relationships using online learning objects

Beatty, Ruth; Bruce, Catherine D.
Fonte: Grupo de Investigaci??n Did??ctica de la Matem??tica: Pensamiento Num??rico (FQM-193) Publicador: Grupo de Investigaci??n Did??ctica de la Matem??tica: Pensamiento Num??rico (FQM-193)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.37%
The study of linear relationships is foundational for mathematics teaching and learning. However, students??? abilities to connect different representations of linear relationships have proven to be challenging. In response, a computer-based instructional sequence was designed to support students??? understanding of the connections among representations. In this paper we report on the affordances of this dynamic mode of representation specifically for students with learning disabilities. We outline four results identified by teachers as they implemented the online lessons.; El estudio de las relaciones lineales es fundamental en la ense??anza y el aprendizaje de las matem??ticas. Sin embargo, las habilidades de los estudiantes para conectar distintas representaciones de las relaciones lineales han demostrado ser un reto. Ante esto, hemos dise??ado una secuencia de ense??anza basada en ordenadores para fomentar en los estudiantes la comprensi??n de las conexiones entre estas representaciones.Presentamos las potencialidades de este tipo de representaci??n din??mica para estudiantes con dificultades de aprendizaje, destacando cuatro resultados identificados por maestros al implementar las lecciones en l??nea.

Auditory evoked potential: a proposal for further evaluation in children with learning disabilities

Frizzo, Ana C. F.
Fonte: Frontiers Research Foundation Publicador: Frontiers Research Foundation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 1-5
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.41%
The information presented in this paper demonstrates the author's experience in previews cross-sectional studies conducted in Brazil, in comparison with the current literature. Over the last 10 years, auditory evoked potential (AEP) has been used in children with learning disabilities. This method is critical to analyze the quality of the processing in time and indicates the specific neural demands and circuits of the sensorial and cognitive process in this clinical population. Some studies with children with dyslexia and learning disabilities were shown here to illustrate the use of AEP in this population.

Breaking the silence : exploring the workplace experiences of six women with learning disabilities

Augustin, Melissa L.
Fonte: Brock University Publicador: Brock University
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.57%
In the current economic climate, employees are expected to upgrade their skills in order to remain productive and competitive in the workplace, and many women with learning disabilities! may feel doubly challenged when dealing with such expectations. Although the number of people with reported learning disabilities who enter the workforce is expected to increase, a dearth of research focuses on work-related experiences of women with learning disabilities; consequently, employers and educators often are unaware ofthe obstacles and demands facing such individuals. This qualitative narrative study sheds light on the work experiences of women with diagnosed or suspected learning disabilities. The study used semistructured interviews to explore their perspectives and reflections on learnlng in order to: (a) raise awareness of the needs of women with learning disabilities, (b) enhance their opportunities to learn in the workplace, and (c) draw attention to the need for improvement of inclusiveness in the workplace, especially for hidden disabilities. Study findings reveal that participants' learning was influenced by work relationships, the learning environments, self-determination, and taking personal responsibility. Moreover...

MELISSA, TRISHA, AND RUTH: HEARING THE VOICES OF THREE HOME SCHOOLED ADOLESCENTS WITH LEARNING DISABILITIES

LOTEN, SARAH ELIZABETH
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.45%
ABSTRACT The intent of this study was to explore the life and values of three home schooled adolescents with learning disabilities and their families, to determine the level of social inclusion for the students and to examine academic individualization within the learning process of these students. The data were collected through interviews with teaching parents, the students and non-parent coaches or teachers. Observations took place in the home and outside the home in various locations for each student. Socially, the role of interest, context, friendships and social networks were all significant factors. Academically, the home school environment provided a dynamic intersection of different schooling environments with instructional characteristics that were deemed essential for learning. Despite the differences between families, the themes were similar across the case studies. The social landscape of these students looks different from regularly schooled children but it is healthy, with many opportunities for friendship and social networks. The academic environment allows for the advantages of tutorial and small-group instruction as well as opportunities to be included in larger, classroom-style groups in certain contexts. These three case studies demonstrate that home schooling can support the needs of children with learning disabilities through instructional strategies and through contextual advantages. For non-home schoolers...

