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Quality and quantity of milk produced by Saanen goats submitted to stress during three sequential days

Gaiato, A. P. R.; Delgado, T. G. F.; Negrao, J. A.
Fonte: ARQUIVO BRASILEIRO MEDICINA VETERINARIA ZOOTECNIA; MINAS GERAIS Publicador: ARQUIVO BRASILEIRO MEDICINA VETERINARIA ZOOTECNIA; MINAS GERAIS
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.53%
The experiment aimed to study the effect of physiological stress on cortisol levels, quality and quantity of milk through punctual administration of ACTH. Twelve Saanen goats were divided in two experimental groups: ACTH group (0,5 mu g of ACTH/Kg.L.W); Placebo group (placebo solution). Milk production, and percentages of protein, fat, lactose and SCC (somatic cells counting) of the milk were analyzed before, during and after the administration of ACTH/placebo. Simultaneously to the ACTH/placebo administration and during three sequential days, blood was collected to evaluate cortisol concentrations. At times -30 and zero, both groups presented basal concentrations of cortisol. The increase of cortisol contents was significant at times 60 (group ACTH: 59.00 +/- 5.70 and groups placebo: 5.23 +/- 1.37ng/mL) and 120 (group ACTH: 47.96 +/- 9.72 and group placebo: 4.38 +/- 1,14ng/mL) since the cortisol content was higher on the ACTH group. The values returned to the basal level at 300 minutes. Concerning milk production, no differences were found between ACTH and placebo groups. Milk, protein, fat, lactose and SCC did not distinguish one group from another. The results indicated that the physiological stress induced during three days was not harmful to milk production and milk quality of Saanen goats.

Tamanho de partículas da cana-de-açúcar in natura na alimentação de vacas e cabras em lactação; Particle size of fresh sugarcane fed to for lactating cows and goats

Santos, Vanessa Pillon dos
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 15/12/2010 PT
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Os objetivos deste estudo foram avaliar o efeito do tamanho médio de partícula (TMP) de rações contendo cana-de-açúcar sobre o desempenho de vacas e cabras em lactação e desenvolver equações que estimem a associação do TMP com algumas variáveis de desempenho. As vacas foram alimentadas em três lotes, com 10 animais cada. A ração total foi constituída de 11,2 % de PB e relação FDN/CNF de 1,45. Os tamanhos de partículas da cana-de-açúcar variaram entre 4,75 e 15,90 mm. Foram avaliados o CMS, o comportamento ingestivo, a produção e a composição do leite. O CMS (kg.dia-1) foi avaliado por lote e as demais medidas eram realizadas individualmente. A variável CMS apresentou regressão quadrática (P = 0,0472) indicando inicialmente que com o aumento do TMP o CMS foi reduzido. Para o CFDN também foi encontrada regressão quadrática (P = 0,0004), e aumentos no TMP podem diminuir o consumo total das fibras. Pôde-se verificar adequação para regressão linear no teor de gordura do leite (kg; P = 0,0360) e proteína do leite (kg; P = 0,0360). As equações demonstraram que a PL e a porcentagem de gordura do leite são diminuídas quando associadas ao aumento do TMP. Para o índice de seleção (IS) foi observado ajuste linear para a peneira Y1 e Y2. O modelo sugere que maiores tamanhos de partículas aumentam o IS. Efeito quadrático foi observado para o tempo de mastigação por unidade de MS (P=0...

Autoclaved, previously used intravaginal progesterone devices induces estrus and ovulation in anestrous Toggenburg goats

Souza, J. M. G.; Torres, C. A. A.; Maia, A. L. R. S.; Brandao, F. Z.; Bruschi, J. H.; Viana, J. H. M.; Oba, E.; Fonseca, J. F.
Fonte: Elsevier B.V. Publicador: Elsevier B.V.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 50-55
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.67%
Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq); Intravaginal progesterone devices are used worldwide for estrus induction in goats. Reused devices are able to induce estrus; however, this can be a health risk within a flock. The objective was to compare new and previously used (and autoclaved) progesterone-releasing intravaginal devices for induction of estrus and ovulation in seasonally anestrous Toggenburg goats. Anestrous goats (n = 42) received new intravaginal devices containing 0.3 g progesterone (CONTROL), or similar devices previously used for either 6 (USED6) or 12d (USED12) and subsequently autoclaved. All goats received 5 mg dinoprost at device insertion and 200 IU eCG 5 d later, and all devices were removed after 6 d. After device removal, estrus was monitored and females displaying signs of estrus were mated by fertile bucks. Transrectal ovarian ultrasonography was performed after device removal until detection of ovulation. Blood samples were collected for determination of plasma progesterone concentration at different times. There was no difference (P > 0.05) among groups CONTROL, USED6 or USED12 for: estrus response (87,100 or 100%, respectively); duration of estrus (32.3 +/- 2.3, 25.2 +/- 3.4 or 27.3 +/- 4.1 h); ovulation rate (100...

