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Adjusting the Labor Supply to Mitigate Violent Shocks : Evidence from Rural Colombia

Fernández, Manuel; Ibáñez, Ana María; Peña, Ximena
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.7%
This paper studies the use of labor markets to mitigate the impact of violent shocks on households in rural areas in Colombia. It examines changes in the labor supply from on-farm to off-farm labor as a means of coping with the violent shock and the ensuing redistribution of time within households. It identifies the heterogeneous response by gender. Because the incidence of violent shocks is not exogenous, the analysis uses instrumental variables that capture several dimensions of the cost of exercising terror. As a response to the violent shocks, households decrease the time spent on on-farm work and increase their supply of labor to off-farm activities (non-agricultural ones). Men carry the bulk of the adjustment in the use of time inasmuch as they supply the most hours to off-farm non-agricultural work and formal labor markets. Labor markets do not fully absorb the additional labor supply. Women in particular are unable to find jobs in formal labor markets and men have increased time dedicated to leisure and household chores. Additional off-farm supply does not fully cover the decrease in consumption. The results suggest that in rural Colombia...

Effects of the 2008–09 Economic Crisis on Labor Markets in Mexico

Freije, Samuel; López-Acevedo, Gladys; Rodríguez-Oreggia, Eduardo
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.5%
The 2008-09 economic crisis has had a long-lasting negative impact on the Mexican economy. This paper examines labor market dynamics in Mexico in light of the crisis. The labor market has been characterized in recent years by low relative unemployment, but high levels of informal jobs, low-growth, and almost stagnant real wages. In this context, the crisis destroyed a wide number of formal jobs, and even informal, increasing the unemployment rates to pre-crisis levels. Manufacturing was the sector that endured the largest job losses during the crisis and wages decreased for all sectors. The government of Mexico implemented a variety of programs to cope with the crises. However, these measures were too limited to counteract the large negative impact of the crisis on labor markets.

Understanding the Impact of Economic Shocks on Labor Market Outcomes in Developing Countries : An application to Indonesia and Mexico

Gutierrez, Catalina; Paci, Pierella; Park, Beom S.
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.64%
In this paper the authors use a search and matching model of multi-sector labor markets, to understand the channels through which economic shocks affect labor market outcomes in developing countries. In the model workers can be employed in agriculture, formal or informal urban jobs, or unemployed. Economic shocks are manifested as either increased turbulence in the formal/informal sectors or a decrease in overall sectoral productivity. By calibrating the model to Indonesia and Mexico, the authors are able to understand how the 1998 Indonesian crisis and the 2001 Mexican recession translated into labor market outcomes. They then venture to simulate how the current financial crisis might affect the allocation of labor and earnings across sectors, in these countries. The results suggest that in both countries past crises have increased the degree of turbulence of the formal sector, increasing job destruction. However, while in Indonesia the crisis affected the overall formal sector productivity, this was not the case in Mexico. This explains the larger blow to formal wages -- relative to the size of the shock- witnessed by Indonesian workers. The response of the informal sector was also different: In both countries the informal sector was able to act as a buffer...

Employment and Shared Growth : Rethinking the Role of Labor Mobility for Development

Paci, Pierella; Serneels, Pieter
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
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56.63%
This edited volume brings together the papers presented at the conference, "Rethinking the Role of Jobs for Shared Growth," held in Washington, DC, in June 2006. The common theme is that of mobility in the labor market. As growth is related to sectoral shifts in economic activity, the mobility of labor plays a crucial role in ensuring sustainable growth whose benefits are shared amongst all individuals. The papers in this volume focus on selected priority issues at the frontier of research in the microeconomics of labor markets in developing countries, multi-segmented labor markets, the role of informal employment and self-employment, the effect of worker mobility on income, and the impact of firm dynamics on growth and employment. These are important parts of the puzzle and contribute to a better understanding of the role of employment in the economic development of low-income countries.

