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Chronic wasting disease in Canada: Part 1

Kahn, Sarah; Dubé, Caroline; Bates, Lynn; Balachandran, Aru
Fonte: Canadian Veterinary Medical Association Publicador: Canadian Veterinary Medical Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/2004 EN
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The purpose of part 1 is to provide an overview of published literature (1980–2002) on chronic wasting disease (CWD) to inform Canadian readers about the disease and to explain Canadian regulatory approaches to the surveillance and control of CWD. Much of the scientific information is drawn from American publications obtained from internet searches in PubMed and Medline databases. The following keywords were used: chronic wasting disease, prion, diagnosis, transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, CWD and deer, CWD and elk, and CWD and environment. The article also presents information from Canadian publications and unpublished observations, Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) documents, and both government and nongovernment internet Web sites. The article highlights some different features of CWD in Canada, as compared with the situation in the United States, and mentions public health implications of the disease. It also describes the basis for development of Canada’s surveillance and control program. Part 2 will detail the activities and results of the surveillance and control program during 2000 to 2002 and discuss factors that will influence the feasibility of eradicating CWD. Chronic wasting disease appears to have been introduced into Canada through the importation of infected farmed elk from the United States in the late 1980s and early 1990s...

Filter ventilation and nicotine content of tobacco in cigarettes from Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States

Kozlowski, L.; Mehta, N.; Sweeney, C.; Schwartz, S.; Vogler, G.; Jarvis, M.; West, R.
Fonte: BMJ Group Publicador: BMJ Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/1998 EN
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OBJECTIVES—The purpose was to determine filter ventilation and the nicotine content of tobacco and their contribution to machine-smoked yields of cigarettes from the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom.
METHODS—Ninety-two brands of cigarettes (32 American, 23 Canadian, and 37 British brands) were purchased at retail outlets in State College, Pennsylvania, United States, Toronto, Canada, and London, United Kingdom. A FIDUS FDT filter ventilation tester measured the percentage air-dilution from filter vents. High-pressure, liquid chromatography was used to measure the nicotine content of tobacco. Regression techniques were used to examine the contributions of tobacco nicotine content and filter ventilation to machine-smoked yields of tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide (CO).
RESULTS—Ninety-four per cent of the American brands, 91% of the Canadian brands, and 79% of British brands were ventilated. The total nicotine content of tobacco and percent nicotine (by weight of tobacco) averaged 10.2 mg (standard error of the mean (SEM) 0.25, range: 7.2 to 13.4) and 1.5% (SEM 0.03, range 1.2 to 2) in the United States, 13.5 mg (SEM 0.49, range: 8.0 to 18.3) and 1.8% (SEM 0.06, range: 1.0 to 2.4) in Canada, 12.5 mg (SEM 0.33...

Blending Aboriginal and Western healing methods to treat intergenerational trauma with substance use disorder in Aboriginal peoples who live in Northeastern Ontario, Canada

Marsh, Teresa Naseba; Coholic, Diana; Cote-Meek, Sheila; Najavits, Lisa M
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 20/05/2015 EN
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As with many Indigenous groups around the world, Aboriginal communities in Canada face significant challenges with trauma and substance use. The complexity of symptoms that accompany intergenerational trauma and substance use disorders represents major challenges in the treatment of both disorders. There appears to be an underutilization of substance use and mental health services, substantial client dropout rates, and an increase in HIV infections in Aboriginal communities in Canada. The aim of this paper is to explore and evaluate current literature on how traditional Aboriginal healing methods and the Western treatment model “Seeking Safety” could be blended to help Aboriginal peoples heal from intergenerational trauma and substance use disorders. A literature search was conducted using the keywords: intergenerational trauma, historical trauma, Seeking Safety, substance use, Two-Eyed Seeing, Aboriginal spirituality, and Aboriginal traditional healing. Through a literature review of Indigenous knowledge, most Indigenous scholars proposed that the wellness of an Aboriginal community can only be adequately measured from within an Indigenous knowledge framework that is holistic, inclusive, and respectful of the balance between the spiritual...

