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Rural property size drives patterns of upland and riparian forest retention in a tropical deforestation frontier

MICHALSKI, Fernanda; METZGER, Jean Paul; PERES, Carlos A.
Fonte: ELSEVIER SCI LTD Publicador: ELSEVIER SCI LTD
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.36%
Deforestation in Brazilian Amazonia accounts for a disproportionate global scale fraction of both carbon emissions from biomass burning and biodiversity erosion through habitat loss. Here we use field- and remote-sensing data to examine the effects of private landholding size on the amount and type of forest cover retained within economically active rural properties in an aging southern Amazonian deforestation frontier. Data on both upland and riparian forest cover from a survey of 300 rural properties indicated that 49.4% (SD = 29.0%) of the total forest cover was maintained as of 2007. and that property size is a key regional-scale determinant of patterns of deforestation and land-use change. Small properties (<= 150 ha) retained a lower proportion of forest (20.7%, SD = 17.6) than did large properties (>150 ha; 55.6%, SD = 27.2). Generalized linear models showed that property size had a positive effect on remaining areas of both upland and total forest cover. Using a Landsat time-series, the age of first clear-cutting that could be mapped within the boundaries of each property had a negative effect on the proportion of upland, riparian, and total forest cover retained. Based on these data, we show contrasts in land-use strategies between smallholders and largeholders...

Rural property size drives patterns of upland and riparian forest retention in a tropical deforestation frontier

Michalski, Fernanda; Metzger, Jean Paul; Peres, Carlos A.
Fonte: Elsevier B.V. Publicador: Elsevier B.V.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 705-712
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.36%
Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); Processo FAPESP: 07/01252-2; Deforestation in Brazilian Amazonia accounts for a disproportionate global scale fraction of both carbon emissions from biomass burning and biodiversity erosion through habitat loss. Here we use field- and remote-sensing data to examine the effects of private landholding size on the amount and type of forest cover retained within economically active rural properties in an aging southern Amazonian deforestation frontier. Data on both upland and riparian forest cover from a survey of 300 rural properties indicated that 49.4% (SD = 29.0%) of the total forest cover was maintained as of 2007. and that property size is a key regional-scale determinant of patterns of deforestation and land-use change. Small properties (<= 150 ha) retained a lower proportion of forest (20.7%, SD = 17.6) than did large properties (>150 ha; 55.6%, SD = 27.2). Generalized linear models showed that property size had a positive effect on remaining areas of both upland and total forest cover. Using a Landsat time-series, the age of first clear-cutting that could be mapped within the boundaries of each property had a negative effect on the proportion of upland, riparian...

Household-level predictors of the presence of servants in Northern Orkney, Scotland, 1851–1901

Jennings, Julia A.; Wood, James W.; Johnson, Patricia L.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 18/08/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.56%
Servants were an important part of the northwestern European household economy in the preindustrial past. This study examines household-level characteristics that are predictive of the presence of rural servants using data from Orkney, Scotland. The number of servants present in a household is related to household composition, landholding size, and the marital status of the household head. In addition, the sex of the particular servant hired reveals that the labor of male and female servants is not fungible. The sex of the servant hired is related to the ratio of male and female household members of working age, the occupation of the head, household composition, and the size of the household’s landholding.

Fact or Artefact : The Impact of Measurement Errors on the Farm Size - Productivity Relationship

Carletto, Calogero; Savastano, Sara; Zezza, Alberto
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.38%
This paper revisits the role of land measurement error in the inverse farm size and productivity relationship. By making use of data from a nationally representative household survey from Uganda, in which self-reported land size information is complemented by plot measurements collected using Global Position System devices, the authors reject the hypothesis that the inverse relationship may just be a statistical artifact linked to problems with land measurement error. In particular, the paper explores: (i) the determinants of the bias in land measurement, (ii) how this bias varies systematically with plot size and landholding, and (iii) the extent to which land measurement error affects the relative advantage of smallholders implied by the inverse relationship. The findings indicate that using an improved measure of land size strengthens the evidence in support of the existence of the inverse relationship.