Perfil de ácidos graxos e análise sensorial de carne e iogurte de leite de caprinos alimentados com óleos vegetais

Dibbern, Lucas Schimidt
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP) Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: viii, 53 f. : grafs., tabs
POR
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36.79%
Pós-graduação em Zootecnia - FMVZ; Foods with lower fat and or better fatty acid profile are the main focus of the market for animal products. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the inclusion of three vegetable oil sources in the diet of lactating goats on the composition, fatty acid profile and sensory parameters of yogurt made from milk of these goats. Were used 32 Anglo-Nubian goats distributed in four treatments: control diet versus with inclusion of 3% of canola, sunflower and soybean oil. The influences of treatments and lactation periods on the composition, fatty acid profile and sensory parameters of the yoghurt were evaluated. For determination of the constituents, samples were taken at 21, 51, 81 and 111 days of lactation and the profile of fatty acids at 21 and 111 days of lactation. Milk production in 120 days of lactation was 182.75 kg and there is no difference to the treatments. The constituents were not affected by the treatments, but difference on the protein content was seen at period. For fat and defated dry extract was interaction between treatment and period. The inclusion of sunflower and soybean oils promoted an increase in the total content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). The index of atherogenicity (IA) improved with the addition of oil in the diet of animals...

Occurrence of enterotoxin-encoding genes in Staphylococcus aureus causing mastitis in lactating goats

Ferreira,Daneelly H.; Carvalho,Maria das Graças X.; Nardelli,Maria J.; Sousa,Francisca G.C.; Oliveira,Celso J.B.
Fonte: Colégio Brasileiro de Patologia Animal - CBPA; Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária (EMBRAPA) Publicador: Colégio Brasileiro de Patologia Animal - CBPA; Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária (EMBRAPA)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/07/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.74%
Staphylococcal enterotoxins are the leading cause of human food poisoning worldwide. Staphylococcus spp. are the main mastitis-causing agents in goats and frequently found in high counts in goat milk. This study aimed to investigate the occurrence of enterotoxin-encoding genes in Staphylococcus aureus associated with mastitis in lactating goats in Paraiba State, Brazil. Milk samples (n=2024) were collected from 393 farms. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated in 55 milk samples. Classical (sea, seb, sec, sed, see) and novel (seg, seh, sei) enterotoxin-encoding genes were investigated by means of polymerase chain reaction (PCR). From thirty-six tested isolates, enterotoxin-encoding genes were detected in 7 (19.5%) S. aureus. The gene encoding enterotoxin C (seC) was identified in six isolates, while seiwas observed in only one isolate. The genes sea, seb, sed, see, seg and seh were not observed amongst the S. aureus investigated in this study. In summary, S. aureus causing mastitis in goats can harbor enterotoxin-encoding genes and seC was the most frequent gene observed amongst the investigated isolates. This finding is important for surveillance purposes, since enterotoxin C should be investigated in human staphylococcal food poisoning outbreaks caused by consumption of goat milk and dairy products.

