Página 1 dos resultados de 26 itens digitais encontrados em 0.002 segundos

Vascularization, High-Volume Solution Flow, and Localized Roles for Enzymes of Sucrose Metabolism during Tumorigenesis by Agrobacterium tumefaciens1

Wächter, Rebecca; Langhans, Markus; Aloni, Roni; Götz, Simone; Weilmünster, Anke; Koops, Ariane; Temguia, Leopoldine; Mistrik, Igor; Pavlovkin, Jan; Rascher, Uwe; Schwalm, Katja; Koch, Karen E.; Ullrich, Cornelia I.
Fonte: The American Society for Plant Biologists Publicador: The American Society for Plant Biologists
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/2003 EN
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Vascular differentiation and epidermal disruption are associated with establishment of tumors induced by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Here, we address the relationship of these processes to the redirection of nutrient-bearing water flow and carbohydrate delivery for tumor growth within the castor bean (Ricinus communis) host. Treatment with aminoethoxyvinyl-glycine showed that vascular differentiation and epidermal disruption were central to ethylene-dependent tumor establishment. CO2 release paralleled tumor growth, but water flow increased dramatically during the first 3 weeks. However, tumor water loss contributed little to water flow to host shoots. Tumor water loss was followed by accumulation of the osmoprotectants, sucrose (Suc) and proline, in the tumor periphery, shifting hexose-to-Suc balance in favor of sugar signals for maturation and desiccation tolerance. Concurrent activities and sites of action for enzymes of Suc metabolism changed: Vacuolar invertase predominated during initial import of Suc into the symplastic continuum, corresponding to hexose concentrations in expanding tumors. Later, Suc synthase (SuSy) and cell wall invertase rose in the tumor periphery to modulate both Suc accumulation and descending turgor for import by metabolization. Sites of abscisic acid immunolocalization correlated with both central vacuolar invertase and peripheral cell wall invertase. Vascular roles were indicated by SuSy immunolocalization in xylem parenchyma for inorganic nutrient uptake and in phloem...

A PROSPECTIVE, RANDOMIZED, DOUBLE-BLINDED COMPARISON OF THYMOGLOBULIN VERSUS ATGAM FOR INDUCTION IMMUNOSUPPRESSIVE THERAPY: 10 YEAR RESULTS

Hardinger, Karen L.; Rhee, Sunny; Buchanan, Paula; Koch, Matt; Miller, Brent; Enkvetchakul, Decha; Schuessler, Rebecca; Schnitzler, Mark A.; Brennan, Daniel C.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/10/2008 EN
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Serum Sickness After Treatment With Rabbit Antithymocyte Globulin in Kidney Transplant Recipients With Previous Rabbit Exposure

Boothpur, Raghavender; Hardinger, Karen L.; Skelton, Rebecca M.; Lluka, Brunilda; Koch, Matthew J.; Miller, Brent W.; Desai, Niraj M.; Brennan, Daniel C.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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15.94%
Serum sickness after rabbit anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) has a reported incidence of 7–27% in kidney transplant patients. We describe four patients with previous exposure to rabbits who developed serum sickness after primary rabbit ATG induction. All patients presented with jaw pain. Three of four patients treated with plasmapheresis and steroids had prompt recovery and one patient treated with steroids had slower recovery. We performed a telephone interview of 214 patients contemporaneously transplanted between November 2006 and July 2008 regarding rabbit exposure. More than half of the patients had some type of previous rabbit exposure. There was a suggestion that patients with serum sickness were more frequently exposed to rabbits than those without. Jaw pain appears to be a hallmark symptom and treatment with plasmapheresis and steroids relieves symptoms more rapidly than steroids alone.