Gauging the Welfare Effects of Shocks in Rural Tanzania

Christiaensen, Luc; Hoffmann, Vivian; Sarris, Alexander
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.24%
Studies of risk and its consequences tend to focus on one risk factor, such as a drought or an economic crisis. Yet 2003 household surveys in rural Kilimanjaro and Ruvuma, two cash-crop-growing regions in Tanzania that experienced a precipitous coffee price decline around the turn of the millennium, identified health and drought shocks as well as commodity price declines as major risk factors, suggesting the need for a comprehensive approach to analyzing household vulnerability. In fact, most coffee growers, except the smaller ones in Kilimanjaro, weathered the coffee price declines rather well, at least to the point of not being worse off than non-coffee growers. Conversely, improving health conditions and reducing the effect of droughts emerge as critical to reduce vulnerability. One-third of the rural households in Kilimanjaro experienced a drought or health shocks, resulting in an estimated 8 percent welfare loss on average, after using savings and aid. Rainfall is more reliable in Ruvuma, and drought there did not affect welfare. Surprisingly...

Long-term Impacts of Global Food Crisis on Production Decisions : Evidence from Farm Investments in Indonesia

Nose, Manabu; Yamauchi, Futoshi
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.32%
Did the rise in food prices have a long-term impact on agricultural production? Using household-level panel data from seven provinces of Indonesia, this paper finds that the price shock created a forward-looking incentive to invest, which can dynamically enhance productivity in agriculture. It also finds that the impact of the price shock on investment behavior differs by initial wealth. In response to price increases, wealthy farmers invested more in productive assets, while poor farmers increased their financial savings as well as consumption. Price spikes relax liquidity constraints, which increases investments among the richer while do so savings and consumptions among the poor, possibly leading to diverging income inequality in the long run.

Monitoring and Evaluating the Poverty Impacts of Agricultural Water Investments

Sur, Mona
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.14%
Monitoring and evaluating (M&E) the poverty impact of agricultural water investments may allow some conclusions about returns on different types of investments and their contributions to poverty reduction. This paper recommends the following: involve beneficiaries early in the M&E process -- broad consultations and early involvement of users in the design and implementation of the M&E system will do much to build consensus and ownership; use beneficiary self-assessments and other participatory approaches so that assessments can be made midcourse -- there may be a long time lag in realizing a reduction in poverty from agricultural water-related projects, and the poverty impact often cannot be evaluated until well after a project ends; keep the number of indicators collected within manageable proportions; and ensure that a good baseline survey is undertaken -- without a proper baseline, it is difficult to monitor progress and evaluate the impacts of investments.

Natural Capital, Ecological Scarcity and Rural Poverty

Barbier, Edward B.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.24%
Much of the rural poor -- who are growing in number -- are concentrated in ecologically fragile and remote areas. The key ecological scarcity problem facing such poor households is a vicious cycle of declining livelihoods, increased ecological degradation and loss of resource commons, and declining ecosystem services on which the poor depend. In addition, developing economies with high concentrations of their populations on fragile lands and in remote areas not only display high rates of rural poverty, but also are some of the poorest countries in the world today. Policies to eradicate poverty therefore need to be targeted at the poor where they live, especially the rural poor clustered in fragile environments and remote areas. The specific elements of such a strategy include involving the poor in payment for ecosystem services schemes and other measures that enhance the environments on which the poor depend; targeting investments directly to improving the livelihoods of the rural poor, thus reducing their dependence on exploiting environmental resources; tackling the lack of access of the rural poor in less favored areas to well-functioning and affordable markets for credit...