Performance of lactating goats fed diets containing inactive dry yeast

Gomes,Ludmila Couto; Alcalde,Claudete Regina; Macedo,Francisco de Assis Fonseca de; Santos,Geraldo Tadeu dos; Valloto,Altair Antônio; Lima,Luciano Soares de; Molina,Bruna Susan de Labio
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Zootecnia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Zootecnia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/10/2012 EN
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36.85%
Twenty-four Saanen goats (15 multiparous and 9 primiparous) from 21 days prepartum to 200 days in lactation were used to evaluate milk yield and composition. Animals were randomly distributed in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement (3 diets × 2 parity orders) and fed a 40:60 forage:concentrate diet composed of soybean meal, soybean meal + dry yeast or dry yeast as protein source, plus ground corn, mineral supplement and corn silage. The protein source did not influence the body weight of pre and postpartum goats. Prepartum, postpartum and postpeak dry matter intake (DMI) were not altered by diets. However, goats fed the diet containing dry yeast as protein source had lower DMI in late lactation. Milk yield and feed efficiency were not affected by diets. Milk components, acidity and somatic cell count were not influenced by diets during all lactation phases. However, fat and total solid contents postpartum were higher for primiparous goats and somatic cell count postpeak was lower for multiparous goats. Dry yeast can be used to replace soybean meal in diets for lactating Saanen goats.

Mesquite pod meal in diets for lactating goats

Pereira,Taiala Cristina de Jesus; Pereira,Mara Lúcia Albuquerque; Oliveira,Carlos Alberto Santana de; Argôlo,Lizziane da Silva; Silva,Herymá Giovane de Oliveira; Pedreira,Márcio dos Santos; Almeida,Paulo José Presidio; Santos,Alana Batista dos
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Zootecnia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Zootecnia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/02/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.79%
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects inclusion of 0%, 33.3%, 66.7% and 100% natural matter (NM) of mesquite pod meal (MPM), in substitution of corn, on the intake, digestibility and feeding behavior of lactating Saanen goats. The forage:concentrate ratio in the diet was 40:60, using elephant grass silage as a forage source. Eight adult lactating goats with about 60 days in milk and weighting 50 kg were divided into two 4 × 4 latin squares and four 17-day experimental periods. Dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP) and total digestible nutrient (TDN) intakes were not influenced by MPM levels. Ether extract (0.51; 0.34; 0.36; 0.20 kg/day) and non-fiber carbohydrate (NFC) (0.54; 0.53; 0.49; 0.36 kg/day) intakes showed a linear effect with increased MPM. Organic matter (OM) and NDF intakes presented a quadratic behavior. The maximum OM intake was estimated with the replacement of 40.5%. The maximum estimated intakes for NDF were 0.665 kg/day and 14.8 g/kg body weight, with a replacement close to 60%. Nutrient digestibility coefficients and TDN levels (655.0 g/kg) were not affected, except for NFC. The time spent eating, ruminating and idle was not influenced by the addition of MPM. The feeding rate of DM had a linear decrease which reflected the intake restriction. Corn replacement with MPM should not exceed 40.5%...

Comparison of morphology, viability, and function between blood and milk neutrophils from peak lactating goats

Tian, Sui Zhi; Chang, Chai Ju; Chiang, Chih Chi; Peh, Huo Cheng; Huang, Mu Chiou; Lee, Jai-Wei; Zhao, Xin
Fonte: Canadian Veterinary Medical Association Publicador: Canadian Veterinary Medical Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/2005 EN
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46.57%
The morphological features of blood and milk neutrophils from peak lactating goats were compared using light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and flow cytometry in order to investigate the cytological changes of neutrophils after migration into the mammary gland. The kinetics of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) generation and gelatinase release of blood and milk neutrophils, with or without stimulation of phorbol 12-myristate, 13-acetate ester (PMA), were used to characterize their responses to inflammatory stimuli. Neutrophils isolated from goat milk were highly segmented and contained multi-lobed nuclei. Ultrastructurally, milk neutrophils were more ruffled on the surface compared to blood neutrophils. Approximately 30% of milk neutrophils were undergoing cell death, either necrosis or apoptosis, in contrast to 8% of blood neutrophils. The ROI production of activated milk neutrophils peaked earlier than blood neutrophils, but the duration and the intensity were much less. Neutrophils from both sources augmented the release of gelatinase in response to PMA (1 ng/mL). However, the amount of gelatinase released from milk neutrophils was lower (P < 0.05) than that of blood neutrophils. In summary, more neutrophils become apoptotic and necrotic in the mammary gland...

The use of clustering techniques in the elucidation or confirmation of metabolic pathways. Application to the branched-chain fatty acids present in the milk fat of lactating goats.