The Voices of Young Adults With Learning Disabilities: Their Perceptions of Elementary and Secondary Schooling

Daiken, Candice
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.47%
The classroom is a space in which students can participate in both academic and social experiences. Perceptions of school held by students with learning disabilities (LD) may be different than those held by their peers. Researchers suggest that students with LD may experience a sense of being different and isolated from their peers because of their learning differences (Alexander-Passe, 2008; Lackaye & Margalit, 2006). Defining LD is a complex and contested process. However, the lack of a universal definition can contribute to misconceptions about LD. Moreover, this lack of a universal definition makes it challenging for teachers, both new and experienced, to fully understand how to work with students who have LD. Students who have been identified as having a learning disability are sometimes removed from their regular classroom for designated periods of time every day and are placed in a special education setting such as a resource room where they receive explicit instruction to help develop their reading and decoding abilities (Nugent, 2008). Thus, this location difference adds to the differences in educational experiences students with LD can encounter. This qualitative research describes the perceptions of three young adults (aged 18–21) with learning disabilities (YALD) about their educational experiences in elementary and secondary school. Data were collected through two face-to-face in-depth semi-structured interviews and thematic analysis of the data was conducted. The findings are reported both individually to allow unique stories to emerge and collectively to highlight similar themes discussed by all three participants. Furthermore...

The Visual Arts-Based Experiences of Students with Learning Disabilities: Two Multiple-Perspective Case Studies

Karagiorgakis, IRENE
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.45%
Visual arts-based tasks have been used and continue to be used by educators to help support the learning needs of many students. Research findings pertaining to visual arts-based education have concluded that visual arts-based tasks can help to improve students’ social communication skills, support their learning in academic subject areas, and increase their learning engagement. In recognition of the potential benefits of integrating the arts into the curriculum, the Learning Through the Arts (LTTA) program provides students with opportunities to engage in arts-based activities. In 2003, the results of a national longitudinal study on the LTTA program revealed a strong relationship between students’ involvement in the arts and their learning and engagement. The investigators recommended that further research in this area was required; through my research, I sought to contribute to this area of study. It is within the setting of a visual arts-based LTTA program that this study was conducted. Data were collected to construct two multiple-perspective case studies—each involving a Grade 7 student with learning disabilities. Each multiple-perspective case study involved the student’s mother, classroom teacher, and LTTA artist-educator in order to explore the following research question: In what way did visual arts-based tasks incite the student’s learning attitude...

Investigating the widely held belief that men and women with learning disabilities receive poor quality healthcare when admitted to hospital: a single-site study of 30-day readmission rates

Kelly, C. L.; Thomson, K.; Wagner, A. P.; Waters, J. P.; Thompson, A.; Jones, S.; Holland, A. J.; Redley, M.
Fonte: Wiley Publicador: Wiley
Tipo: Article; accepted version
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.41%
This is the author accepted manuscript. The final version is available from Wiley via http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jir.12193; Background This study aims to use 30-day readmission rates to investigate the presumption that men and women with learning disabilities (LDs, known internationally as intellectual disabilities) receive poorer quality hospital care than their non-disabled peers. Method A 12-month retrospective audit was conducted using Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) at a single acute hospital in the East of England. This identified all in-patient admissions; admissions where the person concerned was recognised as having a LD; and all emergency readmissions within 30 days of discharge. Additionally, the healthcare records of all patients identified as having a LD and readmitted within 30 days as a medical emergency were examined in order to determine whether or not these readmissions were potentially preventable. Results Over the study period, a total of 66?870 adults were admitted as in-patients, among whom 7408 were readmitted as medical emergencies within 30 days of discharge: a readmission rate of 11%. Of these 66?870 patients, 256 were identified as having a LD, with 32 of them experiencing at least one emergency readmission within 30 days: a readmission rate of 13%. When examined...