Macedonia, Former Yugoslav Republic of : Analysis of the Agricultural Support Programs

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.32%
The report is structured to allow readers familiar with Macedonia s agriculture sector to quickly grasp the essentials needed to improve the sector, as well as to inform a general audience on how to address the challenges of a modern European Union (EU)-aspiring state. Chapter two provides an in-depth analysis of the sectoral background, illustrating the main characteristics and challenges of Macedonia s agriculture sector. The illustration takes an integrated approach to the sector, covering a vast range of inter-related topics including the prominence of the sector not only in terms of its economic and social contribution but also its implications for trade, the urban-rural poverty gap and shared prosperity, farm structure, climate adaptation, and capacity building. Chapter three draws on lessons from the European Union (EU) and provides a framework to analyze Macedonia s agricultural support programs. Further, the chapter provides a primer on the EU s Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) and its measures to support agriculture. Chapter four presents concise empirical evidence of the coverage and institutional capacity of the agricultural programs in Macedonia under both pillar one and pillar two measures. Chapter five then builds on the primary diagnostic set out in the previous chapters and critically examines the alignment of Macedonia s agricultural programs with the government s stated objectives of poverty reduction...

Wage Growth, Landholding, and Mechanization in Agriculture : Evidence from Indonesia

Yamauchi, Futoshi
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.65%
This paper uses farm panel data from Indonesia to examine dynamic patterns of land use, capital investments, and wages in agriculture. The empirical analysis shows that an increase in real wages has induced the substitution of labor by machines among relatively large farmers. Large farmers tend to increase the scale of operation by renting in more land when real wages increase. Machines and land are complementary if the scale of operation is greater than a threshold size. In contrast, such a dynamic change was not observed among relatively small holders, which implies a divergence in the movement of the production frontier between Java and off-Java regions given that the majority of small farmers are concentrated in Java.

Promoting Agricultural Growth in Rwanda : Recent Performance, Challenges and Opportunities

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.14%
Rwanda is experiencing its best growth performance since independence. With average annual GDP growth rate of 8 percent and 5.2 percent for agricultural GDP from 1999-2012, Rwanda s recent growth is a historical record. The poverty headcount fell from 59 percent in 2001 to 45 percent in 2011, and agriculture continues to be one of the main drivers of growth and poverty reduction in Rwanda, significantly lifting rural households out of poverty. Yet, challenges in the agriculture sector remain. Specifically, to: (i) sustain the productivity gains in the short and medium-term, which have contributed to strong agriculture growth and raised rural incomes; ii) increase and improve nutrition security for the rural population; iii) strengthen and deepen value chain development including increasing agro-processing to create non-farm employment; iv) secure and strengthen linkages to domestic and international markets for agriculture production; and v) enhance the enabling environment to attract the private sector to invest in the sector and add value to the productivity increases.

Scaling the Heights : Social Inclusion and Sustainable Development in Himachal Pradesh

Das, Maitreyi Bordia; Kapoor-Mehta, Soumya; Tas, Emcet Oktay; Zumbyte, Ieva
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.14%
Himachal Pradesh has the reputation of being stable, inclusive, cohesive and well-governed and it stands apart in many respects from its neighbors in northern India. It has additionally, achieved remarkable growth, especially in the last two decades, which has been accompanied by very good human development outcomes. Despite being a predominantly rural society, educational attainment in Himachal Pradesh for instance, is among the best in the country; poverty headcount is nearly one-third of the national average; life expectancy is 3.4 years longer than the number of years an average Indian expects to live; and, per capita income is the second highest in India. Underlying its strong economic and social development outcomes is Himachal Pradesh s commitment to expand access to public services to the remotest areas, across tough, hilly terrain and its strong institutional foundations. Inter-group disparities are low in a state where traditionally disadvantaged groups such as the Scheduled Castes (SCs) and Scheduled Tribes (STs) make up a solid 30 percent of the population.

Are the poor more vulnerable to income shocks? An analysis of consumption insurance in rural India

Maitra, Pushkar
Fonte: ASARC Publicador: ASARC
Tipo: Conference paper Formato: 125687 bytes; 356 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
EN_AU
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.14%
This paper examines the extent of consumption insurance against income risk by households in rural India. We estimate the effects of income changes on consumption after controlling for aggregate shocks through changes in village level consumption and household size. We also test whether there is a systematic wealth effect on the extent of consumption insurance against idiosyncratic income shocks by classifying the households on the basis of landholding, which is the primary source of wealth for rural households in India. The null hypothesis of full insurance is rejected both for the population as a whole and for the different land classes. Our estimation results also show that consumption tracks income more closely for the poorer households - the estimated marginal propensity to consume out of idiosyncratic changes in income is significantly higher for the poorer households compared to the richer households. The results are robust to alternative estimation methodologies and alternative methods of sample stratification.; no