Massart-Leën, A M; Massart, D L
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/05/1981 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.57%
The aim of this paper is 2-fold. (1) To propose the use of a group of mathematical techniques, called clustering, in the elucidation of complex metabolic relationships. (2) To apply clustering for the identification of related groups of saturated fatty acids having a common metabolic pathway for their biosynthesis in the milk fat of lactating goats. In this way, four groups of branched-chain fatty acids and two groups of straight-chain fatty acids are identified; the odd-numbered iso-, the even-numbered iso-, the anteiso-acids and the branched-chain fatty acids with methyl substitution in the chain, the odd-numbered straight-chain and the even-numbered straight-chain fatty acids. The long-chain fatty acids are not part of any group. The different metabolic pathways for their biosynthesis are discussed. From the results, it is concluded that clustering is indeed a potentially useful tool in the study of complex metabolic relationships.

Mammary and whole animal metabolism of glucose and fatty acids in fasting lactating goats

Annison, E. F.; Linzell, J. L.; West, C. E.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/1968 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.57%
1. Measurements were made of milk yield, mammary blood flow and mammary arteriovenous differences during the measurement of substrate entry rate by the isotope dilution method using [U-14C]glucose, acetate, palmitate, stearate or oleate in conscious lactating goats after 24 hr starvation.

Pharmacokinetics and milk penetration of ibafloxacin after intravenous administration to lactating goats

Marín, Pedro; Cárceles, Carlos M.; Escudero, Elisa; Fernández-Varón, Emilio
Fonte: Canadian Veterinary Medical Association Publicador: Canadian Veterinary Medical Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/2007 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.57%
The pharmacokinetic behavior of ibafloxacin was studied after intravenous administration of a single dose of 15 mg/kg to 6 healthy lactating goats. Plasma concentrations of ibafloxacin were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. The data for concentration versus time could best be described by a 2-compartment model. The mean plasma ibafloxacin clearance (and standard error) was 1.05 (0.10) L/h·kg. The mean steady-state volume of distribution was 1.65 (0.42) L/kg. The mean elimination half-life was 3.76 (0.30) h. Ibafloxacin penetration from the blood to the milk was poor. The ratio between the areas under the concentration–time curve of milk and plasma was 0.20 (0.01), indicating scant penetration of ibafloxacin into the milk.

Modulation of mammary development and programmed cell death by the frequency of milk removal in lactating goats

Li, Peter; Rudland, Philip S; Fernig, David G; Finch, Lynn M B; Wilde, Colin J
Fonte: Blackwell Science Inc Publicador: Blackwell Science Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/09/1999 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.79%
Unilateral changes in mammary cell number are elicited when one gland is milked more or less frequently than the contralateral gland in lactating goats. These changes were investigated using histochemical and immunocytochemical markers of mammary cell types, and the degree of mammary apoptosis was determined by end-labelling of fragmented DNA.Histological analysis confirmed that unilateral cessation of milking initiated involution and cell loss preferentially in the unmilked gland. The presence of fragmented DNA and morphological characteristics consistent with apoptosis demonstrated that these changes in mammary cell number in unmilked glands were, in part, the result of programmed alveolar cell death.De-differentiation of the remaining secretory cells to ductal epithelial cells occurred with an increase in staining of cytokeratin markers and decreased staining by peanut lectin and casein antisera.Differential once- and thrice-daily milking of lactating goats was also associated with unilateral changes in mammary cell number and milk yield. Milk yield and alveolar size were reduced after 4 weeks of infrequent milking. The latter was due to the increased loss of secretory cells by apoptosis, as indicated by a higher degree of fragmented DNA laddering.After 10 weeks of differential milking...

Nitrogen Metabolism in Lactating Goats Fed with Diets Containing Different Protein Sources

