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The legacy of power sharing in Kenya: literature challenges and research agenda’s invisibilities

Carvalho, Alexandre de Sousa
Fonte: Instituto Universitário de Lisboa Publicador: Instituto Universitário de Lisboa
Tipo: Livro
Publicado em 07/06/2013 ENG
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36.84%
Power sharing arrangements have been recurrent in the African continent since the end of the Cold War, particularly as a conflict resolution mechanism included in peace agreements. However, in both the democratic theory and conflict resolution strands of research, literature on power sharing is almost exclusively derived from an elite-based and/or institutionally-driven analysis, neglecting bottom-up approaches and dynamics and failing to deliver a more comprehensive analysis of the impact of power sharing. Highlighting the findings of fieldwork done in Kenya during the March 2013 elections, this chapter sheds light on the dynamics of power-sharing agreements in Kenya. It argues that the lack of dialogue between research and analytical agendas has been responsible for blind spots in the literature, which has been neglecting potentially influential actors and dynamics that could further the understanding of the limitations and potential consequences of power sharing arrangements.

Open access: academic publishing and its implications for knowledge equity in Kenya

Matheka, Duncan Mwangangi; Nderitu, Joseph; Mutonga, Daniel; Otiti, Mary Iwaret; Siegel, Karen; Demaio, Alessandro Rhyll
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
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Traditional, subscription-based scientific publishing has its limitations: often, articles are inaccessible to the majority of researchers in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), where journal subscriptions or one-time access fees are cost-prohibitive. Open access (OA) publishing, in which journals provide online access to articles free of charge, breaks this barrier and allows unrestricted access to scientific and scholarly information to researchers all over the globe. At the same time, one major limitation to OA is a high publishing cost that is placed on authors. Following recent developments to OA publishing policies in the UK and even LMICs, this article highlights the current status and future challenges of OA in Africa. We place particular emphasis on Kenya, where multidisciplinary efforts to improve access have been established. We note that these efforts in Kenya can be further strengthened and potentially replicated in other African countries, with the goal of elevating the visibility of African research and improving access for African researchers to global research, and, ultimately, bring social and economic benefits to the region. We (1) offer recommendations for overcoming the challenges of implementing OA in Africa and (2) call for urgent action by African governments to follow the suit of high-income countries like the UK and Australia...

Assisted partner notification services to augment HIV testing and linkage to care in Kenya: study protocol for a cluster randomized trial

Wamuti, Beatrice Muthoni; Erdman, Laura Kelly; Cherutich, Peter; Golden, Matthew; Dunbar, Matthew; Bukusi, David; Richardson, Barbra; Ng’ang’a, Anne; Barnabas, Ruanne; Mutiti, Peter Maingi; Macharia, Paul; Jerop, Mable; Otieno, Felix Abuna; Poole, Dan
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Background: HIV case-finding and linkage to care are critical for control of HIV transmission. In Kenya, >50% of seropositive individuals are unaware of their status. Assisted partner notification is a public health strategy that provides HIV testing to individuals with sexual exposure to HIV and are at risk of infection and disease. This parallel, cluster-randomized controlled trial will evaluate the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, and feasibility of implementing HIV assisted partner notification services at HIV testing sites (clusters) in Kenya. Methods/design Eighteen sites were selected among health facilities in Kenya with well-established, high-volume HIV testing programs, to reflect diverse communities and health-care settings. Restricted randomization was used to balance site characteristics between study arms (n = 9 per arm). Sixty individuals testing HIV positive (‘index partners’) will be enrolled per site (inclusion criteria: ≥18 years, positive HIV test at a study site, willing to disclose sexual partners, and never enrolled for HIV care; exclusion criteria: pregnancy or high risk of intimate partner violence). Index partners provide names and contact information for all sexual partners in the past 3 years. At intervention sites...

Are long-lasting insecticide-treated bednets and water filters cost-effective tools for delaying HIV disease progression in Kenya?

Verguet, Stéphane; Kahn, James G.; Marseille, Elliot; Jiwani, Aliya; Kern, Eli; Walson, Judd L.
Fonte: Co-Action Publishing Publicador: Co-Action Publishing
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
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Background: Co-infection with malaria and other infectious diseases has been shown to increase viral load and accelerate HIV disease progression. A recent study in Kenya demonstrated that providing long-lasting insecticide-treated bednets (LLIN) and water filters (WF) to HIV-positive adults with CD4 >350 cells/mm3 significantly reduced HIV progression. Design: We conducted a cost analysis to estimate the potential net financial savings gained by delaying HIV progression and increasing the time to antiretroviral therapy (ART) eligibility through delivering LLIN and WF to 10% of HIV-positive adults with CD4 >350 cells/mm3 in Kenya. Results: Given a 3-year duration of intervention benefit, intervention unit cost of US$32 and patient-year ART cost of US$757 (2011 US$), over the lifetime of ART patients, in Kenya, we estimated the intervention could yield a return on investment (ROI) of 11 (95% uncertainty range [UR]: 5–23), based on a cost of about US$2 million and savings in ART costs of about US$26 million (95% UR: 8–50) (discounted at 3%). Our findings were subjected to a number of sensitivity analyses. Of note, deferral of time to ART eligibility could potentially result in 3,000 new HIV infections not averted by ART and thus decrease ART cost savings to US$14 million...

