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Effects of the 2008–09 Economic Crisis on Labor Markets in Mexico

Freije, Samuel; López-Acevedo, Gladys; Rodríguez-Oreggia, Eduardo
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.46%
The 2008-09 economic crisis has had a long-lasting negative impact on the Mexican economy. This paper examines labor market dynamics in Mexico in light of the crisis. The labor market has been characterized in recent years by low relative unemployment, but high levels of informal jobs, low-growth, and almost stagnant real wages. In this context, the crisis destroyed a wide number of formal jobs, and even informal, increasing the unemployment rates to pre-crisis levels. Manufacturing was the sector that endured the largest job losses during the crisis and wages decreased for all sectors. The government of Mexico implemented a variety of programs to cope with the crises. However, these measures were too limited to counteract the large negative impact of the crisis on labor markets.

Explaining Variation in Child Labor Statistics

Dillon, Andrew; Bardasi, Elena; Beegle, Kathleen; Serneels, Pieter
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.3%
Child labor statistics are critical for assessing the extent and nature of child labor activities in developing countries. In practice, widespread variation exists in how child labor is measured. Questionnaire modules vary across countries and within countries over time along several dimensions, including respondent type and the structure of the questionnaire. Little is known about the effect of these differences on child labor statistics. This paper presents the results from a randomized survey experiment in Tanzania focusing on two survey aspects: different questionnaire design to classify children work and proxy response versus self-reporting. Use of a short module compared with a more detailed questionnaire has a statistically significant effect, especially on child labor force participation rates, and, to a lesser extent, on working hours. Proxy reports do not differ significantly from a child s self-report. Further analysis demonstrates that survey design choices affect the coefficient estimates of some determinants of child labor in a child labor supply equation. The results suggest that low-cost changes to questionnaire design to clarify the concept of work for respondents can improve the data collected.

Wage Subsidy and Labor Market Flexibility in South Africa

Go, Delfin S.; Kearney, Marna; Korman, Vijdan; Robinson, Sherman; Thierfelder, Karen
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.41%
In this paper, the authors use a highly disaggregate general equilibrium model to analyze the feasibility of a wage subsidy to unskilled workers in South Africa, isolating and estimating its potential employment effects and fiscal cost. They capture the structural characteristics of the labor market with several labor categories and substitution possibilities, linking the economy-wide results on relative prices, wages, and employment to a micro-simulation model with occupational choice probabilities in order to investigate the poverty and distributional consequences of the policy. The impact of a wage subsidy on employment, poverty, and inequality in South Africa depends greatly on the elasticities of substitution of factors of production, being very minimal if unskilled and skilled labor are complements in production. The desired results are attainable only if there is sufficient flexibility in the labor market. Although the impact in a low case scenario can be improved by supporting policies that relax the skill constraint and increase the production capacity of the economy especially towards labor-intensive sectors...

Armenia - Labor Market Dynamics : Volume 1. Overview

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.43%
This study is intended to help Armenian policymakers better understand the main factors behind modest labor market outcomes and to identify policy options to create more and better jobs. The report is based on data from administrative statistics, labor force surveys, and household surveys. The objective of the study is to determine the main factors behind poor labor market outcomes in Armenia: high unemployment of long duration despite rapid economic growth. To do so, it will assess, first, the key characteristics of the demand for labor. These include (a) the impact of macroeconomic policies on job growth; (b) wage flexibility and unit labor costs; (c) cost-of-doing-business factors, including costs, risks, and barriers to competition faced by firms; and (d) employment promotion legislation and labor market institutions. Recommendations are made on policies that can promote an effective and sustainable increased demand for labor; second, the key characteristics of the supply of labor, including the impact of long-term demographic developments and labor migration...

Armenia - Labor Market Dynamics : Volume 2. Main Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.32%
This study is intended to help Armenian policymakers better understand the main factors behind modest labor market outcomes and to identify policy options to create more and better jobs. The report is based on data from administrative statistics, labor force surveys, and household surveys. The objective of the study is to determine the main factors behind poor labor market outcomes in Armenia: high unemployment of long duration despite rapid economic growth. To do so, it will assess, first, the key characteristics of the demand for labor. These include (a) the impact of macroeconomic policies on job growth; (b) wage flexibility and unit labor costs; (c) cost-of-doing-business factors, including costs, risks, and barriers to competition faced by firms; and (d) employment promotion legislation and labor market institutions. Recommendations are made on policies that can promote an effective and sustainable increased demand for labor; second, the key characteristics of the supply of labor, including the impact of long-term demographic developments and labor migration...

