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Implicações do cumprimento do Código Florestal vigente na redução de áreas agrícolas: um estudo de caso da produção canavieira no Estado de São Paulo; Agricultural land reduction due to the compliance with the current Forest Code: a study case of sugarcane production in the State of São Paulo

BRANCALION, Pedro Henrique Santin; RODRIGUES, Ricardo Ribeiro
Fonte: Instituto Virtual da Biodiversidade | BIOTA - FAPESP Publicador: Instituto Virtual da Biodiversidade | BIOTA - FAPESP
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.56%
Uma das principais justificativas da proposta de mudanças do Código Florestal brasileiro (CF) é a de que seu cumprimento supostamente inviabilizaria vários setores da agropecuária, apesar dessa justificativa ser fracamente sustentada em dados. O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar as implicações do cumprimento do CF para a redução de áreas de produção canavieira no Estado de São Paulo, visando estimar qual seria o limite superior de potenciais prejuízos que a aplicação do CF poderia trazer à viabilidade econômica de um dos mais importantes, e também impactantes ambientalmente, segmentos da produção agropecuária brasileira. Foram analisados 23 projetos de adequação ambiental conduzidos em 1.961 propriedades rurais de usinas sucroalcooleira do Estado de São Paulo, os quais totalizaram 533.097 ha (9,7% da área cultivada com cana-de-açúcar em São Paulo). Nesses projetos, realizaram-se um diagnóstico ambiental de Áreas de Preservação Permanente (APP), áreas de produção agrícola e de áreas potenciais para constituir a Reserva Legal. Os resultados indicaram que 10,4% da área total das propriedades rurais constituiriam APPs e que apenas 21,2% da área de APP (2,2% da área total) era utilizada por algum tipo de atividade agrícola...

Large-scale ecological restoration of high-diversity tropical forests in SE Brazil

RODRIGUES, Ricardo Ribeiro; GANDOLFI, Sergius; NAVE, Andre Gustavo; ARONSON, James; BARRETO, Tiago Egydio; VIDAL, Cristina Yuri; BRANCALION, Pedro H. S.
Fonte: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV Publicador: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.56%
The complex interactions among endangered ecosystems, landowners` interests, and different models of land tenure and use, constitute an important series of challenges for those seeking to maintain and restore biodiversity and augment the flow of ecosystem services. Over the past 10 years, we have developed a data-based approach to address these challenges and to achieve medium and large-scale ecological restoration of riparian areas on private lands in the state of Sao Paulo, southeastern Brazil. Given varying motivations for ecological restoration, the location of riparian areas within landholdings, environmental zoning of different riparian areas, and best-practice restoration methods were developed for each situation. A total of 32 ongoing projects, covering 527,982 ha, were evaluated in large sugarcane farms and small mixed farms, and six different restoration techniques have been developed to help upscale the effort. Small mixed farms had higher portions of land requiring protection as riparian areas (13.3%), and lower forest cover of riparian areas (18.3%), than large sugarcane farms (10.0% and 36.9%, respectively for riparian areas and forest cover values). In both types of farms, forest fragments required some degree of restoration. Historical anthropogenic degradation has compromised forest ecosystem structure and functioning...

Rural property size drives patterns of upland and riparian forest retention in a tropical deforestation frontier

MICHALSKI, Fernanda; METZGER, Jean Paul; PERES, Carlos A.
Fonte: ELSEVIER SCI LTD Publicador: ELSEVIER SCI LTD
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.56%
Deforestation in Brazilian Amazonia accounts for a disproportionate global scale fraction of both carbon emissions from biomass burning and biodiversity erosion through habitat loss. Here we use field- and remote-sensing data to examine the effects of private landholding size on the amount and type of forest cover retained within economically active rural properties in an aging southern Amazonian deforestation frontier. Data on both upland and riparian forest cover from a survey of 300 rural properties indicated that 49.4% (SD = 29.0%) of the total forest cover was maintained as of 2007. and that property size is a key regional-scale determinant of patterns of deforestation and land-use change. Small properties (<= 150 ha) retained a lower proportion of forest (20.7%, SD = 17.6) than did large properties (>150 ha; 55.6%, SD = 27.2). Generalized linear models showed that property size had a positive effect on remaining areas of both upland and total forest cover. Using a Landsat time-series, the age of first clear-cutting that could be mapped within the boundaries of each property had a negative effect on the proportion of upland, riparian, and total forest cover retained. Based on these data, we show contrasts in land-use strategies between smallholders and largeholders...

