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Time lags of the kilohertz quasi-periodic oscillations in the low-mass X-ray binaries 4U 1608−52 and 4U 1636−53

Avellar, Marcio Guilherme Bronzato de; Méndez, Mariano; Sanna, Andrea; Horvath, Jorge Ernesto
Fonte: Oxford University Press; Oxford Publicador: Oxford University Press; Oxford
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.32%
We studied the energy and frequency dependence of the Fourier time lags and intrinsic coherence of the kilohertz quasi-periodic oscillations (kHz QPOs) in the neutron-star lowmass X-ray binaries 4U 1608−52 and 4U 1636−53, using a large data set obtained with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer. We confirmed that, in both sources, the time lags of the lower kHz QPO are soft and their magnitude increases with energy. We also found that: (i) In 4U 1636−53, the soft lags of the lower kHz QPO remain constant at∼30 μs in the QPO frequency range 500–850 Hz, and decrease to ∼10 μs when the QPO frequency increases further. In 4U 1608−52, the soft lags of the lower kHz QPO remain constant at 40 μs up to 800 Hz, the highest frequency reached by this QPO in our data. (ii) In both sources, the time lags of the upper kHz QPO are hard, independent of energy or frequency and inconsistent with the soft lags of the lower kHz QPO. (iii) In both sources the intrinsic coherence of the lower kHz QPO remains constant at ∼0.6 between 5 and 12 keV, and drops to zero above that energy. The intrinsic coherence of the upper kHz QPO is consistent with being zero across the full energy range. (iv) In 4U 1636−53, the intrinsic coherence of the lower kHz QPO increases from ∼0 at ∼600 Hz to ∼1...

The answer is 17 years, what is the question: understanding time lags in translational research

Morris, Zoë Slote; Wooding, Steven; Grant, Jonathan
Fonte: Royal Society of Medicine Press Publicador: Royal Society of Medicine Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.19%
This study aimed to review the literature describing and quantifying time lags in the health research translation process. Papers were included in the review if they quantified time lags in the development of health interventions. The study identified 23 papers. Few were comparable as different studies use different measures, of different things, at different time points. We concluded that the current state of knowledge of time lags is of limited use to those responsible for R&D and knowledge transfer who face difficulties in knowing what they should or can do to reduce time lags. This effectively ‘blindfolds’ investment decisions and risks wasting effort. The study concludes that understanding lags first requires agreeing models, definitions and measures, which can be applied in practice. A second task would be to develop a process by which to gather these data.

Catchment Legacies and Time Lags: A Parsimonious Watershed Model to Predict the Effects of Legacy Storage on Nitrogen Export

Van Meter, Kimberly J.; Basu, Nandita B.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 18/05/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.19%
Nutrient legacies in anthropogenic landscapes, accumulated over decades of fertilizer application, lead to time lags between implementation of conservation measures and improvements in water quality. Quantification of such time lags has remained difficult, however, due to an incomplete understanding of controls on nutrient depletion trajectories after changes in land-use or management practices. In this study, we have developed a parsimonious watershed model for quantifying catchment-scale time lags based on both soil nutrient accumulations (biogeochemical legacy) and groundwater travel time distributions (hydrologic legacy). The model accurately predicted the time lags observed in an Iowa watershed that had undergone a 41% conversion of area from row crop to native prairie. We explored the time scales of change for stream nutrient concentrations as a function of both natural and anthropogenic controls, from topography to spatial patterns of land-use change. Our results demonstrate that the existence of biogeochemical nutrient legacies increases time lags beyond those due to hydrologic legacy alone. In addition, we show that the maximum concentration reduction benefits vary according to the spatial pattern of intervention, with preferential conversion of land parcels having the shortest catchment-scale travel times providing proportionally greater concentration reductions as well as faster response times. In contrast...