Key Characteristics of Employment Regulations in the Middle East and North Africa

Angel-Urdinola, Diego F.; Kuddo, Arvo
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.31%
This Fast Brief provides a general background on the main features of labor regulations in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) Region. This is part of an effort to understand employability constraints in MENA and to this end a World Bank team gathered information on labor legislation and other legal acts concerning labor regulations in the region. All this rendered more urgent with the ongoing social and political turmoil in the region. Within the broader scope of labor regulations, and in order to assure regional comparability, the information that was collected focused on key issues associated with commencing or terminating employment and during the period of employment (including maternity benefits). This Brief is to provide policymakers and international organizations with a regional analysis of how labor regulation affects labor market outcomes in the region and to inform governments on strategic approaches to employment creation through labor policy and associated reforms. This activity comes as a response to regional priorities in the context of the Arab World Initiative (AWI): one of the six strategic themes of the AWI focuses explicitly on employment creation as a top priority.

Crafting Labor Policy : Techniques and Lessons from Latin America

Gill, Indermit; Montenegro, Claudio E.; Domeland, Dorte
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank and Oxford University Press Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank and Oxford University Press
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.5%
Nothing impacts the welfare of individuals and households more directly than employment and earnings opportunities. In developing countries, labor market reform is a crucial component for the success of overall economic policy reforms. Despite success in other areas of economic reform over the past ten years, Argentina, Brazil, and Chile continue to face significant labor policy issues. To reduce the rhetoric around the issues - in Argentina, a high level of unemployment exists; in Brazil, the high costs of public employment have created large government deficits and public debt; and in Chile, there is a growing income inequality and uncertainty of employment - the book uses a systematically quantitative approach. The value of the quantitative methods in analysis is that they can provide frameworks to better understand the effects of various policy actions. The results can then be translated into benefits and costs that policy makers can more easily explain to their constituents. The policy recommendations resulting from the issues analyzed in Crafting Labor Policy: Techniques and Lessons from Latin America may be beneficial to other developing countries enacting labor market reforms.

Labor Market Policies under a Youth Bulge : How to Benefit from Demographic Dividend in Pakistan

Robalino, David; Cho, Yoonyoung
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.38%
This paper assesses labor market trends and outcomes in Pakistan over the past decade. It shows that despite a high rate of employment growth, labor market outcomes have been disappointing: most jobs have been created in low productivity sectors/activities, and even if they provide a minimum level of income to often avoid poverty, they remain low quality jobs providing little or no protection to workers against shocks. In addition, female participation rates for women are very low and there are large income disparities between rural and urban areas, and across sectors. A fundamental part of the problem is the low level of education of the labor force. Pakistan is currently in the midst of a demographic transition that is bringing a growing number of youth into the labor market. This youth bulge that is unwinding opens both challenges and opportunities. Challenges because of the need to create enough jobs to employ new entrants; Opportunities, because if this is done the country will enjoy a demographic dividend ...

Who Benefits from Labor Market Regulations? Chile 1960-1998

Montenegro, Claudio E.; Pagés, Carmen
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.33%
Economists have examined the impact of labor market regulations on the level of employment. But there are many reasons to suspect that the impact of regulations differs across types of workers. In this paper the authors take advantage of the unusually large variance in labor policy in Chile to examine how different labor market regulations affect the distribution of employment and the employment rates across age, gender, and skill levels. To this effect, they use a sample of repeated cross-section household surveys spanning the period 1960-98 and measures of the evolution of job security provisions and minimum wages across time. The results suggest large distribution effects. The authors find that employment security provisions and minimum wages reduce the share of youth and unskilled employment as well as their employment rates. They also find large effects on the distribution of employment between women and men.

Minimum Wage Policy : Lessons with a Focus on the ASEAN Region

Del Carpio, Ximena; Pabon, Laura
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.52%
This report consists of seven chapters and is divided into three parts. Part one focuses on the minimum wage policy, its historical evolution, and the current institutional context across ASEAN countries. Part two delves into the socio?economic impacts of the minimum wage policy on workers, households, firms, the economy, and the ASEAN region. Part III links the findings from each country to the ASEAN regional context and brings all the analysis together into a policy and operational discussion. Specifically, part one of the report includes this chapter (chapter one) and chapter two. The rest of chapter one summarizes the findings from all chapters in the report and presents an overview of lessons detailed in the final chapter. To provide some background and context for the remainder of the report, chapter two briefly describes the history of minimum wage policy around the world and the theoretical principles behind wage setting and its effects. Part two consists of four chapters. Chapter three, which describes how the minimum wage policy is structured and managed in each ASEAN country...