In-Parallel Attachment of a Low Resistance Compliant Thoracic Artificial Lung under Rest and Simulated Exercise

Schewe, Rebecca E.; Scipione, Christopher N.; Koch, Kelly L.; Cook, Keith E.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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15.94%

Use of a Low Resistance Compliant Thoracic Artificial Lung in the Pulmonary Artery to Pulmonary Artery Configuration

Scipione, Christopher N.; Schewe, Rebecca E.; Koch, Kelly L.; Shaffer, Andrew W.; Iyengar, Amit; Cook, Keith E.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Hypothalamic glycogen synthase kinase 3β has a central role in the regulation of food intake and glucose metabolism

Benzler, Jonas; Ganjam, Goutham K.; Krüger, Manon; Pinkenburg, Olaf; Kutschke, Maria; Stöhr, Sigrid; Steger, Juliane; Koch, Christiane E.; Ölkrug, Rebecca; Schwartz, Michael W.; Shepherd, Peter R.; Grattan, David R.; Tups, Alexander
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/10/2012 EN
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GSK3β (glycogen synthase kinase 3β) is a ubiquitous kinase that plays a key role in multiple intracellular signalling pathways, and increased GSK3β activity is implicated in disorders ranging from cancer to Alzheimer’s disease. In the present study, we provide the first evidence of increased hypothalamic signalling via GSK3β in leptin-deficient Lepob/ob mice and show that intracerebroventricular injection of a GSK3β inhibitor acutely improves glucose tolerance in these mice. The beneficial effect of the GSK3β inhibitor was dependent on hypothalamic signalling via PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase), a key intracellular mediator of both leptin and insulin action. Conversely, neuron-specific overexpression of GSK3β in the mediobasal hypothalamus exacerbated the hyperphagia, obesity and impairment of glucose tolerance induced by a high-fat diet, while having little effect in controls fed standard chow. These results demonstrate that increased hypothalamic GSK3β signalling contributes to deleterious effects of leptin deficiency and exacerbates high-fat diet-induced weight gain and glucose intolerance.

Optical Coherence Tomography–Based Corneal Power Measurement and Intraocular Lens Power Calculation Following Laser Vision Correction (An American Ophthalmological Society Thesis)

Huang, David; Tang, Maolong; Wang, Li; Zhang, Xinbo; Armour, Rebecca L.; Gattey, Devin M.; Lombardi, Lorinna H.; Koch, Douglas D.
Fonte: The American Ophthalmological Society Publicador: The American Ophthalmological Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/2013 EN
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Low intrinsic exercise capacity in rats predisposes to age-dependent cardiac remodeling independent of macrovascular function

Ritchie, Rebecca H.; Leo, Chen Huei; Qin, Chengxue; Stephenson, Erin J.; Bowden, Marissa A.; Buxton, Keith D.; Lessard, Sarah J.; Rivas, Donato A.; Koch, Lauren G.; Britton, Steven L.; Hawley, John A.; Woodman, Owen L.
Fonte: American Physiological Society Publicador: American Physiological Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Rats selectively bred for low (LCR) or high (HCR) intrinsic running capacity simultaneously present with contrasting risk factors for cardiovascular and metabolic disease. However, the impact of these phenotypes on left ventricular (LV) morphology and microvascular function, and their progression with aging, remains unresolved. We tested the hypothesis that the LCR phenotype induces progressive age-dependent LV remodeling and impairments in microvascular function, glucose utilization, and β-adrenergic responsiveness, compared with HCR. Hearts and vessels isolated from female LCR (n = 22) or HCR (n = 26) were studied at 12 and 35 wk. Nonselected N:NIH founder rats (11 wk) were also investigated (n = 12). LCR had impaired glucose tolerance and elevated plasma insulin (but not glucose) and body-mass at 12 wk compared with HCR, with early LV remodeling. By 35 wk, LV prohypertrophic and glucose transporter GLUT4 gene expression were up- and downregulated, respectively. No differences in LV β-adrenoceptor expression or cAMP content between phenotypes were observed. Macrovascular endothelial function was predominantly nitric oxide (NO)-mediated in both phenotypes and remained intact in LCR for both age-groups. In contrast, mesenteric arteries microvascular endothelial function...