A simple analysis on P2P streaming with peer playback lags

Zhao, Y.; Shen, H.
Fonte: IEEE; USA Publicador: IEEE; USA
Tipo: Conference paper
Publicado em //2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.02%
Nowadays, mesh-based live streaming on P2P network is becoming more and more popular because of its scalability, robustness and no additional infrastructure requirement (e.g. CoolStreaming, PPlive, PPstream, Gridmedia). How to design a high fluency and small delay system is a challenge task. In this paper we analyze the impact of playback lags between peers on the playback fluency via a simple stochastic model. For every position in arbitrary peer’s buffer, we calculate its probability of containing the corresponding chunk, which can indicate the fluency of a peer’s playback on the video. Through our analysis and simulation, we get insights into playback lags and some useful tips for designing a real P2P live streaming system more effective.; Yang Zhao and Hong Shen

Discovery of high-frequency iron K lags in Ark 564 and Mrk 335

Kara, E.; Fabian, A. C.; Cackett, E. M.; Uttley, P.; Wilkins, D. R.; Zoghbi, A.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 11/06/2013
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.19%
We use archival XMM-Newton observations of Ark 564 and Mrk 335 to calculate the frequency dependent time-lags for these two well-studied sources. We discover high-frequency Fe K lags in both sources, indicating that the red wing of the line precedes the rest frame energy by roughly 100 s and 150 s for Ark 564 and Mrk 335, respectively. Including these two new sources, Fe K reverberation lags have been observed in seven Seyfert galaxies. We examine the low-frequency lag-energy spectrum, which is smooth, and shows no feature of reverberation, as would be expected if the low-frequency lags were produced by distant reflection off circumnuclear material. The clear differences in the low and high frequency lag-energy spectra indicate that the lags are produced by two distinct physical processes. Finally, we find that the amplitude of the Fe K lag scales with black hole mass for these seven sources, consistent with a relativistic reflection model where the lag is the light travel delay associated with reflection of continuum photons off the inner disc.; Comment: 10 pages, 12 figures, accepted for publication in MNRAS

Time Lags of Z Source GX 5-1

Qu, J. L.; Chen, Y.; Wu, M.; Chen, L.; Song, L. M.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 25/02/2004
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.19%
We investigated the time lags and the evolution of the cross spectra of Z source GX~5-1, observed by the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE), when it is in the horizontal branch oscillations. We showed that the time lags of 3 horizontal branch oscillations are related to the position on the hardness intensity diagram. All of the three QPOs were shown to have hard time lags. However on the cross spectra, one is in a `dip', one in a `bump', the other has no so obvious characteristic. The time lags of two of the QPOs decrease with QPO's frequency, while the other has a trend increasing with its frequency. Moreover, in the normal branch, we found no significant time lags in the present observational data.; Comment: 15 pages, 8 figures, accepted for publication in ApSS

Phase Lags of QPOs in Microquasar GRS 1915+105

Cui, Wei
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 16/08/1999
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.29%
I report the discovery of hard X-ray phase lags associated with the famous 67 Hz quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) in microquasar GRS 1915+105. The QPO is seen on multiple occasions. For this investigation, I have chosen one particular observation when the oscillation is the strongest. The measured hard lags show strong energy dependence. With respect to the 2-2.5 keV band, the phase lag increases from insignificant detection at 5.2-7.0 keV to as much as 2.3 radians (which corresponds a time lag of $\sim$5.6 ms) above $\sim$13 keV. Also detected in the same observation are one narrowly peaked, strong QPO at 67 mHz, along with its first three harmonics, one weak QPO at $\sim$400 mHz and one broad QPO at $\sim$840 mHz. Similar cross spectral analyses have been performed on these QPOs (and the harmonics), in order to measure any phase lags associated with the features. Phase lags are detected in all, with similar energy dependence. For the 67 mHz QPO, the results are quite intriguing: only the first and third harmonic components show hard lags, while the fundamental and the second harmonic components actually display smaller {\it soft} lags. Coupled with the energy dependence of the QPO amplitude, the results seem to indicate a complicated change in the signal profile with photon energy. I will discuss the implication of the phase lags on possible origins of the QPOs.; Comment: to appear in ApJ Letters

Spectral Lags of Gamma-Ray Burst From Ginga and BATSE

Wu, Bobing; Fenimore, Edward
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.29%
The analysis of spectral lag between energy bands, which combines temporal and spectral analyses, can add strict constraints to gamma-ray burst (GRB) models. In previous studies, the lag analysis focused on the lags between channel 1 (25-57 keV) and channel 3 (115-320 keV) from the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE). In this paper, we analyzed the cross-correlation average lags (including approximate uncertainties) between energy bands for two GRB samples: 19 events detected by Ginga, and 109 events detected by BATSE. We paid special attention to the BATSE GRBs with known redshifts, because there has been a reported connection between lag and luminosity. This extends our knowledge of spectral lags to lower energy ($\sim 2$ keV). We found that lags between energy bands are small. The lag between the peak of $\sim 50$ keV photons and $\sim 200$ keV photons is $\sim 0.08$ sec. The upper limit in the lag between $\sim 9$ keV photons and $\sim 90$ keV photons is $\sim 0.5$ sec. Thus, there are not large shifts at low energy. We found that about 20% of GRBs have detectable lags between energy bands in the Ginga and BATSE samples. From the internal shock model there are three sources of time structure in GRB pulses: cooling, hydrodynamics...