Labor Policy to Promote Good Jobs in Tunisia : Revisiting Labor Regulation, Social Security, and Active Labor Market Programs

Angel-Urdinola, Diego F.; Nucifora, Antonio; Robalino, David
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.5%
Tunisians are striving for the opportunity to realize their potential and aspirations in a country that is rich in both human and physical capital, but whose recent economic growth has failed to create enough opportunities in the form of good and productive jobs. This report highlights the main barriers that hinder the Tunisian labor market from providing income, protection, and prosperity to its citizens and proposes a set of labor policies that could facilitate the creation of better, more inclusive, and more productive jobs. The weak economic performance and insufficient and low-quality job creation in Tunisia is primarily the result of an economic environment permeated by distortions, barriers to competition, and excessive red tape, including in the labor market. This has resulted in the creation of a insufficient number of jobs, especially in the formal sector. To change this situation, policy makers need to address five strategic directives that can promote long-term inclusive growth and formality: foster competition; realign incentives...

Belarus Regional Development Policy Notes

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Relatório
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.4%
This report focuses on two competing forces: the Soviet industrial legacy and emerging economic activities, mostly in the form of micro, small, and medium enterprises (MSMEs). The large, often vertically integrated, state-owned enterprises (SOEs) that are part of the Soviet legacy still have a considerable role in many industries and indeed dominate the economies of certain rayons and even oblasts. This report shows that because MSMEs generate new jobs and output without draining state resources, it is important to encourage their creation and open opportunities for existing companies to expand, particularly micro and small enterprises. This growth is geographically uneven, with a tendency of economic activities to gravitate to industrialized centers. The report revisits the policy debates on how to improve regional economies and their welfare.

Finding Matthew Charlton: the Australian Labor Party's forgotten leader

Butterfield, Jennifer
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.3%
Matthew Charlton was Leader of the Australian Labor Party (ALP) for six years between 1922-1928, yet he is an almost unknown figure in Australian political history. Unlike many of his contemporaries, there is no written biography exploring his life and work, and no cache of papers or personal documents held by any public institution. But Matthew Charlton was an interesting, and in some ways, remarkable man. The child of working class British immigrants, he left school at the age of 12 to begin work in Newcastle' s coal mines, spending most of his youth underground. Industrial upheaval in the coal mining industry during the late 1890's led him to become involved in union politics, and he rose quickly through the ranks of the Colliery Employees Federation. From union politics, he moved to the NSW state parliament, and from there, to Federal politics, holding the Newcastle seat of Hunter from 1910 until his retirement in 1928. A well respected figure within the ALP, he became a senior member of Caucus, served as Deputy to Leader Frank Tudor, and was eventually elected Leader himself in 1922, following the sudden deaths of Tudor and his appointed successor, T.J. Ryan. As Leader between 1922-1928, Charlton faced several important difficulties- none of which he was able to surmount to gain election for himself and the party. Most importantly...

Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan - Development Policy Review : Improving Institutions, Fiscal Policies and Structural Reforms for Greater Growth Resilience and Sustained Job Creation (Vol. 2 of 2)

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Development Policy Review (DPR); Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.44%
Jordan's quest for long-term, inclusive and sustainable growth has remained largely elusive. By the Growth and Development Commission's measure of success, namely, an average growth rate of 7 percent over 30 years, Jordan's growth record cannot be dubbed 'successful'. This Development Policy Review (DPR) shows that sustaining growth and reducing unemployment is possible: Jordan has a strong human capital base, a large endowment in engineers, doctors, accountants, Information Technology (IT) specialists and a substantial highly-skilled diaspora (500,000 educated Jordanians abroad, 8 percent of the population). Furthermore, the market-oriented reforms of the early 2000s have made Jordan one of the most open economies in the Middle East and North Africa Region and have led to the emergence of dynamic non-traditional sectors (e.g., information and communication technologies, health tourism and business services). What is missing are: (i) an adequate and stable institutional framework for policymaking and long-term business development; (ii) good fiscal policies to manage shocks and maintain macroeconomic stability; good institutions and macroeconomic stability were identified by the growth commission as two of the five common characteristics of successful growth experiences; and (iii) further growth-enhancing structural reforms.

Minimum Wage Policy : Lessons with a Focus on the ASEAN Region

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Social Protection Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.52%
As developing economies continue to mature and enter the next phase of reforms, labor market issues and key policy instruments such as the minimum wage increasingly come to the forefront. Increased globalization and wider competition compel countries to make labor markets more flexible so as not to hurt competitiveness. At the same time, policymakers face pressure to rethink labor market regulations (and social safety nets) to avoid disadvantaging workers, especially the most vulnerable who are more prone to employment insecurity. Evidence of the impact of minimum wage policies in the East Asian context and in Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) countries, more specifically remains very limited. A thorough literature search identified only a few rigorous studies of the impact of minimum wages on important welfare outcomes in ASEAN countries, and some of the evidence was narrowly focused on one sector and period or from a time when the institutional setup and management of the policy was different from today. Given the relevance of the minimum wage policy in ASEAN economies...