Santos, A. B.; Pereira, M. L. A.; Silva, H. G. O.; Pedreira, M. S.; Carvalho, G. G. P.; Ribeiro, L. S. O.; Almeida, P. J. P.; Pereira, T. C. J.; Moreira, J. V.
Fonte: Asian-Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies (AAAP) and Korean Society of Animal Science and Technology (KSAST) Publicador: Asian-Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies (AAAP) and Korean Society of Animal Science and Technology (KSAST)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.86%
This study aimed to evaluate urea excretion, nitrogen balance and microbial protein synthesis in lactating goats fed with diets containing different protein sources in the concentrate (soybean meal, cottonseed meal, aerial part of cassava hay and leucaena hay). Four Alpine goats whose mean body weight was 42.6±6.1 kg at the beginning of the experiment, a mean lactation period of 94.0±9.0 days and a production of 1.7±0.4 kg of milk were distributed in a 4×4 Latin square with four periods of 15 days. Diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous, containing 103.0 g/kg of CP, 400 g/kg of Tifton 85 hay and 600 g/kg of concentrate. Diet containing cottonseed meal provided (p<0.05) increased excretion of urea and urea nitrogen in the urine (g/d and mg/kg of BW) when compared with leucaena hay. The diets affected the concentrations of urea nitrogen in plasma (p<0.05) and excretion of urea nitrogen in milk, being that soybean meal and cottonseed meal showed (p<0.05) higher than the average aerial part of the cassava hay. The use of diets with cottonseed meal as protein source in the concentrate in feeding of lactating goats provides greater nitrogen excretion in urine and negative nitrogen balance, while the concentrate with leucaena hay as a source of protein...

Nutrient Digestibility, Ruminal Fermentation Activities, Serum Parameters and Milk Production and Composition of Lactating Goats Fed Diets Containing Rice Straw Treated with Pleurotus ostreatus

Kholif, A. E.; Khattab, H. M.; El-Shewy, A. A.; Salem, A. Z. M.; Kholif, A. M.; El-Sayed, M. M.; Gado, H. M.; Mariezcurrena, M. D.
Fonte: Asian-Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies (AAAP) and Korean Society of Animal Science and Technology (KSAST) Publicador: Asian-Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies (AAAP) and Korean Society of Animal Science and Technology (KSAST)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.86%
The study evaluated replacement of Egyptian berseem clover (BC, Trifolium alexandrinum) with spent rice straw (SRS) of Pleurotus ostreatus basidiomycete in diets of lactating Baladi goats. Nine lactating homo-parity Baladi goats (average BW 23.8±0.4 kg) at 7 d postpartum were used in a triplicate 3×3 Latin square design with 30 d experimental periods. Goats were fed a basal diet containing 0 (Control), 0.25 (SRS25) and 0.45 (SRS45) (w/w, DM basis) of SRS. The Control diet was berseem clover and concentrate mixture (1:1 DM basis). The SRS45 had lowered total feed intake and forages intake compared to Control. The SRS25 and SRS45 rations had the highest digestibilities of DM (p = 0.0241) and hemicellulose (p = 0.0021) compared to Control which had higher (p<0.01) digestibilities of OM (p = 0.0002) and CP (p = 0.0005) than SRS25 and SRS45. Ruminal pH and microbial protein synthesis were higher (p<0.0001) for SRS25 and SRS45 than Control, which also had the highest (p<0.0001) concentration of TVFA, total proteins, non-protein N, and ammonia-N. All values of serum constituents were within normal ranges. The Control ration had higher serum globulin (p = 0.0148), creatinine (p = 0.0150), glucose (p = 0.0002) and cholesterol (p = 0.0016). Both Control and SRS25 groups had the highest (p<0.05) milk (p = 0.0330) and energy corrected milk (p = 0.0290) yields. Fat content was higher (p = 0.0373) with SRS45 and SRS25 groups compared with Control. Replacement of BC with SRS in goat rations increased milk levels of conjugated linoleic acid and unsaturated fatty acids compared with Control. It was concluded that replacing 50% of Egyptian berseem clover with SRS in goat rations improved their productive performance without marked effects on metabolic indicators health.

Feeding a High Concentrate Diet Down-Regulates Expression of ACACA, LPL and SCD and Modifies Milk Composition in Lactating Goats