The Sloan Digital Sky Survey Reverberation Mapping Project: First Broad-line Hbeta and MgII Lags at z>~0.3 from six-Month Spectroscopy

Shen, Yue; Horne, Keith; Grier, C. J.; Peterson, Bradley M.; Denney, Kelly D.; Trump, Jonathan R.; Sun, Mouyuan; Brandt, W. N.; Kochanek, Christopher S.; Dawson, Kyle S.; Green, Paul J.; Greene, Jenny E.; Hall, Patrick B.; Ho, Luis C.; Jiang, Linhua; Kine
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.32%
Reverberation mapping (RM) measurements of broad-line region (BLR) lags in z>0.3 quasars are important for directly measuring black hole masses in these distant objects, but so far there have been limited attempts and success given the practical difficulties of RM in this regime. Here we report preliminary results of 15 BLR lag measurements from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Reverberation Mapping (SDSS-RM) project, a dedicated RM program with multi-object spectroscopy designed for RM over a wide redshift range. The lags are based on the 2014 spectroscopic light curves alone (32 epochs over 6 months) and focus on the Hbeta and MgII broad lines in the 100 lowest-redshift (z<0.8) quasars included in SDSS-RM; they represent a small subset of the lags that SDSS-RM (including 849 quasars to z~4.5) is expected to deliver. The reported preliminary lag measurements are for intermediate-luminosity quasars at 0.3<~z<0.8, including 9 Hbeta lags and 6 MgII lags, for the first time extending RM results to this redshift-luminosity regime and providing direct quasar black hole mass estimates over ~ half of cosmic time. The MgII lags also increase the number of known MgII lags by several-fold, and start to explore the utility of MgII for RM at high redshift. The location of these new lags at higher redshifts on the observed BLR size-luminosity relationship is statistically consistent with previous Hbeta results at z<0.3. However...

Probing the Structure of Accreting Compact Sources Through X-Ray Time Lags and Spectra

Hua, Xin-Min; Kazanas, Demosthenes; Cui, Wei
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 08/10/1998
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.25%
We exhibit, by compiling all data sets we can acquire, that the Fourier frequency dependent hard X-ray lags, first observed in the analysis of aperiodic variability of the light curves of the black hole candidate Cygnus X-1, appear to be a property shared by several other accreting black hole candidate sources and also by the different spectral states of this source. We then present both analytic and numerical models of these time lags resulting by the process of Comptonization in a variety of hot electron configurations. We argue that under the assumption that the observed spectra are due to Comptonization, the dependence of the lags on the Fourier period provides a means for mapping the spatial density profile of the hot electron plasma, while the period at which the lags eventually level--off provides an estimate of the size of the scattering cloud. We further examine the influence of the location and spatial extent of the soft photon source on the form of the resulting lags for a variety of configurations; we conclude that the study of the X-ray hard lags can provide clues about these parameters of the Comptonization process too. Fits of the existing data with our models indicate that the size of the Comptonizing clouds are quite large in extent ($\sim$ 1 light second) with inferred radial density profiles which are in many instances inconsistent with those of the standard dynamical models...

On the X-ray time lags in the black hole candidates

Kotov, O.; Churazov, E.; Gilfanov, M.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 07/03/2001
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.25%
It is shown that the energy dependence of the time lags in Cygnus X-1 excludes any significant contribution of the standard reflected component to the observed lags. The conclusion is valid in the 0.1--10 Hz frequency range where time lags have been detected with high enough significance. In fact the data hint that reflected component is working in opposite direction, reducing the lags at energies where contribution of the reflected component is significant. We argue that the observed logarithmic dependence of time lags on energy can be understood as due to the small variations of the spectrum power law index in a very simple phenomenological model. We assume that an optically thin flow/corona, emitting a power law like spectrum, is present at a range of distances from the compact object. The slope of the locally emitted spectrum is a function of distance with the hardest spectrum emitted in the innermost region. If perturbations with different time scales are introduced to the accretion flow at different radii the observed X-ray lags naturally appear due to the inward propagation of perturbations on the diffusion time scales.; Comment: 10 pages, 11 figures, submitted to MNRAS