Labor Markets in Rural and Urban Haiti : Based on the First Household Survey for Haiti

Verner, Dorte
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.47%
This paper addresses labor markets in Haiti, including farm and nonfarm employment and income generation. The analyses are based on the first Living Conditions Survey of 7,186 households covering the whole country and representative at the regional level. The findings suggest that four key determinants of employment and productivity in nonfarm activities are education, gender, location, and migration status. This is emphasized when nonfarm activities are divided into low-return and high-return activities. The wage and producer income analyses reveal that education is key to earning higher wages and incomes. Moreover, producer incomes increase with farm size, land title, and access to tools, electricity, roads, irrigation, and other farm inputs.

Kyrgyz Republic : Poverty Assessment, Volume 2. Labor Market Dimensions of Poverty

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.6%
This report, which has been prepared by the World Bank in cooperation with the National Statistical Committee, provides an assessment of poverty in the Kyrgyz Republic using the most recent data available. The objective of this report is to understand to what extent economic growth has reduced poverty and led to improved living conditions for the population during 2000-2005. The report also attempts to answer three questions about the Kyrgyz Republic: what is the profile of poor? How has economic growth affected the level and composition of poverty? How has the labor market contributed to changes in poverty? The report is divided into two volumes. The first volume begins with this chapter which provides an international comparison of social and other key indicators of the Kyrgyz Republic followed by a profile of the poor based upon 2005 household survey data. The second chapter analyzes the linkages between growth and poverty during 2000-2005. The third chapter provides our key findings of labor market outcomes and poverty and what the implications are for policy making. The final chapter synthesizes the information from the earlier chapters and provides some policy directions. The second volume provides a more thorough analysis of labor markets. It covers developments in the labor market...

Labor Markets, Occupational Choice, and Rural Poverty in Selected Countries in Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa

Estudillo, Jonna P.; Matsumoto, Tomoya; Uddin, Hayat Chowdhury Zia; Kumanayake, Nandika S.; Otsuka, Keijiro
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.37%
This paper reviews the relative importance of different components of rural labor markets, examining how their functions differ across geographical locations and change over time, and inquiring into the difference in the contribution to poverty reduction among different jobs (i.e., agricultural wage employment, formal and informal nonfarm wage jobs, and nonfarm self-employment). Improving rural investment climate through investment in infrastructure and provision of credit will be helpful, because in all likelihood, increased access to nonfarm jobs, in general, and formal jobs in particular, will become a key factor affecting the improvement of living standards and poverty reduction in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), a phenomenon particularly visible in Asia from the mid-1980s to late-2000s which has started to appear in Africa. The development of agriculture stimulates the growth of nonfarm sectors through production and consumption linkages. Furthermore, increased farm income tends to be invested in schooling of children, who later look for nonfarm jobs, as seen in the Asian experience. Supply of such educated labor force to nonfarm sectors must have contributed to their development, and balanced development strategy for both farm and nonfarm sectors is clearly needed in SSA for achieving the twin goals of improving living standards and reducing rural poverty.

Urban Labor Markets in Sub-Saharan Africa

De Vreyer, Philippe; Roubaud, François
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank and Agence Française de Développement Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank and Agence Française de Développement
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.64%
The population of Sub-Saharan Africa stood at 854 million in 2010. Annual population growth averaged 2.5 percent, with a relatively high sustained fertility rate, fostered by the fact that two-thirds of the population is under 25. The region has the highest proportion of poor people in the world, with 47.5 percent of its population living on less than $1.25 a day, as measured in terms of purchasing power parity in 2008. It is also the only region in which the number of poor is still rising. This book contributes to knowledge on the functioning of urban labor markets in Sub-Saharan Africa by investigating following questions: which individuals lack access to employment or are employed beneath their capacities; does education improve working conditions?; what opportunities does the labor market offer to climb the social ladder?; is the lack of good-quality jobs for adults and the poverty it implies one of the reasons for the prevalence of child labor?; do women and ethnic minorities have the same access to the labor market as everyone else?; how does the formal sector live alongside the informal sector?; what role does migration play in the functioning of labor markets?;and are there traits common to all urban labor markets in Africa...