Les déterminants de la présence du programme d'aide aux employés dans les entreprises du secteur privé au Canada

Cloutier-Labelle, Josie-Anne
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
FR
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L’objectif de la présente étude vise à déterminer les caractéristiques des entreprises et de leur main-d’œuvre qui adoptent un PAE. Cette pratique serait en effet distribuée inégalement entre les différentes entreprises du secteur privé au Canada. Les facteurs identifiés dans la littérature en lien avec la présence du PAE sont regroupés sous les caractéristiques de la main-d’œuvre, les caractéristiques organisationnelles ou les caractéristiques du marché du travail, de manière à faire ressortir leur valeur respective pour voir celle qui a le plus d’influence sur la présence du PAE. Pour chacun des facteurs, une hypothèse ou une proposition de recherche est formulée. Pour vérifier les hypothèses et les propositions de recherche, nous avons utilisé des données secondaires issues de l’Enquête sur le milieu de travail et les employés (EMTE), réalisée en 2005 par Statistique Canada. Nous avons principalement eu recours à la base de données des employeurs, mais à défaut d’y avoir toutes les variables importantes, celle des employés a aussi été utilisée en agrégeant les données à la moyenne échantillonnale par entreprise, et en les imputant à la composante des employeurs. Notre échantillon final se compose de 5630 établissements du secteur privé au Canada. Les résultats nous ont appris que les caractéristiques organisationnelles sont de meilleurs déterminants de la présence du PAE que les caractéristiques de la main-d’œuvre. Les PAE sont répartis de façon inégale entre les différentes entreprises au Canada. En effet...

Asian dustfall in the St. Elias Mountains, Yukon, Canada

Zdanowicz, Christian; Hall, Gwendy; Vaive, Judy; Amelin, Yuri; Percival, Jeanne; Girard, Isabelle; Biscaye, Pierre; Bory, Aloys
Fonte: Pergamon-Elsevier Ltd Publicador: Pergamon-Elsevier Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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In April 2001, a major atmospheric dustfall event occurred in the St. Elias Mountains, Yukon Territory, Canada. Field samples were collected and analyzed for particle size, mineralogy, chemical composition and Sr, Nd and Pb isotopes. Dusts found above ∼

Spatial insolation models for photovoltaic energy in Canada

McKenney, Daniel; Pelland, Sophie; Poissant, Yves; Morris, Robert; Hutchinson, Michael; Papadopol, Pia; Lawrence, Kevin; Campbell, Kathy
Fonte: Pergamon-Elsevier Ltd Publicador: Pergamon-Elsevier Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Spatial models of global insolation and photovoltaic electricity generation potential for Canada were developed. The main objective was to provide Canadians with an easily accessible, reliable tool for rapidly estimating the monthly and yearly electricity

The development of 1901-2000 historical monthly climate models for Canada and the United States

McKenney, Daniel; Pedlar, John H; Papadopol, Pia; Hutchinson, Michael
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Here we present the results of an intensive modelling effort that generated 100 years (1901-2000) of monthly precipitation, and minimum and maximum temperature grids for Canada and the United States-a total of 3600 grids. From these primary climate variab

New constraints on regional brecciation in the Wernecke Mountains, Canada, from He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Cl, Br and I in fluid inclusions

Kendrick, M A; Honda, Masahiko; Gillen, D; Baker, T; Phillips, David
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Regionally-distributed brecciation in the Proterozoic Wernecke Mountains of Canada is associated with hydrothermal alteration, that is similar to that seen in the Fe-oxide-Cu-Au class of ore deposit and characterized by variably saline fluid inclusions. T

Processo orçamentário e revolta parlamentar na terra do hockey : á procura do equilíbrio entre a eficiência e controle no Canadá

Rodrigues, Diogo Luiz Cordeiro
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Paraná Publicador: Universidade Federal do Paraná
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: 188 p. : il, tabs.; application/pdf
PORTUGUêS
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Orientador : Prof. Dr. Fabricio Ricardo de Limas Tomio; Orientador : Prof. Dr. Rodrigo Luís Kanayama; Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal do Paraná, Setor de Ciências Jurídicas, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Direito. Defesa: Curitiba, 08/04/2015; Inclui referências : f. 179-188; Resumo: O objetivo principal deste trabalho é investigar o grau de sucesso do "Parliamentary Budget Officer" - PBO, um cargo burocrático autônomo criado em 2006, no Canadá, com o escopo de redimensionar o balanço entre o forte Governo e o frágil Parlamento no campo orçamentário. A partir de metodologia inspirada pelo novo institucionalismo, que enfatiza o papel das estruturas institucionais nos resultados políticos, esta dissertação pretende compreender as causas do surgimento do PBO, as possibilidades e limites de seu mandato, assim como sua real contribuição para o fortalecimento do controle parlamentar direto sobre a atividade financeira levada a efeito pelo primeiro ministro e seu gabinete. Ao final, conclui-se que a reforma do PBO, nos moldes propostos, atendia aos anseios do próprio Governo Conservador, carente de legitimidade eleitoral e de controle profissional. Além disso, constata-se que a nova agência não gerou os resultados esperados em relação ao Parlamento...