Avaliação ecológica e da percepção de proprietários rurais do processo de restauração de matas ciliares em Jaú e Saltinho - SP; Ecological assessment and of the perception of landowners in the of riparian forests restoration process in Jau and Saltinho - SP

Rocco, Bianca Campedelli Moreira
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 10/06/2013 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.56%
O Estado de São Paulo passou por um longo processo de degradação e fragmentação, fruto de um modelo de desenvolvimento que baseou sua ampliação agrícola e urbana na derrubada de ecossistemas florestais nativos. A necessidade de aumento na cobertura florestal do estado é reconhecida há muito tempo, principalmente em razão da relação intrínseca entre água e matas, especialmente no caso das matas ciliares. Essa questão gerou ao logo dos anos o aprimoramento do conhecimento técnico na área de restauração, mas este avanço não foi acompanhado de reflexões a respeito de questões sociais, econômicas e políticas. As diversas políticas públicas e instrumentos agrícolas e florestais vigentes não trazem em seu escopo a preocupação com a realidade socioeconômica ou com o desenvolvimento rural. O presente trabalho procurou analisar, através do estudo de caso em duas microbacias hidrográficas do estado de São Paulo, Ribeirão Campestre no município de Saltinho e Córrego Santo Antônio em Jaú, o desenvolvimento áreas de mata ciliar implantadas por quatro instrumentos e políticas públicas de restauração ecológica de matas ciliares em pequenas e médias propriedades. Buscou-se compreender o contexto em que os diferentes instrumentos e políticas de restauração de matas ciliares ocorreram procurando correlacionar indicadores ecológicos de desenvolvimento de áreas de mata ciliar em restauração...

O pecuarista familiar na campanha rio-grandense (Santana do Livramento / RS)

Fernandes, Valéria Dorneles
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.56%
A Campanha, no Rio Grande do Sul, tem como principais características a predominância de produção pastoril e grande concentração fundiária. Em 1998 o IBGE identificou um grupo numeroso de pequenos produtores que se dedicam à bovinocultura de corte e com características de agricultores familiares, os quais foram identificados como pecuaristas familiares. A literatura que aborda esta categoria social considera que este grupo tem, na sua origem, diferentes trajetórias e que estes processos se desenvolveram no período inicial do século XX, ou seja, o pecuarista familiar é originário do século XX. No entanto as pesquisas históricas recentes mostram que pequenos criadores de gado estavam presentes na Campanha desde, pelo menos, o início do século XIX. O presente trabalho busca avaliar a natureza da relação histórica entre os pequenos criadores de gado do século XIX e os pecuaristas familiares da região da Campanha hoje. O estudo focaliza principalmente o município de Santana do Livramento, visto que além de ter uma tradição na produção pecuária extensiva também se mostra um município com uma significante presença de pecuaristas familiares na atualidade. O estudo utiliza o conceito de sistemas agrários e se baseia principalmente em dados extraídos de entrevistas com os pecuaristas familiares do município e fontes documentais primárias: censo...

Priority areas for the conservation of Atlantic forest large mammals

Galetti, Mauro; Giacomini, Henrique C.; Bueno, Rafael S.; Bernardo, Christine S. S.; Marques, Renato M.; Bovendorp, Ricardo S.; Steffler, Carla E.; Rubim, Paulo; Gobbo, Sabrina K.; Donatti, Camila I.; Begotti, Rodrigo A.; Meirelles, Fernanda; Nobre, Rodri
Fonte: Elsevier B.V. Publicador: Elsevier B.V.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 1229-1241
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.56%
Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq); Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); Large mammal faunas in tropical forest landscapes are widely affected by habitat fragmentation and hunting, yet the environmental determinants of their patterns of abundance remain poorly understood at large spatial scales. We analysed population abundance and biomass of 31 species of medium to large-bodied mammal species at 38 Atlantic forest sites (including three islands, 26 forest fragments and six continuous forest sites) as related to forest type, level of hunting pressure and forest fragment size using ANCOVAs. We also derived a novel measure of mammal conservation importance for each site based on a Mammalian Conservation Priority index (MP(i)) which incorporates information on species richness, population abundance, body size distribution, conservation status, and forest patch area. Mammal abundance was affected by hunting pressure, whereas mammalian biomass of which was largely driven by ungulates, was significantly influenced by both forest type and hunting pressure. The MP(i) index, when separated into its two main components (i.e. site forest area and species-based conservation index C(i))...