On Uncertainties in Cross-Correlation Lags and the Reality of Wavelength-Dependent Continuum Lags in Active Galactic Nuclei

Peterson, Bradley M.; Wanders, Ignaz; Horne, Keith; Collier, Stefan; Alexander, Tal; Kaspi, Shai; Maoz, Dan
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 09/02/1998
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.32%
We describe a model-independent method of assessing the uncertainties in cross-correlation lags determined from AGN light curves, and use this method to investigate the reality of lags between UV and optical continuum variations in well-studied AGNs. Our results confirm the existence of such lags in NGC 7469. We find that the continuum variations at 1825 A, 4845 A, and 6962 A follow those at 1315A by 0.22^{+0.12}_{-0.13} days, 1.25^{+0.48}_{-0.35} days, and 1.84^{+0.93}_{-0.94} days, respectively, based on the centroids of the cross-correlation functions; the error intervals quoted correspond to 68% confidence levels, and each of these lags is greater than zero at no less than 97% confidence. We do not find statistically significant interband continuum lags in NGC 5548, NGC 3783, or Fairall 9. Wavelength-dependent continuum lags may be marginally detected in the case of NGC 4151. However, on the basis of theoretical considerations, wavelength-dependent continuum lags in sources other than NGC 7469 are not expected to have been detectable in previous experiments. We also confirm the existence of a statistically significant lag between X-ray and UV continuum variations in the blazar PKS 2155-304.; Comment: 23 pages, 4 figures. Accepted for publication in PASP

Time lags of the kilohertz quasi-periodic oscillations in the low-mass X-ray binaries 4U 1608--52 and 4U 1636--53

de Avellar, M. G. B.; Méndez, M.; Sanna, A.; Horvath, J. E.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 26/02/2013
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.35%
(abridged) We studied the energy and frequency dependence of the Fourier time lags and intrinsic coherence of the kHz QPOs in the NS LMXBs 4U 1608-52 and 4U 1636-53 using RXTE data. In both sources we confirmed energy-dependent soft lags of 10-100 \mu s for the lower kHz QPO. We also found that the time lags of the upper kHz QPO are independent of energy and inconsistent with the soft lags of the lower kHz QPO. The intrinsic coherence of the lower kHz QPO remains constant at 0.6 from 5 to 12 keV, and then drops to zero, while for the upper kHz QPO the intrinsic coherence is consistent with zero across the full energy range. The intrinsic coherence of the upper kHz QPO is consistent with zero over the full frequency range of the QPO, except in 4U 1636-53 at ~780 Hz where it increases to 0.13. In 4U 1636-53, for the lower kHz QPO the 4-12 keV photons lag the 12-20 keV ones by 25 \mu s in the QPO frequency range 500-850 Hz, with the lags decreasing to 15 \mu s at higher frequencies. In 4U 1608-52 the soft lags of the lower kHz QPO remain constant at 40 \mu s. In 4U 1636-53, for the upper kHz QPO the 12-20 keV photons lag the 4-12 keV ones by 11 +/- 3 \mu s, independent of QPO frequency; we found consistent results for the time lags of the upper kHz QPO in 4U 1608-52. The intrinsic coherence of the lower kHz QPO increases from ~0-0.4 at 600 Hz to 1 and 0.6 at 800 Hz in 4U 1636-53 and 4U 1608-52...

Energy dependent ~100 \mu s time lags as observational evidence of Comptonization effects in the neutron star plasma environment