Tao, Hui; Chang, Guangjun; Xu, Tianle; Zhao, Huajian; Zhang, Kai; Shen, Xiangzhen
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 18/06/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.08%
High concentrate diets are fed to early and mid-lactation stages dairy ruminants to meet the energy demands for high milk production in modern milk industry. The present study evaluated the effects of a high concentrate diet on milk fat and milk composition, especially, cis-9, trans-11 CLA content in milk and gene expression of lactating goats. Eight mid-lactating goats with rumen fistula were randomly assigned into a high concentrate diet (HCD) group and low concentrate diet (LCD) group. High concentrate diet feeding significantly increased lipopolysaccharides (LPS) in plasma and decreased milk fat content, vaccenic acid (VA) and cis-9, trans-11 CLA in milk of the lactating goats. The mRNA expression levels of sterol regulatory element binding protein B 1c (SREBP1c), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), fatty acid synthetase (FASN) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase α (ACACA, ACCα) involving in lipid metabolism were analyzed, and ACACA and LPL all decreased in their expression level in the mammary glands of goats fed a high concentrate diet. DNA methylation rate of stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) was elevated and decreased, and SCD mRNA and protein expression was reduced significantly in the mammary glands of goats fed a high concentrate diet. In conclusion...

Nighttime Cooling Is an Effective Method for Improving Milk Production in Lactating Goats Exposed to Hot and Humid Environment

Sunagawa, Katsunori; Nagamine, Itsuki; Kamata, Yasuhiro; Niino, Noriko; Taniyama, Yoshihiko; Kinjo, Kazuhide; Matayoshi, Ayano
Fonte: Asian-Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies (AAAP) and Korean Society of Animal Science and Technology (KSAST) Publicador: Asian-Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies (AAAP) and Korean Society of Animal Science and Technology (KSAST)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.93%
Heat production in ruminants follows a diurnal pattern over the course of a day peaking 3 hours following afternoon feeding and then gradually declining to its lowest point prior to morning feeding. In order to clarify the cooling period most effective in reducing decreases in feed intake and milk production, experiments were carried out based on the diurnal rhythm of heat production and heat dissipation. In experiment 1, the effects of hot environment on milk production were investigated. The animals were kept first in a thermoneutral environment (20.0°C, 80.0%) for 12 days, they were then transitioned to a hot environment (32°C, 80.0%) for 13 days before being returned to second thermoneutral environment for a further 12 days. In experiment 2, the effectiveness of daytime cooling or nighttime cooling for improving milk production in hot environment was compared. While ten lactating Japanese Saanen goats (aged 2 years, weighing 41.0 kg) during early lactation were used in experiment 1, ten lactating goats (aged 2 years, weighing 47.5 kg) during mid-lactation were used in experiment 2. The animals were fed 300 g of concentrated feed and excessive amounts of crushed alfalfa hay cubes twice daily. Water was given ad libitum. The animals were milked twice daily. When exposed to a hot environment...

Aumento nas contagens de ovos de nematódeos gastrintestinais em cabras lactantes.

COSTA, C. A. F.
Fonte: Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira, Brasília, DF, v. 18, n. 8, p. 919-929, ago. 1983. Publicador: Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira, Brasília, DF, v. 18, n. 8, p. 919-929, ago. 1983.
Tipo: Artigo em periódico indexado (ALICE)
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.91%
Resumo: Foi avaiada a influencia do parto e lactacao sobre a contagem de ovos de nematodeos nas fezes de cabras. Utilizaram-se quatro grupos de cabras, assim distribuidas: SNV - secas nao vermifugadas; LNV - lactantes nao vermifugadas; SV - secas vermifugadas; LV - lactatnes vermifugadas tres a quatro semanas antes da paricao. O estudo foi repetido em duas epocas de paricao. As contagens de ovos por grama de fezes (OPG) e as coproculturas foram realizdas semanalmente. As cabras paridas em outrubo (meados de estacao seca) apresentaram maiores contagens de OPG que as cabras secas, independentemente da vermifugacao. Os aumentos, as contagens do grupo LNV foram superiores (P<0,05) as do grupo SNV. Os aumentos de OPG no grupo LV ocorreram na terceira semana do periodo de paricao e da terceira a sexta semanas pos-paricao. Nesses aumentos, as contagens do grupo LV foram superiores (P<0,05) as do grupo SV. Nas cabras paridas em junho (inicio da estacao seca), os aumentos de OPG foram menos acentuados. Os aumentos do OPG no grupo LV ocorreram tres e uma semans antes do inicio da paricao. Nesses aumentos, as contagens do grupo LV foram superiores (P<0,05) as do grup SV. A maturacao de larvs em hipobiose foi considerada a principal responsavel pelos aumentos do OPG nas cabras lactantes. O Hemonchus foi o nematodeo que mais contribuiu para esses aumentos de OPG. [Rise of gastrointestinal nematode egg counts in lactating goats]. Abstract: This experiment evaluated the parturition and lactating influence on the fecal nematode egg counts in female goats. The does were divided into four groups as foliows: DND - dry nondewormed does; LND - lactating nondewormed does; DD - dry dewormed does; LO - lactating does...