Evaluation degree of degraded rangeland on grazing communities in Kenya.

CAVALCANTE, A. C. R.; OGILLO, B. P.; AKUMU, J.; GLUECKS, I. V.
Fonte: In: REUNIÃO ANUAL DA SOCIEDADE BRASILEIRA DE ZOOTECNIA, 50., 2013, Campinas. A integração do conhecimento na produção animal: anais. Piracicaba: ESALQ-USP, 2013. Abstract 6GFA. Publicador: In: REUNIÃO ANUAL DA SOCIEDADE BRASILEIRA DE ZOOTECNIA, 50., 2013, Campinas. A integração do conhecimento na produção animal: anais. Piracicaba: ESALQ-USP, 2013. Abstract 6GFA.
Tipo: Resumo em anais de congresso (ALICE)
EN
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Most of 80% of Kenya´s land is categorized as arid and semi-arid. Agropastoralism and pastoralism based on livestock production serve as the bedrock of site livelihoods and culture. Pastoralists? livelihoods are affected by frequent and severe droughts, growing demographic pressure and conflicts over natural resource utilization. Vulnerability worsened by accessible grazing lands is often mismanaged and either overgrazed or underutilized leading to land degradation. This work aimed to develop a score index to classify degraded land degree to help technician and pastoralist in adequate use of tools to recovery degraded lands. This trial was conducted using participatory research with four grazing communities (Bisan Biliquo, Bulesa, Korbesa and Malkagalla) in Kenyan dry land from May 2011 to November 2012. There were characterized three sites in each community. First of all, a general characterization was made. In this first characterization were collected information about soil, plant, land use, water source distance and wildlife. Based on this information was chosen spots to make monitoring rangeland on each site. Transect method was used to collect information about bare ground (%), plant cover(%), plant height(cm), number of species(unit)...

Evaluating the Effects of Community-based Organization Engagement on HIV and AIDS-related Risk Behavior in Kenya

Riehman, Kara.S.; Kakietek, Jakub; Manteuffel, Brigitte.A.; Rodriguez-Garcia, Rosalia; Bonnel, Rene; N’Jie, N’Della; Godoy-Garraza, Lucas; Orago, Alloys; Murithi, Patrick; Fruh, Joseph
Fonte: Taylor and Francis Publicador: Taylor and Francis
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
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International donors have increasingly shifted AIDS funding directly to community-based organizations (CBOs) with the assumption that responding to the epidemic is best achieved at the community level. The World Bank, ICF Macro, and the National Council for Population and Development in Kenya, conducted a study to evaluate the community response in Kenya. The study used a quasi-experimental design comparing seven study communities and seven comparison communities in Nyanza Province and Western Province. We examined the impact of CBO activity on individual and community-level outcomes, including HIV knowledge, awareness and perceptions, sexual risk behavior, and social transformation (gender ideology and social capital). The study consisted of two components: a household survey conducted in all 14 communities, and qualitative data collected in a subset of communities. Individuals in communities with higher CBO engagement were significantly more likely to have reported consistent condom use. Higher CBO engagement was associated with some measures of social capital, including participation in local and national elections, and participation in electoral campaigns. CBOs provide added value in addressing the HIV and AIDS epidemic in very targeted and specific ways that are closely tied to the services they provide (e.g....

Infraventus-internationalizing a renewables business to Kenya

Proença, Mariana
Fonte: Universidade Nova de Lisboa Publicador: Universidade Nova de Lisboa
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em /06/2015 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.04%
Infraventus – Internationalizing a Renewables Business to Kenya Infraventus is a renewable energy development company, with a consolidated experience, since 1988, in developing, constructing and operating projects mainly in Portugal, but also in other countries: Spain, Poland, France, Australia, Finland and Panama, and is now regarding Kenya as a possible destiny. Kenya is the biggest economy of East Africa, with a growing GDP around 5% and a low level of electric grid coverage thru its territory, 33% of national access to electricity. Kenya energy policy is intended to promote the investment in renewables; wind and sun are existing resources in good measures. Kenya is an interesting destiny to Infraventus, but has many risks. The objective of this dissertation is to evaluate the possible advantages of this investment and risks and propose recommendations about how to mitigate them considering alternative entry mode

Growing Up in Exile : An Ethnography of Somali Youth Raised in Kakuma Refugee Camp, Kenya