Illusory coerrelations in school psychologists' diagnoses of learning disabilities

Renzoni, Marc
Fonte: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia Publicador: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.42%
Illusory correlation is the perception of an association between two uncorrected variables such as intersubtest scatter on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - Third Edition (WISC-III) and the presence of a learning disability. This study assessed the extent to which school psychologists are influenced by this illusory correlation. Three independent variables were varied systematically. One variable was relevant to the diagnosis of a learning disability (a discrepancy between expected and actual levels of achievement on the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test (WIAT)). Another was irrelevant to the diagnosis (intersubtest scatter on the WISC-III). The third independent variable was used as a warning to those participants who had an illusory belief that intersubtest scatter on the WISC-III is a valid indicator of a learning disability. Certified school psychologists randomly received case study material for a child referred for a psychological evaluation. It was found that participants based their diagnostic decisions about learning disabilities on the illusory belief that intersubtest scatter on the WISC-III is a valid indicator of a learning disability in the no warning condition only. When warned of this illusory belief...

Facilitating the transition from high school to post-secondary education for students with learning disabilities: How are we doing?

Janiga, Sandra
Fonte: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia Publicador: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.48%
Federal and New York State (NYS) legislation require that students with disabilities receive services that assist them in the transition from high school to post-secondary life. Students with learning disabilities (LD) who pursue post-secondary education have specific needs. Research shows that transition services must address the following issues: student understanding of his or her disability, student strengths and weaknesses, career decision-making skills, and how to deal with the increased demands of post-secondary education. This study assesses how well transition services are meeting these needs. Seventy- four coordinators of programs for students with disabilities at various NYS colleges completed surveys measuring their perception of how well the students they serve are prepared through transition services in high school. Respondents rated students' lack of advocacy skills as the greatest weakness of current transition services. Respondents were most satisfied with high schools' provision of updated evaluations for students prior to enrollment in college.

Computers for students with physical and / or learning disabilities (npa5208)

University of Florida. News Bureau.; Matthews, John ( Reporter )
Fonte: University of Florida ( Gainesville, Fla. ) Publicador: University of Florida ( Gainesville, Fla. )
Tipo: moving image
Publicado em //11/27/1985 ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.31%
Segment 8 Title: [Computers for students with learning disabilities] Date: ca. 1985 Reported by: John Matthews Duration: 00:01:31 File name: NPA5208 Original format: 3/4" umatic videotape. Intermediate format: Sony Beta SP. Digitization completed by: Total Video (Gainesville, Fl)

Dificuldades de aprendizagem em escrita e compreensão em leitura; Learning disabilities in writing and reading comprehension

Zucoloto, Karla Aparecida; Sisto, Fermino Fernandes
Fonte: UFPR Publicador: UFPR
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; avaliado por pares; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 09/12/2005 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.39%
This study aimed to investigate the difficulties of reading comprehension faced by some children in learning the written language. 194 second and third grade students from a public school in the suburbs of Poços de Caldas were studied. The students were ranked according to the learning difficulties they had in written language by the ADAPE test. The reading comprehension was evaluated in two texts in cloze procedure, which presented different numbers of blanks. The results showed that in the second and third grades the mistakes in reading comprehension increased according to the written learning difficulties, and that older students made more mistakes than the younger ones. Besides, the genre did not present statistically significant relations. The tendencies of both second and third grades were similar, although the third grade students are making a habit of repeating the errors.Keywords: learning disabilities in writing; reading comprehension; initial school grades.; Este trabalho teve como objetivo investigar a compreensão da leitura de crianças com dificuldade de aprendizagem escrita, em relação ao gênero e idade. Os participantes foram 194 alunos de 2ª e 3ª séries de uma escola pública de periferia de Poços de Caldas. Os alunos foram categorizados por níveis de dificuldade de aprendizagem em escrita segundo o instrumento Adape. A compreensão da leitura foi avaliada por dois textos em cloze...