Turkey : Managing Labor Markets Through the Economic Cycle

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.57%
The Turkish economy was hit hard by the global economic crisis, but recovered fast and strong. The economy had already started to slow down in 2007, but the global financial events of late 2008 led to a sharp contraction starting in the last quarter of 2008 until growth resumed in the last quarter of 2009. The recovery was rapid, with growth reaching 9 percent in 2010 and 8.5 percent in 2011. This study looks at how the labor market fared during the recent downturn and recovery and informs policies to manage labor markets through the economic cycle and address the jobs challenge in Turkey. The study investigates: (i) pre-crisis labor market trends and the structural jobs challenge in Turkey; (ii) aggregate and distributional impacts of the recent crisis, and subsequent recovery, on the labor market; and (iii) recent policy measures and existing labor market institutions in the context of observed labor market outcomes. Based on this analysis and a comparison with selected countries from around the world...

Labor Markets for Inclusive Growth

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.63%
This policy note outlines short, and medium-term policy options for addressing critical challenges affecting labor markets in Mexico, and in particular labor productivity. As labor is the main source of income for most of the population, poverty is closely linked to underemployment and low wages. Yet labor markets have played a limited role in poverty reduction in Mexico. Labor income accounted for just 22 percent of the decline in poverty in Mexico over the last decade compared with 38 percent in the rest of the region. Between the third quarter of 2008 and the third quarter of 2011, the labor income poverty index2 continued to decline in Brazil, Ecuador, and Peru but increased in Mexico. The equivalent measure produced by CONEVAL (Consejo Nacional de Evaluation), shows the labor poverty trend to be increasing through the first quarter of 2012. Finding the right bundle of policies to improve labor productivity and the functioning of the labor markets can serve to improve economic growth and welfare outcomes.

Sticky Feet : How Labor Market Frictions Shape the Impact of International Trade on Jobs and Wages

Hollweg, Claire H.; Lederman, Daniel; Rojas, Diego; Ruppert Bulmer, Elizabeth
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.63%
This report analyzes the paths by which developing country labor markets adjust to permanent trade-related shocks. Trade shocks can bring about reallocation of labor between industries, but the presence of labor mobility costs implies economy-wide losses because they extend the period of economic adjustment. This report focuses primarily on the adjustment costs faced by workers after a trade shock, because of magnitude and welfare implications and policy relevance. From a policy viewpoint, understanding the relative magnitudes of labor mobility and adjustment costs can help policymakers design trade policies that are consistent with employment objectives, can be complemented by labor policies, or support programs to facilitate labor transitions, or both. To complement and validate the analysis based on structural choice models, the study designed a distinct empirical approach using reduced-form econometric estimation strategies. This approach examines the impact of structural reforms and worker displacement on labor market outcomes. This makes it possible to estimate the time required to adjust to a trade-related shock...

Anatomy of a Credit Crunch : From Capital to Labor Markets

Buera, Francisco J.; Fattal Jaef, Roberto N.; Shin, Yongseok
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.34%
Why are financial crises associated with a sustained rise in unemployment? We develop a tractable model with frictions in both credit and labor markets to study the aggregate and micro-level implications of a credit crunch—i.e., a sudden tightening of collateral constraints. When we simulate a credit crunch calibrated to match the observed decline in the ratio of debt to non-financial assets of the United States business sector following the 2007–2008 crisis, our model generates a sharp decline in output—explained by a drop in aggregate total factor productivity and investment—and a protracted increase in unemployment. We then explore the micro-level impact by tracking the employment dynamics for firms of different sizes and ages. The credit crunch causes a much larger reduction in the net employment growth rate of small, young establishments relative to that of large, old producers, consistent with the recent empirical findings in the literature.