Rural property size drives patterns of upland and riparian forest retention in a tropical deforestation frontier

Michalski, Fernanda; Metzger, Jean Paul; Peres, Carlos A.
Fonte: Elsevier B.V. Publicador: Elsevier B.V.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 705-712
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.56%
Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); Processo FAPESP: 07/01252-2; Deforestation in Brazilian Amazonia accounts for a disproportionate global scale fraction of both carbon emissions from biomass burning and biodiversity erosion through habitat loss. Here we use field- and remote-sensing data to examine the effects of private landholding size on the amount and type of forest cover retained within economically active rural properties in an aging southern Amazonian deforestation frontier. Data on both upland and riparian forest cover from a survey of 300 rural properties indicated that 49.4% (SD = 29.0%) of the total forest cover was maintained as of 2007. and that property size is a key regional-scale determinant of patterns of deforestation and land-use change. Small properties (<= 150 ha) retained a lower proportion of forest (20.7%, SD = 17.6) than did large properties (>150 ha; 55.6%, SD = 27.2). Generalized linear models showed that property size had a positive effect on remaining areas of both upland and total forest cover. Using a Landsat time-series, the age of first clear-cutting that could be mapped within the boundaries of each property had a negative effect on the proportion of upland, riparian...

Large-scale ecological restoration of high-diversity tropical forests in SE Brazil

RODRIGUES, Ricardo Ribeiro; GANDOLFI, Sergius; NAVE, Andre Gustavo; ARONSON, James; BARRETO, Tiago Egydio; VIDAL, Cristina Yuri; BRANCALION, Pedro H. S.
Fonte: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV Publicador: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.56%
The complex interactions among endangered ecosystems, landowners` interests, and different models of land tenure and use, constitute an important series of challenges for those seeking to maintain and restore biodiversity and augment the flow of ecosystem services. Over the past 10 years, we have developed a data-based approach to address these challenges and to achieve medium and large-scale ecological restoration of riparian areas on private lands in the state of Sao Paulo, southeastern Brazil. Given varying motivations for ecological restoration, the location of riparian areas within landholdings, environmental zoning of different riparian areas, and best-practice restoration methods were developed for each situation. A total of 32 ongoing projects, covering 527,982 ha, were evaluated in large sugarcane farms and small mixed farms, and six different restoration techniques have been developed to help upscale the effort. Small mixed farms had higher portions of land requiring protection as riparian areas (13.3%), and lower forest cover of riparian areas (18.3%), than large sugarcane farms (10.0% and 36.9%, respectively for riparian areas and forest cover values). In both types of farms, forest fragments required some degree of restoration. Historical anthropogenic degradation has compromised forest ecosystem structure and functioning...

Can a Market-Assisted Land Redistribution Program Improve the Lives of the Poor? Evidence from Malawi

Datar, Gayatri; Del Carpio, Ximena; Hoffman, Vivian
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.15%
This paper uses a rural household survey dataset collected in 2006 and 2008 to investigate the impact of a market-based land resettlement project in southern Malawi. The program provided a conditional cash and land transfer to poor families to relocate to larger plots of farm land. The average treatment effect of the program is estimated using a difference-in-difference matching technique based on propensity score matching; qualitative information complement the analysis to ensure unobservable characteristics do not bias the findings. As expected, the results show a significant effect on landholdings and agricultural production, with land size increasing and maize production increasing by more than 100 kilograms relative to the control. However, the impacts on food security and asset holdings were mixed. Households that relocated great distances had systematically lower impacts than those households that stayed within their district of origin because they had to adapt to unfamiliar agro-ecological, cultural...

Malawi : Social Protection Status Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
17.15%
Malawi is in the process of moving away from safety nets programming towards more long-term predictable social protection programming that helps poor households deal with risk and shocks through a more institutionalized and coordinated approach. This report provides a stocktake of social protection in Malawi for the period 2003-2006, and, in partnership with the development of a Malawi Social Protection Framework, aims to help Malawi move towards a long-term social protection policy and program. The report answers two specific questions: do the range, goals and coverage of existing social protection interventions (inventory) match up with the existing profile of poverty, risk and vulnerability? Do the current institutional and financing arrangements match up with the need for institutionalized social protection in Malawi? In order to answer these questions, we begin by describing the poverty, vulnerability and risk profile in Malawi and by developing a profile in Section 2 against which the coverage of existing interventions discussed in Section 3 can be matched. Section 4 matches the profile of poverty and vulnerability with the array of interventions implemented as safety nets interventions. In Section 5...