Falanga, Maurizio; Titarchuk, Lev
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 17/02/2007
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.32%
We present a Comptonization model for the observed properties of the energy-dependent soft/hard time lags and pulsed fraction (amplitude) associated with the pulsed emission of a neutron star (NS). We account for the soft lags by downscattering of hard X-ray photons in the relatively cold plasma of the disk or NS surface. A fraction of the soft X-ray photons coming from the disk or NS surface upscatter off hot electrons in the accretion column. This effect leads to hard lags as a result of thermal Comptonization of the soft photons. This model reproduces the observed soft and hard lags due to the down- and upscattered radiation as a function of the electron number densities of the reflector, n_{e}^{ref}, and the accretion column, n_{e}^{hot}. In the case of the accretion-powered millisecond pulsars IGR J00291+5934, XTE J1751-305, and SAX J1808.4-3658, the observed time lags agree well with the model. Soft lags are observed only if n_e^{ref} << n_e^{hot}. Scattering of the pulsed emission in the NS environment may account for the observed time lags as a non-monotonic function of energy. The time lag measurements can be used as a probe of the innermost parts of the NS and accretion disk. We determine the upper and lower limits of the density variation in this region using the observed time lags. The observed energy-dependent pulsed amplitude allows us to infer a variation of the Thomson optical depth of the Compton cloud in which the accretion column is embedded.; Comment: 4 pages...

Discovery of Fourier-dependent time lags in cataclysmic variables

Scaringi, S.; Koerding, E.; Groot, P. J.; Uttley, P.; Marsh, T.; Knigge, C.; Maccarone, T.; Dhillon, V. S.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 21/02/2013
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.32%
We report the first study of Fourier-frequency-dependent coherence and phase/time lags at optical wavelengths of cataclysmic variables (MV Lyr and LU Cam) displaying typical flickering variability in white light. Observations were performed on the William Herschel Telescope using ULTRACAM. Lightcurves for both systems have been obtained with the SDSS filters $u'$, $g'$ and $r'$ simultaneously with cadences between $\approx0.5-2$ seconds, and allow us to probe temporal frequencies between ~10^{-3} Hz and ~1 Hz. We find high levels of coherence between the u', g' and r' lightcurves up to at least ~10^{-2} Hz. Furthermore we detect red/negative lags where the redder bands lag the bluer ones at the lowest observed frequencies. For MV Lyr time lags up to ~3 seconds are observed, whilst LU Cam displays larger time lags of ~10 seconds. Mechanisms which seek to explain red/negative lags observed in X-ray binaries and Active Galactic Nuclei involve reflection of photons generated close to the compact object onto the surface layers of the accretion disk, where the lag delay is simply the light-travel time from the emitting source to the reflecting accretion disk area. Although this could be a viable explanation for the lags observed in MV Lyr...

X-ray time lags from a pivoting power law in black holes

Koerding, Elmar; Falcke, Heino
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 22/10/2003
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.29%
Most black hole candidate X-ray binaries show Fourier time lags between softer and harder X-rays. The hard photons seem to arrive up to a few ms after the soft for a given Fourier frequency of the perturbation. The energy dependence of the time lags has a roughly logarithmic behavior. Up to now most theories fail to explain the observed magnitude and Fourier frequency dependence of the lags or fail other statistical tests. We show that the time lags can arise from a simple pivoting power law model, which creates the logarithmic dependence on the photon energy at once. A pivoting power law arises naturally from jet/synchrotron models for the X-ray emission, but may also be applicable to corona models. A hint to the coherence features of the light-curves can be obtained from the power spectral density, which can be decomposed into a few broad Lorentzians that could arise from a couple of strongly damped oscillators with low quality factors below one. Using small variations of the power law index for each Lorentzian separately the lags can be derived analytically. They show the correct Fourier frequency dependence of the time lags. If one assumes variations of the power law index by +- 0.2 the model can account for the observed magnitude of the time lags in Cyg X-1. As a further test we calculated the cross- and auto-correlation functions for our model...

The Cross Spectral Time lags evolution along branches in XTE J1701-462

Li, Zhao-sheng; Chen, Li; Qu, Jin-lu; Bu, Qing-cui; Wang, De-hua
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 03/03/2013
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.25%
We investigate the cross spectrum of XTE J1701-462 in various types of Neutron Star-Low Mass X-ray Binary subclasses, during its 2006-2007 outburst. We analyze the relation between the time lags and temporal variabilities. We find that the hard time lags accompany with the horizontal branch oscillations (HBOs) and the soft time lags dominate the noise in the low frequency range 0.1-10 Hz on HB. In the Cyg-like phase, the time lags decrease on the middle normal branch (NB) from HB/NB vertex to NB/FB vertex, whereas the time lags are roughly invariant in the Sco-like source. We discuss that the Compton upscattering by the corona introduces the soft lag in low frequency noise. We interpret that the variation of the Comptonization component from the disk emission lead to the HBOs' time lags evolution along the Z tracks. We also report the rms amplitude spectrum and phase lag spectrum for the NBO. The $\sim$ $160^{\circ}$ phase lag is found. We present that the rms amplitude of both the Cyg-like and the Sco-like NBO linearly increase with the photon energy in low energy bands, and it will drop in the highest energy band.; Comment: Accepted for publication in The Astrophysical Journal