Prostaglandin E2-Induced Synaptic Plasticity in Neocortical Networks of Organotypic Slice Cultures

Koch, Henner; Huh, Sung-Eun; Elsen, Frank P.; Carroll, Michael S.; Hodge, Rebecca D.; Bedogni, Francesco; Turner, Michael S.; Hevner, Robert F.; Ramirez, Jan-Marino
Fonte: Society for Neuroscience Publicador: Society for Neuroscience
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/09/2010 EN
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Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of epilepsy, yet the mechanisms underlying the progression from TBI to epilepsy are unknown. TBI induces the expression of COX-2 (cyclooxygenase-2) and increases levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Here, we demonstrate that acutely applied PGE2 (2 μm) decreases neocortical network activity by postsynaptically reducing excitatory synaptic transmission in acute and organotypic neocortical slices of mice. In contrast, long-term exposure to PGE2 (2 μm; 48 h) presynaptically increases excitatory synaptic transmission, leading to a hyperexcitable network state that is characterized by the generation of paroxysmal depolarization shifts (PDSs). PDSs were also evoked as a result of depriving organotypic slices of activity by treating them with tetrodotoxin (TTX, 1 μm; 48 h). This treatment predominantly increased postsynaptically excitatory synaptic transmission. The network and cellular effects of PGE2 and TTX treatments reversed within 1 week. Differences in the underlying mechanisms (presynaptic vs postsynaptic) as well as occlusion experiments in which slices were exposed to TTX plus PGE2 suggest that the two substances evoke distinct forms of homeostatic plasticity, both of which result in a hyperexcitable network state.

An Insight Into the Microbiome of the Amblyomma maculatum (Acari: Ixodidae)

BUDACHETRI, KHEMRAJ; BROWNING, REBECCA E.; ADAMSON, STEVEN W.; DOWD, SCOT E.; CHAO, CHIEN-CHUNG; CHING, WEI-MEI; KARIM, SHAHID
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/2014 EN
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The aim of this study was to survey the bacterial diversity of Amblyomma maculatum Koch, 1844, and characterize its infection with Rickettsia parkeri. Pyrosequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA was used to determine the total bacterial population in A. maculatum. Pyrosequencing analysis identified Rickettsia in A. maculatum midguts, salivary glands, and saliva, which indicates successful trafficking in the arthropod vector. The identity of Rickettsia spp. was determined based on sequencing the rickettsial outer membrane protein A (rompA) gene. The sequence homology search revealed the presence of R. parkeri, Rickettsia amblyommii, and Rickettsia endosymbiont of A. maculatum in midgut tissues, whereas the only rickettsia detected in salivary glands was R. parkeri, suggesting it is unique in its ability to migrate from midgut to salivary glands, and colonize this tissue before dissemination to the host. Owing to its importance as an emerging infectious disease, the R. parkeri pathogen burden was quantified by a rompB-based quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay and the diagnostic effectiveness of using R. parkeri polyclonal antibodies in tick tissues was tested. Together, these data indicate that field-collected A. maculatum had a R. parkeri infection rate of 12–32%. This study provides an insight into the A. maculatum microbiome and confirms the presence of R. parkeri...

Cadmium exposure and the epigenome: Exposure-associated patterns of DNA methylation in leukocytes from mother-baby pairs

Sanders, Alison P; Smeester, Lisa; Rojas, Daniel; DeBussycher, Tristan; Wu, Michael C; Wright, Fred A; Zhou, Yi-Hui; Laine, Jessica E; Rager, Julia E; Swamy, Geeta K; Ashley-Koch, Allison; Lynn Miranda, Marie; Fry, Rebecca C
Fonte: Landes Bioscience Publicador: Landes Bioscience
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Cadmium (Cd) is prevalent in the environment yet understudied as a developmental toxicant. Cd partially crosses the placental barrier from mother to fetus and is linked to detrimental effects in newborns. Here we examine the relationship between levels of Cd during pregnancy and 5-methylcytosine (5mC) levels in leukocyte DNA collected from 17 mother-newborn pairs. The methylation of cytosines is an epigenetic mechanism known to impact transcriptional signaling and influence health endpoints. A methylated cytosine-guanine (CpG) island recovery assay was used to assess over 4.6 million sites spanning 16,421 CpG islands. Exposure to Cd was classified for each mother-newborn pair according to maternal blood levels and compared with levels of cotinine. Subsets of genes were identified that showed altered DNA methylation levels in their promoter regions in fetal DNA associated with levels of Cd (n = 61), cotinine (n = 366), or both (n = 30). Likewise, in maternal DNA, differentially methylated genes were identified that were associated with Cd (n = 92) or cotinine (n = 134) levels. While the gene sets were largely distinct between maternal and fetal DNA, functional similarities at the biological pathway level were identified including an enrichment of genes that encode for proteins that control transcriptional regulation and apoptosis. Furthermore...