The Impact of Commodity Price Changes on Rural Households : The Case of Coffee in Uganda

Bussolo, Maurizio; Godart, Olivier; Lay, Jann; Thiele, Rainer
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
17.15%
Policies and external shocks affecting agriculture, the main source of income for rural households, can be expected to have a significant impact on poverty. The authors study the case of Uganda. Throughout the 1990s, more than 90 percent of its poor lived in rural areas and, during the same period, large international price fluctuations as well as an extensive domestic deregulation affected the coffee sector, its main source of export revenues. Using data from three household surveys covering the 1990s, the authors confirm a strong correlation between changes in coffee prices (in a liberalized market) and poverty reduction. This is highlighted by comparing the performance of different households grouped according to their dependence on coffee farming. Regression analysis (based on pooled data from the three surveys) of consumption expenditure on coffee-related variables, other controls, and time-fixed effects corroborates that the mentioned correlation is not spurious. The authors also find that while both poor and rich farmers enter the coffee sector, the price boom benefits the poorer households relatively more, whereas the liberalization seems to create more opportunities for richer farmers. Finally, notwithstanding the importance of the coffee price boom...

Understanding the Drivers of Sustainable Rural Growth and Poverty Reduction in Honduras

Jansen, Hans G.P.; Siegel, Paul B.; Alwang, Jeff; Pichón, Francisco
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
17.15%
With a population of seven million, Honduras is the second most populous country in Central America. It is also the second poorest country in the region with an annual per capita income of less than US$ 1,000. Two out of every three people in Honduras are poor (per capita income less than US$ 1.50/day); and three out of every four poor people are extremely poor (per capita income less than US$ 1.00/day). Social indicators such as child malnutrition rate (17 percent), life expectancy at birth (66 years), child mortality rate (32 per 1000 births), and literacy rate (less than three-quarters of the population) are among the poorest in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) region.

Capturing the Value of Public Land for Urban Infrastructure : Centrally Controlled Landholdings

Peterson, George E.; Thawakar, Vasudha
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.65%
Government entities in India hold large amounts of public land. Their landholdings include some of the most valuable property in the country. Parts of this patrimony lie vacant or underutilized. Public sector bodies also own large blocs of land that sometimes stand in the way of efficient completion of urban infrastructure networks. At the same time, urban India is deficient in basic infrastructure -- both network infrastructure needed to support economic growth and urban service infrastructure needed to meet basic household needs like water supply, waste removal, and transportation. This condition raises fundamental questions. Are some of government landholdings "surplus" or not needed for service provision? If so, can their economic value be captured to help finance infrastructure investment? This report aims to document evolving government policies toward pubic land management. It examines how active public entities are in identifying "surplus" lands and attempting to monetize them. Public bodies in India have proved reluctant to surrender landholdings. The report therefore considers practical alternatives that have emerged...

Indigenous land in Australia: a quantitative assessment of Indigenous landholdings in 2000

Pollack, David P
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 406064 bytes; application/pdf
EN_AU
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.65%
This paper estimates the area of land held by Indigenous people in Australia in 2000. It details the legislation and programs that have lead to the accrual of land for Indigenous people in Australia since the concept of Indigenous ownership of land under Australian law, rather than the allocation of reserve lands, was first addressed in the mid 1960s. It is based on a literature review and data provided by a variety of government agencies and Indigenous organisations around Australia. Using this information, the paper estimates that Indigenous Australians either own, control or have management arrangements over land in the range of 16 to 18 per cent of the Australian continent. The lower range is based on reliable data whereas the higher range is speculative due to the fact that the aggregated area of many small landholdings has never been quantified.

As the paper demonstrates, the types of tenures held by Indigenous Australians differ from jurisdiction to jurisdiction and within jurisdictions. This is a result not only of the federal system of government in Australia, where land management and administration is the role of the State or Territory governments, but also a product of different priorities and objectives set by Federal...

Armenia : Poverty Assessment, Volume 1. A Summary of Findings

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Poverty Assessment; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.15%
This report reviews poverty in Armenia in 2001, and examines the most recent trends covering the 1998/99 to 2001 period. It looks at the determinants of poverty, and analyzes linkages between economic growth, sector policies and poverty. The findings are based on two rounds of the Armenia Integrated Living Conditions Survey (ILCS), one carried out in 1998/99, and the other in 2001. The report has contributed to the development of Armenia's national strategy for growth and poverty reduction. Poverty is high in Armenia, with an estimated 48 percent of the population below the poverty line in 2001. Despite some 20 percent still living in extreme poverty, there has been nonetheless, a significant decline in poverty, as poverty incidence dropped by 12 percent, and extreme poverty incidence by 25 percent from their respective levels in 1998/99. There is a strong correlation between poverty and low educational attainment, while the unemployed and non-participants in the labor market, face the highest poverty risk...