Land fragmentation and its implications for productivity: evidence from Southern India

Jha, Raghbendra; Nagarajan, Hari K; Prasanna, Subbarayan
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 954185 bytes; 354 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
EN_AU
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.24%
In developing economies land reform, in particular land redistribution has occupied a central role in debates about poverty — particularly chronic poverty — alleviation in rural areas. Even if it were accepted that land redistribution could alleviate poverty the enthusiasm for such redistribution needs to be tempered with consideration of the potential efficiency effects of land fragmentation. The fragmentation of land holdings could rise with land fragmentation. In turn, land fragmentation could lead to sub-optimal usage of factor inputs and thus to lower overall returns to land. The factors contributing to this could be losses due to extra travel time, wasted space along borders, inadequate monitoring, and the inability to use certain types of machinery such as harvesters. Fragmentation of land is widespread in India and it is believed that fragmented nature of land holdings may play a major role in explaining low levels of agricultural productivity. Despite substantial rise in yields India ranks 34th in yields for sugarcane, 57th for cotton, 118th for pulses, and, 51st for rice although India is a leading producer of each of these crops in aggregate terms. Further, there is evidence of inefficient use of resources in agriculture and the resulting increases in costs...

Promoting Pro-Poor Agricultural Growth in Rwanda : Challenges and Opportunities

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.24%
This report summarizes the findings of a study undertaken by the World Bank at the request of the Government of Rwanda. The study had three main objectives: (i) Validate the argument that agriculture has potential to become a leading engine of pro-poor growth in Rwanda and identify potential sources of rapid and sustainable growth within the agricultural sector; (ii) identify key actions that will be needed to unlock these sources of agricultural growth, and describe actions in other sectors that will be needed to support the successful implementation of the government's agricultural policy agenda; and (iii) confirm the congruence between the priority actions needed to stimulate increased agricultural growth and the policy reforms, institutional changes, and supporting investments envisioned under the Plan Strategique de Transformation Agricole (PSTA). This report consists of five sections, of which the introduction is the first. Section 2 describes the importance of agriculture in the economy of Rwanda and analyzes recent trends in the performance of the agricultural sector. Section 3 discusses possible future drivers of growth...

Rural Vulnerability in Serbia

Ersado, Lire
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.29%
In the presence of risk and uncertainty, measures such as poverty rates are inadequate to analyze the well-being of poor households. The poor are not only concerned about the current low levels of their income or consumption, but also the likelihood of experiencing stressful declines in these levels in the future. Risks to livelihood are particularly important in rural areas where there is generally high dependence on agriculture and the environment. In this study, the author analyzes the nature, extent, and causes of rural vulnerability in Serbia using panel national household data from the 2002 and 2003 Serbia Living Standard Surveys. He measures rural vulnerability as a function of nonstochastic determinants of poverty as well as exposure to risk. While low levels of consumption (poverty) explain about 70 percent of vulnerability, the author identifies risk and uncertainty as crucial dimensions of rural life in accounting for the remaining 30 percent of household vulnerability. Households and regions with a greater share of their livelihood depending on agricultural activities are more at risk of vulnerability than those with a significantly higher share of their income coming from nonagricultural sources. Dependence on agricultural income is directly associated with higher aggregate risk...

Wage Growth, Landholding, and Mechanization in Chinese Agriculture

Wang, Xiaobing; Yamauchi, Futoshi; Otsuka, Keijiro; Huang, Jikun
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.34%
This paper uses farm panel data from China to examine the dynamics of land transactions, machine investments, and the demand for machine services. Recently, China's agriculture has experienced a large expansion of machine rentals and machine services provided by specialized agents, which has contributed to mechanization of agricultural production. The empirical results show that an increase in nonagricultural wage rates leads to expansion of self-cultivated land size. A rise in the proportion of nonagricultural income or the migration rate also increases the size of self-cultivated land. Interestingly, however, relatively educated farm households decrease the size of self-cultivated land, which suggests that relatively less educated farmers tend to specialize in farming. The demand for machine services has also increased if agricultural wage and migration rate increased over time, especially among relatively large farms. The results on crop income support the complementarity between rented-in land and machine services (demanded)...