Physical Activity Differentially Affects the Cecal Microbiota of Ovariectomized Female Rats Selectively Bred for High and Low Aerobic Capacity

Liu, Tzu-Wen; Park, Young-Min; Holscher, Hannah D.; Padilla, Jaume; Scroggins, Rebecca J.; Welly, Rebecca; Britton, Steven L.; Koch, Lauren G.; Vieira-Potter, Victoria J.; Swanson, Kelly S.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 24/08/2015 EN
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The gut microbiota is considered a relevant factor in obesity and associated metabolic diseases, for which postmenopausal women are particularly at risk. Increasing physical activity has been recognized as an efficacious approach to prevent or treat obesity, yet the impact of physical activity on the microbiota remains under-investigated. We examined the impacts of voluntary exercise on host metabolism and gut microbiota in ovariectomized (OVX) high capacity (HCR) and low capacity running (LCR) rats. HCR and LCR rats (age = 27wk) were OVX and fed a high-fat diet (45% kcal fat) ad libitum and housed in cages equipped with (exercise, EX) or without (sedentary, SED) running wheels for 11wk (n = 7-8/group). We hypothesized that increased physical activity would hinder weight gain, increase metabolic health and shift the microbiota of LCR rats, resulting in populations more similar to that of HCR rats. Animals were compared for characteristic metabolic parameters including body composition, lipid profile and energy expenditure; whereas cecal digesta were collected for DNA extraction. 16S rRNA gene-based amplicon Illumina MiSeq sequencing was performed, followed by analysis using QIIME 1.8.0 to assess cecal microbiota. Voluntary exercise decreased body and fat mass...

El TLC con la Unión Europea las oportunidades y retos sobre la agricultura colombiana

Guavita Roa, Diana Carolina
Fonte: Pontifícia Universidade Javeriana Publicador: Pontifícia Universidade Javeriana
Tipo: bachelorThesis; Trabajo de Grado Pregrado Formato: Pdf
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En este estudio se presenta un panorama general del comercio internacional entre la UE y Colombia, estableciendo la importancia tanto de las exportaciones de los productos agrícolas colombianos a la UE como de las exportaciones de los productos agrícolas de la UE a Colombia. En especial se revisa, la importancia que tiene el café colombiano dentro del sector agrícola colombiano y en el mercado de la UE. También incluye los puntos más relevantes del proceso de negociación del Tratado de Libre Comercio entre Colombia y la UE para los productos agrícolas colombianos más beneficiados.; This research presents an overview of international trade between the European Union and Colombia, establishing the importance of both exports. Colombian agricultural products to the EU and exports of agricultural products from the EU to Colombia. We focus on the importance of Colombian coffee in the Colombian agricultural sector as well in the EU market. It also includes highlights of the negotiation process of the Free Trade Agreement between Colombia and the EU for agricultural products Colombians who benefit most.

Análisis cualitativo y cuantitativo de las oportunidades en la union europea para la empresa Plastitec S.A.

Pachón González, Andrés Mauricio
Fonte: Pontifícia Universidade Javeriana Publicador: Pontifícia Universidade Javeriana
Tipo: bachelorThesis; Trabajo de Grado Pregrado Formato: Pdf
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En el mundo de los negocios actual se ha demostrado que la globalización ha afectado radicalmente la manera de hacer negocios. Esto es, debido a que los mercados se han transformado en uno solo: el global. Como dijo Nelson Reyes Ureña en su artículo de la revista Hoy Digital , en el año 2010, la Globalización constituye un proceso de integración de los mercados nacionales en un mercado global, y en la cual las relaciones entre los países tienden a aumentar, gracias a su ampliación y profundización. La empresa Plastitec S.A. es una empresa colombiana, especializada en la producción de bolsas farmacéuticas, que contienen diferentes soluciones de medicamentos o sueros. Plastitec es la única empresa en Colombia y en Latinoamérica en esta clase de productos, sólo teniendo como grandes competidores empresas de Europa y Asia. (Laverde, 2012).