Labor Markets and the Crisis in Latin America and the Caribbean (A Preliminary Review for Selected Countries)

Freije-Rodríguez, Samuel; Murrugarra, Edmundo
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.51%
Countries in Latin America and the Caribbean are experiencing the impact of the international financial crisis on labor markets across different dimensions, such as employment, wages and the quality of labor market arrangements. This note reviews a selected group of countries to assess the speed and severity of labor market impacts. It identifies patterns in the changing labor market conditions, such as specific sectors or types of workers being affected. It also describes countries' preparedness and capacity to respond to the crisis and the specific policy responses being implemented. The review finds a large variation in impacts and responses in the context of increases in unemployment rates that range from 0.4 to 2.1 percentage points. The impacts of the crisis are evolving rapidly but seem to have a more noticeable negative effect among salaried workers in Brazil and Chile whereas in Colombia non-salaried workers have been affected the most. Mexico shows both types of workers as being seriously hit by the recession.

Turkey : Managing Labor Markets through the Economic Cycle

World Bank; Ministry of Development, Republic of Turkey
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Infrastructure Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.57%
The Turkish economy was hit hard by the global economic crisis, but recovered fast and strong. The economy had already started to slow down in 2007, but the global financial events of late 2008 led to a sharp contraction starting in the last quarter of 2008 until growth resumed in the last quarter of 2009. The recovery was rapid, with growth reaching 9 percent in 2010 and 8.5 percent in 2011. This study looks at how the labor market fared during the recent downturn and recovery and informs policies to manage labor markets through the economic cycle and address the jobs challenge in Turkey. The study investigates: 1) pre-crisis labor market trends and the structural jobs challenge in Turkey; 2) aggregate and distributional impacts of the recent crisis, and subsequent recovery, on the labor market; and 3) recent policy measures and existing labor market institutions in the context of observed labor market outcomes. Finally, the study links policies to manage labor markets through the cycle with measures to address the longer term...

Labor Markets and Income Generation in Rural Argentina

Verner, Dorte
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.57%
This paper addresses three areas of the rural labor market-employment, labor wages, and agriculture producer incomes. Findings show that the poor allocate a lower share of their labor to farm sectors than the nonpoor do, but still around 70 percent work in agriculture, and the vast majority of rural workers are engaged in the informal sector. When examining nonfarm employment in rural Argentina, findings suggest that key determinants of access to employment and productivity in nonfarm activities are education, skills, land access, location, and gender. Employment analyses show that women have higher probability than men to participate in rural nonfarm activities and they are not confined to low-return employment. Moreover, workers living in poorer regions with land access are less likely to be employed in the nonfarm sector. There is strong evidence that educated people have better prospects in both the farm and nonfarm sectors, and that education is an important determinant of employment in the better-paid nonfarm activities. Labor wage analyses reveal that labor markets pay lower returns to poorer than to richer women and returns to education are increasing with increased level of completed education and income level. And nonfarm income and employment are highly correlated with gender...

'Green' Growth, 'Green' Jobs and Labor Markets

Bowen, Alex
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.58%
The term 'green jobs' can refer to employment in a narrowly defined set of industries providing environmental services. But it is more useful for the policy-maker to focus on the broader issue of the employment consequences of policies to correct environmental externalities such as anthropogenic climate change. Most of the literature focuses on direct employment created, with more cursory treatment of indirect and induced job creation, especially that arising from macroeconomic effects of policies. The potential adverse impacts of green growth policies on labor productivity and the costs of employment tend to be overlooked. More attention also needs to be paid in this literature to how labor markets work in different types of economy. There may be wedges between the shadow wage and the actual wage, particularly in developing countries with segmented labor markets and after adverse aggregate demand shocks, warranting a bigger and longer-lasting boost to green projects with high labor content. In these circumstances...