Mauritius - Enhancing and Sustaining Competitiveness : Policy Notes on Trade and Labor

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Poverty Study
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.44%
Mauritius is a well known successful development story. The country's Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita rose from 38 percent below the world average in 1981 to 16 percent above the average by 2008. Such a performance is not the fruit of luck or use of natural advantages as it was accomplished through man-made efforts and policy actions. The combination of (i) active industrialization policies together with opportunistic use of preferential trade access; and (ii) participatory institutions that assured voice and rent redistribution across the society ensured labor intensive growth and the emergence of a virtuous cycle in development. Mauritius knew what needed to be done. A National Long-Term Perspective Study (NLTPS), also known as Vision 2020, started in 1990 and was completed in 1997. The goal of opening up and diversifying the economy by moving towards high value-added, skill and knowledge intensive service sectors was already well articulated in the study - with explicit reference to the potential of 'computer services' which today is embedded in the Information and Communications Technology (ICT) sector. The global crisis in 2008 was a threatening reminder of vulnerabilities. Mauritius is structurally vulnerable to external shocks. With a small domestic market unable to promote or sustain production growth by itself and a high dependence on raw materials...

Promoting Labor Market Participation and Social Inclusion in Europe and Central Asia's Poorest Countries

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Report; Economic & Sector Work; Economic & Sector Work :: Other Social Protection Study
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.42%
This report, funded by the Trust Fund for Environmentally and Socially Sustainable Development (TFESSD), seeks to identify labor market inequalities in the ten countries outlined above, to relate these inequalities to other forms of social exclusion, and to propose areas for policy action aimed at boosting labor market participation. The remainder of the report is structured as follows. Chapter two describes the role that jobs play in fostering good living standards, productivity and social cohesion, and contextualizes the discussion on jobs and participation in the ten countries. Chapter three zooms in, highlighting inequalities in labor force participation across demographic groups. Chapter four shifts the focus to the factors explaining unequal labor force participation across groups, and discusses a policy agenda for these ten countries, drawing on experiences from the rest of the world. Chapter five concludes.

Jordan - Resolving Jordan's Labor Market Paradox of Concurrent Economic Growth and High Unemployment

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.42%
Reducing unemployment is a top priority of the Government of Jordan, as expressed in its principal strategies, "we are all Jordan" and the national agenda. Consistent with those strategies and with the recommendations of donors, the Government's approach to reducing unemployment has been to create jobs by attracting investments that promote gross domestic product (GDP) growth. In recent years, Jordan has successfully attracted investment, achieved strong GDP growth, and created many new jobs. This report also recommends actions to further the Government's goal of reducing employment. To accomplish this we cover industrial policy, fiscal policy, regional development, education, and social protection programs. Although this report comments on employment aspects of several policies and programs, truly comprehensive analysis of these policies and programs is beyond its scope. Rather, these findings and recommendations should be considered in the context of ongoing work by the Government, the World Bank, and other donors the various policy and program areas. That work includes analytical work and investments in the areas of: (a) public expenditure...

Brazil : Jobs Report, Volume 1. Policy Briefing; Brazil - Empregos no Brasil - Sessao informativa sobre politica

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.46%
This report, conducted jointly by researchers in Brazil and at the World Bank, aims to address the debate on how the Brazilian labor market functions. It does so not by focusing on labor market functioning but on its outcomes. What is central are labor market outcomes, such as adequate employment growth so that job-seekers can find gainful employment, acceptable worker productivity levels that are fairly compensated, and reasonable income security for workers and their households. This report is structured as follows: Chapter 1 argues that labor laws have begun to show signs of obsolescence. Chapter 2 shows this is reflected in deteriorating outcomes. Key indicators--employment growth, labor force participation, unemployment rates, and income security--all point to worsening labor market functioning since the mid-1990s. The report then examines how changed macroeconomic circumstances call for changes in labor market institutions, regulations, and interventions. Using a characterization of the economy in which informality has a central role...

Education, Labor Rights, and Incentives : Contract Teacher Cases in the Indian Courts

Robinson, Nick; Gauri, Varun
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.32%
Since the liberalization of India's economy beginning in the early 1990's, the government has increasingly employed contract workers to perform various state functions, including in the education sector. Yet, little research has been done to examine how courts have reacted to this shift in government labor policy. This paper looks at all reported cases involving contract teachers in the Indian Supreme Court and four High Courts over the last thirty years. It finds that although almost never explicitly overturning precedent, the judiciary in India has increasingly become less sympathetic to contract teachers demands, particularly at the Supreme Court level. The paper then argues that the Court could use its power of judicial review to engage the government in a dialogue, not unlike some of its earlier decisions in the 1980s and early 1990s. The Court can help guide the government to create a labor policy that not only achieve better results for students, but better working conditions for teachers. Such a dialogic approach could potentially be adopted to help reframe the government s contract labor policy more generally.