Implementación de plataformas de innovación abierta como estrategia empresarial para el desarrollo de nuevos productos

Alarcón Peñuela, Catalina
Fonte: Pontifícia Universidade Javeriana Publicador: Pontifícia Universidade Javeriana
Tipo: bachelorThesis; Trabajo de Grado Pregrado Formato: Pdf
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Es importante recalcar que un análisis sobre el desarrollo de productos a través de plataformas de innovación abierta (PIA) muestra las nuevas formas de crear e innovar en una empresa. Hasta el momento muchas empresas están comenzando a implementarlo, su uso y resultado ha sido muy positivo, es de las formas en las que una empresa puede buscar fuentes externas de información en las que no solo se beneficia sino que beneficia a los demás. (Chesbrough, 2003).

Auf der Flucht

Beck, Lukas; Eiler, Lucas; Fink, Ines; Glombek, Meike; Hauser, Jesse; Lipp, Vivien; Özcan, Hilal; Reichenthaler, Nico; Rohloff, Clara; Pfeifer, Laura; Plähn, Björn; Seidl, Sandra; Sahin, Rebecca; Halilovic', Melita; Thalmann, Luna
Fonte: Universidade de Tubinga Publicador: Universidade de Tubinga
Formato: 01:00:00
DE
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26.11%
– Warum auf der Flucht? Für eine erste Annährung an dieses kontroverse Thema der Flucht hat sich Sandra Seidl bereit erklärt. – Für flüchtende Menschen setzen sich viele Institutionen ein. So zum Beispiel Amnesty International. Ines Fink hat sich in der Tübinger Hochschulgruppe umgehört. – In Meßstetten auf der schwäbischen Alb steht eine sogenannte „Landeserstaufnahmestelle“. Sie beherbergt über 1000 Flüchtlinge. Was kann man für diese Asylbewerber tun und wer hilft? Björn Plähn hat in seiner Reportage mit Mitarbeitern des Ehrenamtsbüro Meßstetten geredet: – Rebecca Sahin fragte: Was würden Sie zu einem Asylbewerberheim in Ihrer Nachbarschaft sagen? – Wer es tatsächlich nach Deutschland schafft, für den ist die Irrfahrt aber keineswegs vorbei. Lukas Beck über das deutsche Asylverfahren und seine Probleme. – Weil er seine Meinung sagte, musste Ahmad al-Latif 2012 mit seiner Familie aus Syrien flüchten. Trotzdem sagt er: Ich bin eigentlich kein Flüchtling. Lucas Eiler erzählt die Geschichte der al-Latifs. – Der deutsche Arbeitsmarkt benötigt ausländische Fachkräfte, so auch das Uniklinikum Tübingen. Um den Mangel an Pflegekräften zu kompensieren, suchte man in international nach Fachkräften. Jesse Hauser in einem Interview mit Petra Bens vom Personalrat des Uniklinikums Tübingen. – Schon während der Balkankriege in den 1990er Jahren erreichte Deutschland eine große Welle an Flüchtlingen...

Effect of an inservice on the teachers' knowledge of general school law, Section 504, and the Meta Consent Decree

Koch, Rebecca E
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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25.94%
It is generally assumed by educators that inservice training will make a significant difference in teacher knowledge of topics related to education. This investigation addressed that assumption by examining the effects of various factors, e.g., amount and timing of inservice training, upon teacher knowledge of educational law. Of special interest was teacher knowledge of the law as it pertained to ethnic and other characteristics of students in urban school settings. This study was deliberately designed to determine which factors should be later investigated in a more deterministic form, e.g., an experimental design.^ The investigation built upon that of Ogletree (1985), Osborne (1996) and others who focused on the importance of teacher development as a method to enhance professional abilities. The main question addressed in this study was, "How knowledgeable are teachers of school law, especially with regard to general school law, the Meta Consent Decree and Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973."^ The study participants (N = 302) were from the Dade County School System, the fourth largest in the U.S. The survey design (approved by the System), specified participants from all levels and types of schools and geographic representations. A survey instrument was created...