Grayson-Courtemanche, Catherine-Lune
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
EN
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La violence chronique qui caractérise la Somalie depuis plus de deux décennies a forcé près de deux millions de personnes à fuir. Cette ethnographie étudie l’expérience de l’asile prolongé de jeunes Somaliens qui ont grandi au camp de Kakuma, au Kenya. Leur expérience est hors du commun, bien qu’un nombre croissant de réfugiés passent de longues années dans des camps pourtant conçus comme temporaires, en vertu de la durée des conflits et de la normalisation de pratiques de mise à l’écart de populations « indésirables ». Nous explorons la perception qu’ont ces jeunes de leur environnement et de quelle façon leur exil structure leur perception du passé et de leur pays d’origine, et de leur futur. Ce faisant, nous considérons à la fois les spécificités du contexte et l’environnement global, afin de comprendre comment l’expérience des gens est façonnée par (et façonne) les dynamiques sociales, politiques, économiques et historiques. Nous observons que le camp est, et demeure, un espace de confinement, indépendamment de sa durée d’existence ; bien que conçu comme un lieu de gestion rationnelle des populations, le camp devient un monde social où se développent de nouvelles pratiques ; les jeunes Somaliens font preuve d’agentivité et interprètent leur expérience de manière à rendre leur quotidien acceptable ; ces derniers expriment une frustration croissante lorsque leurs études sont terminées et qu’ils peinent à s’établir en tant qu’adultes...

The British in Kenya (1952-1960) analysis of a successful counterinsurgency camapaign [i.e. campaign]; Analysis of a successful counterinsurgency campaign

McConnell, John Alexander.
Fonte: Monterey California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xiv, 65 p. : maps ;
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Following WWII the British Government reduced its colonies due to rebuilding costs and a waning interest in costly overseas colonies. During this time there were approximately 30,000 white settlers living in Kenya with nearly 5 million Kikuyu and Maasai. Unrest had been building in this area long before the 1950s due to the Briton's perceived lack of interest in the well being of the native populations. Coupled with the recently implemented apartheid movement in South Africa, many natives felt this was the path down which Kenya was headed. By 1952 it was obvious to the British Government that there was great unrest among the Kikuyu population in Kenya. Similar to their posture in the Malayan Emergency, the British had been caught off guard and failed to recognize the scale of the threat Mau Mau posed. On 20 October 1952 a state of emergency was declared in Kenya. Throughout the following eight years several programs were implemented by the British to return the colony to a state of normalcy, including widespread detention, compulsory registration of Kikuyu, livestock seizure, taxes for the additional cost of the insurgency, re-education measures, the use of reformed Mau Mau and local troops to combat the insurgency, and eventually the capture and execution of Mau Mau leader Dedan Kimathi in 1956. The emergency would remain in effect...

International catalyst and women's parliamentary recruitment : a comparative study of Kenya and Australia 1963-2002 / Edith Atieno Miguda.

Miguda, Edith Atieno
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 56434 bytes; application/pdf
Publicado em //2004 EN
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A comparative study of the impact of international catalysts on women's entry into the national parliaments of Kenya and Australia and whether they have similar impacts on women's parliamentary recruitment in countries that have different terms of incorporation into the international system.; Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Adelaide, School of Social Sciences, Discipline of Gender Studies, 2005; "November 2004"; Includes bibliographical references (leaves 246-263); xi, 263 leaves ; 30 cm.; Title page, contents and abstract only. The complete thesis in print form is available from the University Library.

The laws of Kenya; Laws of Kenya; Laws, etc. (Laws of Kenya : 1924)

Kenya; Barth, J. W ( Jacob William ), 1871-; Grant, R. W. Lyall ( Robert William Lyall ), 1875-; Bown, Herbert, 1887-; Crean, B. A ( Bernard Arthur )
Fonte: Universidade da Flórida Publicador: Universidade da Flórida
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 1 online resource (3 volumes) : ;
Publicado em // ENGLISH
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Paged continuously.; Second supplement authored by: Sir J.W. Barth, Kt., C.B.E. (of the Middle Temple, barrister-at-law), Chief Justice of Kenya) and B.A. Crean, Esq., (of King's Inns, barrister-at-law), resident magistrate.; Includes index.; Includes supplements.