The Impact of Financial Crises on Labor Markets, Household Incomes, and Poverty : A Review of Evidence

Fallon, Peter R.; Lucas, Robert E. B.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Journal Article; Publications & Research :: Journal Article; Publications & Research :: Journal Article
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.53%
The 1990s have witnessed several financial crises, of which the East Asia and Mexico tequila crises are perhaps the most well-known. What impact have these crises had on labor markets, household incomes, and poverty? Total employment fell by much less than production declines and even increased in some cases. However, these aggregates mask considerable churning in employment across sectors, employment status, and location. Economies that experienced the sharpest currency depreciations suffered the deepest cuts in real wages, though deeper cuts in real wages relative to Gross Domestic Product (GDP) were associated with smaller rises in unemployment. To some extent, families smoothed their incomes through increased labor force participation and private transfers, though the limited evidence available suggests that wealthier families were better able to smooth consumption. The initial impact of the crises was on the urban corporate sector, but rural households were affected as well and in some instances suffered deeper losses than did urban families. School enrollment declined...

Labor Markets in Low and Middle-Income Countries : Trends and Implications for Social Protection and Labor Policies

Cho, Yoonyoung; Margolis, David N.; Newhouse, David; Robalino, David A.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.63%
This paper reviews labor market trends throughout the developing world, identifies issues and policy priorities across groups of countries, and derives implications for the World Bank's new social protection and labor strategy. Five key issues are identified: a high and growing share of the labor force that is self?employed or working in household enterprises, exposure to income shocks with limited access to risk management systems, low female participation rates, high youth unemployment rates, and the need to manage migration flows and remittances. The paper then details a three pronged agenda based on providing incentives and conditions for work, improving the efficiency of job creation, and managing risks / facilitating labor market transitions. This suggests that the Bank should emphasize self?employment and entrepreneurship promotion, provision of skills and development opportunities, and facilitation of labor market transitions into and between jobs, while protecting workers from shocks and paying particular attention to youth.

The Dynamics of the Labor Markets in Chile; La dinámica del mercado laboral en Chile

Paredes, Ricardo D.; Lima, Víctor O.
Fonte: Universidad de Chile. Facultad de Economía y Negocios Publicador: Universidad de Chile. Facultad de Economía y Negocios
Tipo: Artículo de revista
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.42%
Artículo de publicación ISI; Through flows from 3 states, employment, unemployment and out of the labor force, we analyze the dynamics of labor markets in Chile from 1962-2007. We identify some periods of different labor market regimes and relate them with changes in flexibility. We found that reforms such as that of 1967, which introduced the “just cause” requirement to fire workers, did not help workers to keep their jobs, but there is no evidence of significant changes in inflexibility. Other labor regimes significantly affected transitions, but surprisingly, it was the new regime identified in 1990, that increased mobility. We interpret this as the result of the consolidation of a flexibility prone model that, until then, had been associated with an unpopular imposition by the military regime. Finally, we do not find any evidence showing that after 1998 the changes in labor participation and consequently, that the explanations of the changes in the unemployment rate could be associated with “added and discouraged worker effects.”

Are European labor markets as awful as all that?

Freeman, Richard B.
Fonte: Centre for Economic Performance, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Centre for Economic Performance, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /08/2004 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.62%
“The standard explanation of why advanced Europe has generated less work per adult than the US is that something is seriously amiss with EU labor markets. The theme of this piece is simple. Compared to an ideal competitive market, EU labor markets fall seriously short, but compared to labor markets in the US and to other markets in advanced capitalist countries, EU labor markets do not live up to their awful press. The variety of labor market institutions among EU countries, moreover, reveals a much richer picture of performance and diversity than the blanket condemnation of inflexibility suggests. I make my case in four propositions, with supporting evidence. My comparisons are with the actual labor market in the US and with other real world markets, not with the economists’ dream ideal competitive markets. I review briefly the evidence that labor markets in the EU have performed worse on the quantity side of the market but better on the price or wage side of the market than the US labor market, then consider the extent to which differences in outcomes are attributable to differences in the performance of labor markets.”