The evolution of the X-ray phase lags during the outbursts of the black hole candidate GX 339-4

Altamirano, Diego; Mendez, Mariano
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/03/2015
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.35%
Owing to the frequency and reproducibility of its outbursts, the black-hole candidate GX 339-4 has become the standard against which the outbursts of other black-hole candidate are matched up. Here we present the first systematic study of the evolution of the X-ray lags of the broad-band variability component (0.008-5 Hz) in GX 339-4 as a function of the position of the source in the hardness-intensity diagram. The hard photons always lag the soft ones, consistent with previous results. In the low-hard state the lags correlate with X-ray intensity, and as the source starts the transition to the intermediate/soft states, the lags first increase faster, and then appear to reach a maximum, although the exact evolution depends on the outburst and the energy band used to calculate the lags. The time of the maximum of the lags appears to coincide with a sudden drop of the Optical/NIR flux, the fractional RMS amplitude of the broadband component in the power spectrum, and the appearance of a thermal component in the X-ray spectra, strongly suggesting that the lags can be very useful to understand the physical changes that GX 339-4 undergoes during an outburst. We find strong evidence for a connection between the evolution of the cut-off energy of the hard component in the energy spectrum and the phase lags...

The phase lags of high-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations in four black-hole candidates

Mendez, Mariano; Altamirano, Diego; Belloni, Tomaso; Sanna, Andrea
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/08/2013
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.29%
We measured the phase-lag spectrum of the high-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations (QPO) in the black hole systems (at QPO frequencies) GRS 1915+105 (35 Hz and 67 Hz), GRO J1655-40 (300 Hz and 450 Hz), XTE J1550-564 (180 Hz and 280 Hz), and IGR J17091-3624 (67 Hz). The lag spectra of the 67-Hz QPO in, respectively, GRS 1915+105 and IGR J17091-3624, and the 450-Hz QPO in GRO J1655-40 are hard (hard photons lag the soft ones) and consistent with each other, with the hard lags increasing with energy. On the contrary, the lags of the 35-Hz QPO in GRS 1915+105 are soft, with the lags becoming softer as the energy increases; the lag spectrum of the 35-Hz QPO is inconsistent with that of the 67-Hz QPO. The lags of the 300-Hz QPO in GRO J1655-40, and the 180-Hz and the 280-Hz QPO in XTE J1550-564 are independent of energy, consistent with each other and with being zero or slightly positive (hard lags). For GRO J1655-40 the lag spectrum of the 300-Hz QPO differs significantly from that of the 450-Hz QPOs. The similarity of the lag spectra of the 180-Hz and 280-Hz QPO in XTE J1550-564 suggests that these two are the same QPO seen at a different frequency in different observations. The lag spectrum of the 67-Hz QPO in GRS 1915+105 is significantly different from that of the $2.7 \times 10^{-4}$ Hz QPO in the narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy RE J1034+396...

A Fourier Transformed Bremsstrahlung Flash Model for the Production of X-Ray Time Lags in Accreting Black Hole Sources

Kroon, John J.; Becker, Peter A.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 03/06/2014
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.25%
Accreting black hole sources show a wide variety of rapid time variability, including the manifestation of time lags during X-ray transients, in which a delay (phase shift) is observed between the Fourier components of the hard and soft spectra. Despite a large body of observational evidence for time lags, no fundamental physical explanation for the origin of this phenomenon has been presented. We develop a new theoretical model for the production of X-ray time lags based on an exact analytical solution for the Fourier transform describing the diffusion and Comptonization of seed photons propagating through a spherical corona. The resulting Green's function can be convolved with any source distribution to compute the associated Fourier transform and time lags, hence allowing us to explore a wide variety of injection scenarios. We show that thermal Comptonization is able to self-consistently explain both the X-ray time lags and the steady-state (quiescent) X-ray spectrum observed in the low-hard state of Cyg X-1. The reprocessing of bremsstrahlung seed photons produces X-ray time lags that diminish with increasing Fourier frequency, in agreement with the observations for a wide range of sources.