Visita cultural a las cataratas del Niágara

Escuela Internacional de Ciencias Económicas y Administrativas
Fonte: Universidade La Sabana Publicador: Universidade La Sabana
Tipo: Imagem
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Durante la temporada de los cursos vacacionales internacionales, la Escuela Internacional de Ciencias Económicas y Administrativas ofreció a sus estudiantes la oportunidad de participar en una Misión Académica donde aplicaran todos sus conocimientos. Esta consistió en una combinación de sesiones de clases presenciales en la Universidad de La Sabana, entre el 10 al 13 de junio, y luego una salida académica a Buffalo, Nueva York. La delegación se conformó por 16 estudiantes de pregrado, la profesora Juliana Sánchez, quien lideró la misión, y la directora del programa de Administración de Empresas, Rebecca Koch.

Complex Consequences of Herbivory and Interplant Cues in Three Annual Plants

Pearse, Ian S.; Porensky, Lauren M.; Yang, Louie H.; Stanton, Maureen L.; Karban, Richard; Bhattacharyya, Lisa; Cox, Rosa; Dove, Karin; Higgins, August; Kamoroff, Corrina; Kirk, Travis; Knight, Christopher; Koch, Rebecca; Parker, Corwin; Rollins, Hilary;
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 31/05/2012 EN
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Information exchange (or signaling) between plants following herbivore damage has recently been shown to affect plant responses to herbivory in relatively simple natural systems. In a large, manipulative field study using three annual plant species (Achyrachaena mollis, Lupinus nanus, and Sinapis arvensis), we tested whether experimental damage to a neighboring conspecific affected a plant's lifetime fitness and interactions with herbivores. By manipulating relatedness between plants, we assessed whether genetic relatedness of neighboring individuals influenced the outcome of having a damaged neighbor. Additionally, in laboratory feeding assays, we assessed whether damage to a neighboring plant specifically affected palatability to a generalist herbivore and, for S. arvensis, a specialist herbivore. Our study suggested a high level of contingency in the outcomes of plant signaling. For example, in the field, damaging a neighbor resulted in greater herbivory to A. mollis, but only when the damaged neighbor was a close relative. Similarly, in laboratory trials, the palatability of S. arvensis to a generalist herbivore increased after the plant was exposed to a damaged neighbor, while palatability to a specialist herbivore decreased. Across all species...

Reconstructing Delaware???s Free Black Communities, 1800-1870

Sheppard, Rebecca J.; Toney, Kimberly; Koch, Rebecca; Greene, Keonna; Olsen, Allison; Selway, Rachel; Downes, Rebecca; Bunce, Emily; Laurel, Sarah; Protokowicz, Elizabeth; Triandos, Ted; Fangman, Ann; Joshi, Mili
Fonte: Universidade de Delaware Publicador: Universidade de Delaware
EN_US
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The current study, conducted by CHAD and funded by the National Park Service through the URCD, initially began with two straight-forward research objectives: 1) to uncover the role of free black communities in the Underground Railroad in Delaware, and 2) to identify the use of water routes to escape from or through the state. As the project evolved, several more goals were added, reflecting some of the issues and complications encountered during the research. These objectives focused primarily on the research methodologies developed in conjunction with the initial goals: 3) to create a methodology for the study of free black communities in Delaware; 4) to develop a strategy for mapping the known data about free black communities and UGRR routes through Delaware; and 5) to identify a list of further research needs. This report is broken into several sections that reflect these objectives. First, the introduction includes a detailed explanation of the methodology developed to study free black communities, as well as identification of some of the common problems with the process and the biasesof the records available. Second, the section on free black communities provides both an overview for the patterns seen across the state and a series of case studies that explore the particular circumstances of five different communities. Each of the case studies addresses the particular issues related to the methodology and sources for that location. The results of the mapping research are incorporated into the overview discussion of free black communities and into a separate section discussing potential routes for freedom-seekers.A final section addresses areas of future research needs.