Effects of immunization against an autocrine inhibitor of milk secretion in lactating goats.

Wilde, C J; Addey, C V; Peaker, M
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/03/1996 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.74%
1. Lactating goats were immunized against the goat's milk protein identified as a feedback inhibitor of lactation (FIL). Immunization was by three treatments during the declining stage of lactation. 2. When antibodies to FIL were consistently detected in milk (in response to the third treatment), the rate of decline in milk secretion was significantly reduced compared with sham-immunized controls. Such a response was not apparent with the first two treatments when serum but not milk titres of anti-FIL were raised. 3. When one gland of immunized goats was switched (after the third immunization) from twice- to once-daily milking, the ipsilateral decrease in the rate of milk secretion was reduced significantly compared with sham-immunized goats. 4. The results are compatible with the hypothesis that the autocrine agent FIL acts during milk accumulation as an inhibitor of milk secretion.

Factors affecting feed efficiency in dairy goats

Oliveira,Tadeu Silva de; Leonel,Fernando de Paula; Silva,Cássio José da; Baffa,Danielle Ferreira; Pereira,José Carlos; Zervoudakis,Joanis Tilemahos
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Zootecnia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Zootecnia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/10/2014 EN
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36.9%
The objective of this study was to present some factors affecting feed efficiency in dairy goats. To develop our work, individual and average data from performance experiments with lactating goats were used. The following variables were evaluated: gross feed efficiency, adjusted feed efficiency, dry matter intake, milk-yield, 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield, dry matter digestibility, dietary neutral detergent fiber content, different roughage-to-concentrate ratios and body weight. The statistical analyses involved the application of descriptive and dispersion measures besides Pearson's correlation coefficient and linear regression analysis. The analyzed variables were highly correlated with feed efficiency. The feed efficiency of lactating goats was affected by the milk fat correction, dry matter digestibility, dietary fiber content, proportion of roughage in the diet and body weight. Among these factors, standardization of the milk fat appeared to be the most efficient in correcting the feed efficiency in lactating goats. Correction of some of these factors implies greater precision in the measurement of feed efficiency.

Pharmacokinetics of ceftazidime administered to lactating and non-lactating goats

Rule,R; Villagra,S; Barrena,P; Lacchini,R; Reynaldi,F J
Fonte: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association Publicador: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2011 EN
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The aim of this work was to determine the pharmacokinetics of intravenous (iv) and intramuscular (im) ceftazidime administered to lactating (LTG; n = 6) and non-lactating (NLTG; n = 6) healthy Creole goats in 2 trials (T1 and T2). During T1 and T2, goats randomly received a single dose of im or iv ceftazidime (10 mg/kg). Serum concentration of iv ceftazidime in NLTG and LTG goats is best described by 2 and 3 compartment models, respectively. The pharmacokinetic parameters of iv and im ceftazidime administered to LTG and NLTG showed statistically significant differences (P < 0.05) in the constants (λz,T1 vs T2 [iv] 0.5 ± 0.1 vs 0.3 ± 0.1 /h; T1 vs T2 [im] 0.5 ± 0.2 vs 0.3 ± 0.1 /h) and in the mean times (t1/2,T1 vs T 2 [iv] 1.6 ± 0.3 vs 2.3 ±0.6 h;T 1 vs T 2 [im] 1.6 ± 0.7 vs 2.6 ± 0.9 h) of elimination. The bioavailability of ceftazidime in LTG and NLTG was 113.0 ± 17.8 and 96.0 ± 18.0 %, respectively. Ceftazidime concentration in milk at 2 h was: iv = 1.9 ± 0.2 and im = 2.4 ± 0.5 µg/m; the penetration in milk was iv = 18.3 ± 13.5 and im = 14.3 ± 10.6 %. Ninety-six hours after iv and im administration, residues of the drug were not found in milk. In conclusion, ceftazidime, when administered to goats, showed high concentration times in serum...