Armenia : Poverty Assessment, Volume 2. Main Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Poverty Assessment; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.46%
This report reviews poverty in Armenia in 2001, and examines the most recent trends covering the 1998/99 to 2001 period. It looks at the determinants of poverty, and analyzes linkages between economic growth, sector policies and poverty. The findings are based on two rounds of the Armenia Integrated Living Conditions Survey (ILCS), one carried out in 1998/99, and the other in 2001. The report has contributed to the development of Armenia's national strategy for growth and poverty reduction. Poverty is high in Armenia, with an estimated 48 percent of the population below the poverty line in 2001. Despite some 20 percent still living in extreme poverty, there has been nonetheless, a significant decline in poverty, as poverty incidence dropped by 12 percent, and extreme poverty incidence by 25 percent from their respective levels in 1998/99. There is a strong correlation between poverty and low educational attainment, while the unemployed and non-participants in the labor market, face the highest poverty risk...

Malawi Poverty and Vulnerability Assessment : Investing in Our Future, Synthesis Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Poverty Assessment; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.15%
This study builds a profile of the status of poverty and vulnerability in Malawi. Malawi is a small land-locked country, with one of the highest population densities in Sub-Saharan Africa, and one of the lowest per capita income levels in the world. Almost 90 percent of the population lives in rural areas, and is mostly engaged in smallholder, rain-fed agriculture. Most people are therefore highly vulnerable to annual rainfall volatility. The majority of households cultivate very small landholdings, largely for subsistence. As a result, poverty is pervasive and not merely the situation of the lowest economic groups. Therefore, while this report focuses on the least-well-off sections of the population, the analysis provides valuable information to accelerate wealth creation and economic growth for the whole of Malawi. This synthesis report presents the main findings and policy recommendations stemming from the analysis. Due to the length and detail of this study, the 'full report' presenting the detailed analysis and results underpinning these policy recommendations is available as a separate publication. This report highlights some of the key characteristics and causes of poverty in Malawi...

Malawi : Poverty and Vulnerability Assessment, Investing in Our Future

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Poverty Assessment; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.46%
This study builds a profile of the status of poverty and vulnerability in Malawi. Malawi is a small land-locked country, with one of the highest population densities in Sub-Saharan Africa, and one of the lowest per capita income levels in the world. Almost 90 percent of the population lives in rural areas, and is mostly engaged in smallholder, rain-fed agriculture. Most people are therefore highly vulnerable to annual rainfall volatility. The majority of households cultivate very small landholdings, largely for subsistence. As a result, poverty is pervasive and not merely the situation of the lowest economic groups. Therefore, while this report focuses on the least-well-off sections of the population, the analysis provides valuable information to accelerate wealth creation and economic growth for the whole of Malawi. This synthesis report presents the main findings and policy recommendations stemming from the analysis. Due to the length and detail of this study, the 'full report' presenting the detailed analysis and results underpinning these policy recommendations is available as a separate publication. This report highlights some of the key characteristics and causes of poverty in Malawi...

Rising Food Prices in Sub-Saharan Africa : Poverty Impact and Policy Responses

Wodon, Quentin; Zaman, Hassan
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
17.15%
The increase in food prices represents a major crisis for the world's poor. This paper aims to review the evidence on the potential impact of higher food prices on poverty in sub-Saharan Africa, and examines the extent to which policy responses will benefit the poor. The paper shows that rising food prices are likely to lead to higher poverty in sub-Saharan Africa as the negative impact on net poor consumers outweighs the benefits to poor producers. A recent survey shows that the most common policy response in sub-Saharan African countries is reducing taxes on food while outside the region price controls or targeted consumer subsidies are the most popular measure. Sub-Saharan African countries also have a higher prevalence of food-based safety net programs which are being scaled up to respond to rising prices. The review suggests that the benefits from reducing import tariffs on staples may accrue largely to the non-poor. Social protection programs show more promise, but geographic targeting is likely to be crucial in ensuring that benefits reach the neediest. The paper also argues that anti-poverty interventions ought to retain their focus on rural areas where poverty remains highest even after taking into account the adverse impact on the urban poor due to the rise in food prices.

Egalitarian Redistributions of Agricultural Land in China through Community Consensus: Findings from Two Surveys

Kong, Tao (Sherry); Unger, Jonathan
Fonte: Australian National University Publicador: Australian National University
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
17.15%
Most of China's rural communities have engaged in periodic reallocations of fields in order to re-equalize household landholdings on a per capita basis, despite a national law that prohibits this. The practice of re-equalizing landholdings tells us much a