Opportunities for improved risk assessment of exotic species in Canada using bioclimatic modelling

McKenney, Daniel; Hopkin, Anthony; Campbell, Kathy; Mackey, Brendan; Foottit, Robert
Fonte: Kluwer Academic Publishers Publicador: Kluwer Academic Publishers
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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This paper briefly reviews the process of exotic pest risk assessments and presents some examples of emerging opportunities for spatial bioclimatic modeling of exotic species in Canada. This type of analysis can support risk assessments but does not replace the need for on-going high quality field-based observations to validate and update models. Bioclimatic analysis of several exotic pests is provided to illustrate both opportunities and limits. A link is demonstrated to the National Forest Inventory to characterize timber volumes at risk for one exotic species. 'Challenges' are both scientific and administrative. More accessible and current field survey data are required to improve models. Our experience is that for many exotic species, historical, and even current, data are not always digital or quality controlled for taxonomic identity and accurate geo-referencing. This inhibits their use for integrated spatial modeling applications.

Potential growth and inflation: Estimates for Australia, the United States and Canada

Dungey, Mardi; Pitchford, John
Fonte: Blackwell Publishing Ltd Publicador: Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Estimates of potential output growth for Australia, the United States and Canada are presented and analysed in this article. We define potential growth as that growth rate consistent with a steady (domestic component of the) inflation rate (SIRG). At around 4 per cent per annum, Australia's SIRG has been relatively stable for the past 30 years, which seems inconsistent with the view that wide-ranging microeconomic reform in the 1990s raised growth potential. However, we show that the reduction in employment growth in Australia from the 1980s to the 1990s may account for the absence of a rise in potential growth. In Canada and the United States the SIRGs are closer to 3 per cent, and we explore the reasons why potential growth estimates are higher for Australia than for North America. We also discuss why Australia's growth averaged less than its potential in the 1980s and 1990s and the possible use of our estimates for monetary policy purposes.

The Jean Chretien Pledge to Africa Act: patent law and humanitarian aid

Rimmer, Matthew
Fonte: Ashgate Publishing Ltd Publicador: Ashgate Publishing Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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This article evaluates the implementation of the World Trade Organization (WTO) General Council Decision in 2003, which resolved that developed nations could export patented pharmaceutical drugs to member states in order to address public health issues, such as HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria and other epidemics. The Jean Chrétien Pledge to Africa Act 2004 (Canada) provides authorisation for the export of pharmaceutical drugs from Canada to developing countries to address public health epidemics. The EU has issued draft regulations governing the export of pharmaceutical drugs. A number of European countries, including Norway, the Netherlands, France and Switzerland, are seeking to pass domestic legislation to give force to the WTO General Council Decision. Australia has shown little initiative in seeking to implement such international agreements dealing with access to essential medicines. It is argued that Australia should implement humanitarian legislation to embody the WTO General Council Decision, emulating models in Canada, Norway and the EU. Ideally, there should be no 'right of first refusal', the list of pharmaceutical drugs should be open-ended, and the eligible importing countries should not be limited to members of the WTO.

Insights into the healthy immigrant effect: health status and health service use of immigrants to Canada

McDonald, James Ted; Kennedy, Steven
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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This paper combines multiple cross-sections of data drawn from the National Population Health Survey and Canadian Community Health Survey to confirm the existence of the 'healthy immigrant effect', specifically that immigrants are in relatively better health on arrival in Canada compared to native-born Canadians, and that immigrant health converges with years in Canada to native-born levels. The paper finds robust evidence that the healthy immigrant effect is present for the incidence of chronic conditions for both men and women, and results in relatively slow convergence to native-born levels. There is only weak evidence in terms of self-assessed health status. The inclusion of controls for region of origin and year of arrival does not account for the observed effects, although region of origin is an important determinants of immigrant health. The paper then considers some alternative explanations for the observed differences, and support is found for the idea that the healthy immigrant effect reflects convergence in physical health rather than convergence in screening and detection of existing health problems.