Land Reform, Rural Development, and Poverty in the Philippines : Revisiting the Agenda

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.14%
The goal of this report is to take stock of the existing evidence on the impact of the Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Program (CARP) on poverty, to examine the current challenges that an extension of CARP would face, and to suggest directions toward achieving progress on land reform given the financial and policy constraints faced by the program. The report starts by examining the nature and relevance of the challenges that an extension of the land reform program will face. It then addresses the role of land reform in rural development and poverty reduction. The impact of agrarian reform on land markets, access to credit and, more broadly, on the competitiveness of small farms is then examined, separating the case of rice and corn lands from that of sugarcane plantations, the latter taken as an important 'case-study' of the broader plantation sector. Implications for redesigning the program are then drawn, focusing in particular on the need to more closely involve important actors in the current process of rural development. The report finally considers the institutional changes that will be required.

Livestock feed resources, production and management in the agro-pastoral system of the Hindu Kush-Karakoram-Himalayan region of Pakistan: The effect of accessibility

Rahman, Abdur; Duncan, Alan J.; Miller, D. W.; Clemens, Juergen; Frutos, Pilar; Gordon, Iain J.; Rehman, Atiq-ur; Baig, Ataullah; Ali, Farman; Wright, I. A.
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artículo Formato: 94510 bytes; application/pdf
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.24%
11 pages, 9 tables, 2 figures.-- Available online Jul 5, 2007.; A survey of 59 small-holder households was used to gather information about livestock production within a small-holder farming system in the Northern Areas of Pakistan. A broader survey of 130 households was used to gather information about cropping patterns, and access to off-farm employment and educational opportunities. The aim was to provide a description of the livestock production system in the Northern Areas and investigate the effect of agro-ecological zone and proximity to transport infrastructure on small-holder practices, especially those relating to livestock management. Two transects were selected for study differing in the quality of their transport infrastructure; the Karakoram Highway transect was defined by the Karakoram Highway, a major transport link through the study region, while the Gilgit-Ghizer Region transect lay along a side valley with a more limited transport infrastructure. One village from each of the three main agro-ecological zones within the region was selected in each transport infrastructure transect. Results showed that average landholding size was 1.6 ha of which around 60% was cultivated. Overall herd size did not differ significantly by zone or transect but there were more animals derived from cross-breeding with exotic breeds in the Karakoram Highway transect. The amount of fodder stored for livestock was higher in the Karakoram Highway transect than in the Gilgit-Ghizer Region transect. There was more selling of livestock in the Gilgit-Ghizer Region transect and the use of draught animals was also more prevalent in the Gilgit-Ghizer Region. The household questionnaire indicated that cash cropping...

Early Insights from Financial Diaries of Smallholder Households; Comprendre les coûts et la viabilité des produits de microfinance conformes à la charia Conclusiones preliminares del proyecto de registros financieros de hogares de pequeños agricultores

Anderson, Jamie; Ahmed, Wajiha
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Brief; Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.14%
Renato and Hecinta are raising six young children in a rural area of Mozambique’s northern Nampula Province. On just half a hectare, they grow rice, maize, beans, cashew, peanuts, cabbage, and tomatoes, selling what they can and eating the rest. But, like many of the 475 million smallholder household’s worldwide, agricultural production is just one of their many income-generating activities. They balance several sources of income, within and outside of agriculture, while juggling a range of family needs and using an equally diverse portfolio of financial tools. The Smallholder Diaries will provide a holistic picture of the financial lives of smallholder households not only as agricultural producers, but also as consumers, laborers, and off-farm entrepreneurs. The ultimate goal of this research is to translate the insights from the Smallholder Diaries into financial tools and provider practices that more effectively respond to the needs and preferences of this important client group. Drawing on initial data...