3D Imaging of the Spreading and Penetration of Aqueous Liquids into Unsized and Sized Papers

Roberts, Raymond; Senden, Timothy; Knackstedt, Mark
Fonte: Pulp and Technical Association of Canada Publicador: Pulp and Technical Association of Canada
Tipo: Conference paper
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In a previous paper (Roberts et al. [4]) cryo-scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM) was used to identify the mechanisms of fluid flow over short time scales in unsized papers. Using this method one could not image below the surface or below the bulk liquid droplet. We introduce here a cryo-two-photon confocal microscopic technique which enables us to obtain quantitative 3D images of the fluid penetration into paper at arbitrary depth within the sheet and to visualise penetration below the droplet. Using this technique to image fluid penetration we confirm that even under the droplet, the primary mechanism of fluid penetration into unsized papers is through liquid films along channels. In contrast, during experiments performed on sized paper we observe no flow along channels formed by fibre overlaps, crevices or fibre roughness. The only flow path observed is within the fibre wall.

Prevalence of diarrhoea in the community in Australia, Canada, Ireland, and the United States

Scalora, Michael; Majowicz, Shannon E; Hall, Gillian; Banerjee, Anyana; Bowman, Cara L; Daly, Leslie; Jones, Timothy; Kirk, Martyn D; Fitzgerald, Margaret; Angulo, Frederick J
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Background: Studies in several countries have estimated the prevalence of diarrhoea in the community. However, the use of different study designs and varying case definitions has made international comparisons difficult. Methods: Similar cross-sectional telephone surveys were conducted in Australia, Canada, Ireland (including Northern Ireland), and the United States over 12 month periods between 2000 and 2002. Each survey asked about diarrhoea in the four weeks before the interview. For this comparative analysis, uniform definitions were used. Results: Questionnaires were completed for 6087 respondents in Australia, 3496 in Canada, 9903 in Ireland, and 14 647 in the United States. In the four weeks prior to interview, at least one episode of diarrhoea was reported by 7.6% of respondents in Canada, 7.6% in the United States, 6.4% in Australia, and 3.4% in Ireland. The prevalence of diarrhoea was consistently higher in females. In all countries, the prevalence of diarrhoea was highest in children <5 years and lowest in persons ≥65 years of age. When diarrhoea and vomiting was considered, the prevalence was almost identical in the four studies (range: 2.0-2.6%). Despite different health care structures, a similar proportion of respondents sought medical care (approximately one in five). Antibiotic usage for the treatment of diarrhoea was reported by 8.3% of respondents in the United States...

Immigration Policy and the Skills of Immigrants to Australia, Canada and the United States

Cobb-Clark, Deborah; Antecol, Heather; Trejo, Stephen
Fonte: University of Wisconsin Press Publicador: University of Wisconsin Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Census data for 1990/91 indicate that Australian and Canadian immigrants have higher levels of English fluency, education, and income (relative to natives) than do U.S. immigrants. This skill deficit for U.S. immigrants arises primarily because the United States receives a much larger share of immigrants from Latin America than do the other two countries. After excluding Latin American immigrants, the observable skills of immigrants are similar in the three countries. These patterns suggest that the comparatively low overall skill level of U.S. immigrants may have more to do with geographic and historical ties to Mexico than with the fact that skill-based admissions are less important in the United States than in Australia and Canada.

Flexners ethical oversight reprised? Contemporary medical education and the health impacts of corporate globalization

Faunce, Thomas; Gatenby, Paul
Fonte: Blackwell Publishing Ltd Publicador: Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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BACKGROUND: Abraham Flexner's famous reports of 1910 and 1912, Medical Education in the United States and Canada and Medical Education in Europe, were written to assist the development of a positive response in university curricula to a revolution in understanding about the scientific foundations of clinical medicine. Flexner pointed out many deficiencies in medical education that retain contemporary resonance. Generally underemphasised in Flexner's reports, however, were recommendations promoting a firm understanding of and commitment to medical ethics as a basis of medical professionalism. Indeed, Flexner's praise for the scholastic basic of German medical education appeared somewhat ironic when the ethical inadequacies of prominent Nazi doctors were revealed at the Nuremberg Trials. CORPORATE GLOBALISATION AND ITS IMPACT ON MEDICAL PROFESSIONALISM: This article suggests that contemporary medical educators, like Flexner, may be at risk of inadequately addressing a major challenge to evolving medical professionalism. Medical ethics, health law and even the international right to health are now increasingly emphasised in medical curricula. The same cannot be said, however, of lobbying principles arising from the structures of corporate globalisation...

Business environment description for softwood lumbers production in Brazil and Canada; CARACTERIZAÇÃO DO AMBIENTE DE NEGÓCIOS PARA PRODUÇÃO DE MADEIRA SERRADA NO BRASIL E NO CANADÁ

Almeida, Alexandre Nascimento de; Silva, João Carlos Garzel Leodoro da; Angelo, Humberto
Fonte: FUPEF DO PARANÁ Publicador: FUPEF DO PARANÁ
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Artigo Avaliado pelos Pares Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 19/12/2011 POR
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The objective of this study is to compare some characteristics of the business environment for sawnwood production from Brazil and Canada as well as to analyze the perceptions of entrepreneurs in those countries in relation to the overall competitiveness of the segment. The importance of this study is the comparison of information regarding the segment of softwood lumber from Brazil and Canada, supporting the formulation of policies to increase Brazil's competitiveness. The material included primary and secondary data regarding the characteristics that explain the competition and were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The results indicated that the contributions of the timber industry in GDP are similar to Brazil and Canada and that Canadian companies are larger, more specialized and oriented to international markets, suggesting that the main difference between Brazil and Canada must be more to degree of development than the size of its segments of lumber.; O objetivo deste estudo é comparar algumas características do ambiente de negócios para produção de madeira serrada do Brasil e do Canadá, bem como analisar a percepção dos empresários desses países em relação à competitividade global do segmento. A importância deste estudo está na comparação de informações referentes ao segmento de madeira serrada do Brasil e Canadá...

NOTAS INTRODUTÓRIAS SOBRE ELABORAÇÃO LEGISLATIVA: RAÍZES E BOAS PRÁTICAS ENTRE BRASIL E CANADA - DOI: 10.12818/P.0304-2340.2013vJJp153

Soares, Fabiana de Menezes
Fonte: REVISTA DA FACULDADE DE DIREITO DA UFMG Publicador: REVISTA DA FACULDADE DE DIREITO DA UFMG
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Artigo Avaliado pelos Pares Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/08/2013 POR
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A presente comunicação foi apresentada no painel « Qualidade da legislação, ação pública e desenvolvimento » cujo objetivo foi apontar os desafios e soluções ao incremento de maior efetividade da legislação face a existência ou não de interação com as políticas públicas conexas. O acesso ao direito vigente e a sua compreensão reclamam novas estratégias na elaboração, disponibilização e publicidade de atos normativos. Em sede de circulação de modelos jurídicos, Brasil e Canadá possuem sistema normativos igualmente complexos, bem como estudos acerca da melhoria da legislação. A necessidade de novos estudos e disciplinas em lawmaking é uma demanda contemporânea. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Elaboração legislativa. Compreensão do direito vigente. Boas práticas. Simplificação. Otimização da publicidade. Decodificação da informação jurídica. ABSTRACT  This paper was presented at the panel discussion “Quality of legislation, public action and development” the objective of which was to point out challenges and solutions for improving the effectivity of legislation depending on interaction with other public policies. Access to existing legislation and it’s understanding need new strategies in elaborating...

Antropologia e Políticas Indigenistas no Brasil, no Canadá e na Austrália: os desafios à prática antropológica em diversos contextos nacionais

Baines, Stephen Grant; Universidade de Brasília
Fonte: Universidade de Brasília Publicador: Universidade de Brasília
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; Estudo comparado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/08/2015 POR
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Politiques indigénistes au Brésil, au Canada et en Australie : les défis de la pratique anthropologique dans divers contextes nationauxStephen Grant Baines Cet article examine certains des défis rencontrés par l’ethnologie autochtone au Brésil, au Canada et en Australie au cours des dernières décennies, en mettant l’accent sur les situations où se produit le contact interethnique entre peuples autochtones et États nationaux et dans lesquelles l’anthropologue intervient au moyen de recherches politiquement engagées. La représentation des peuples autochtones dans les trois pays s’est renforcée depuis la consolidation des mouvements politiques autochtones à partir des années 1970, au moment où les grandes sociétés minières, forestières, d’élevages, agro-industrielles et hydroélectriques convoitaient les ressources naturelles sur les territoires autochtones. L’anthropologue travaille dans des contextes fortement politisés en collaboration avec des agents sociaux des communautés autochtones et de la société nationale, tant du gouvernement que des entreprises actives sur les territoires autochtones. Un des rôles joués par l’anthropologue consiste à interpréter les situations complexes d’interventions gouvernementales et de l’indigénisme entrepreneurial en analysant et en contextualisant les différentes opinions des intervenants sociaux qui y prennent part.Mots clés : anthropologie...