Comprehensive Public Expenditure Review 2013 : Eye on Budget - Spending for Results; Kenya - Toleo lililorahisishwa uchunguzi wa matumizi ya pesa za umma : tathmini ya bajeti - matumizi yenye matokeo bora

Ministry of Devolution and Planning
Fonte: Government of Kenya, Nairobi Publicador: Government of Kenya, Nairobi
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Public Expenditure Review; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
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36.93%
This public expenditure review (PER) provides an assessment of the extent to which expenditure addresses national priorities in an effort to strengthen the link between government policies, planning, and budgeting. This report is prepared to provide a critical assessment of public spending, challenges, weaknesses, and successes in the past three years (2009 to 2012). The report subsequently informs current and future expenditure through policies that influence budget decisions. It links public expenditure to performance of key sectors in the economy for the three year period; while giving policy and performance outlook focusing on the implementation of the constitution of Kenya 2010 in general and devolution in particular. This report gives an outline on sector performance of programs and reviews expenditures for the period. It provides recommendations to improve implementation of the budget in terms of efficiency, effectiveness, timeliness, and target for better service delivery. This report accentuates the institutional reforms underpinned in the constitution of Kenya 2010 and explores the opportunities to catalyze Kenya's growth as envisaged in the economic blue print...

Kenya Social Protection Sector Review : Executive Report

World Bank; Republic of Kenya Ministry of State for Planning
Fonte: Nairobi Publicador: Nairobi
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Social Protection Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
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There is now broad consensus among policymakers that social protection is a powerful way to fight poverty and promote inclusive growth. This international consensus is most clearly articulated in the African Union's Social Policy Framework (SPF), which was endorsed by all African heads of state in 2009. The SPF explains that social protection includes 'social security measures and furthering income security; and also the pursuit of an integrated policy approach that has a strong developmental focus, such as job creation' the SPF commits governments to progressively realizing a minimum package of essential social protection that covers essential health care and benefits for children, informal workers, the unemployed, the elderly, and people with disabilities. Kenya has a long history of investing in social protection. Social protection in Kenya is defined as 'policies and actions, including legislative measures, that enhance the capacity of and opportunities for the poor and vulnerable to improve and sustain their lives...

Three Essays on Politics in Kenya

Harris, Jonathan Andrew
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Thesis or Dissertation
EN_US
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This dissertation examines ethnic patronage, local conflict, and election fraud in Kenya in three separate essays. Fraud, violence, and ethnicity are difficult to measure, and they often play a central role in narratives and theories about African politics. The essays in this dissertation draw on natural language processing, spatial statistics, and demography to improve measurement of these concepts and, in turn, our understanding of how they function in Kenya. The approaches developed here can be generalized to conflict, ethnicity, and fraud in other contexts. The first essay presents a method for extracting ethnic information from names. Existing methods give biased estimates by ignoring uncertainly in the mapping between names and ethnicity. I apply my improved, approximately unbiased method to data on political appointments from 1963 to 2010 in Kenya, and find that existing narratives about distributive politics do not accord with empirical patterns. The second essay examines patterns of violent ethnic targeting during Kenya's 2007-2008 post-election violence. I focus on patterns of arson, one of the key types of violence used in the Rift Valley. I find that incidence of arson is related to the presence of ethnic outsiders, and even more strongly related to measures of land quality...

Stratigraphy of the Koobi Fora Formation (Pliocene and Pleistocene) in the Loiyangalani region of northern Kenya

Gathogo, P; Brown, F H; McDougall, Ian
Fonte: Pergamon-Elsevier Ltd Publicador: Pergamon-Elsevier Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Tuffaceous marker beds in the Loiyangalani region were previously identified as correlative with similar beds in the Shungura and Koobi Fora Formations of southwestern Ethiopia and northwestern Kenya. Associated sedimentary strata correlate with the Koobi

The current status of the Kenya Capsian

Wilshaw, Alex
Fonte: Springer Publicador: Springer
Tipo: Article; accepted version
EN
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This is the author accepted manuscript. It is currently embargoed pending publication.; East Africa is home to a rich array of stone-tool traditions that span human prehistory. It is unsurprising, therefore, that the region attracted pioneer prehistorians in the early twentieth century, including L. S. B. Leakey, E. J. Wayland and T. P. O'Brien, who created the first cultural framework for East African prehistory during the 1930's. Although aspects of this framework remain relevant today, others have become misunderstood relics of an old classification system that hinders current research. This is particularly evident in the classification of a Later Stone Age (LSA) culture - the Kenya (East African) Aurignacian, later known as Kenya (East African) Capsian. Although this cultural entity was redressed during the 1970's and 1980's and redefined as the Eburran industry, there is still mystique surrounding the current status of the Kenya Capsian, its original scope and definition, the relationship with the Eburran, and its position within a modern understanding of the East African LSA. This is largely due to paradigmatic shifts in researcher attitudes, leading to the use of the Eburran as a false proxy. It is necessary now to completely remove the Kenya Capsian term as an indication of similarity among the different LSA technologies. However...

Interactive media audiences in Africa: A comparison of four constituencies in Kenya and Zambia

Abreu Lopes, Claudia; Mudhai, Okoth Fred; Mitullah, Winnie V.; Simutanyi, Neo; Balongo, Sam; Diepeveen, Stephanie; Fraser, Alastair; Milapo, Nalukui; Mwangi, Sammy; Tembo, Emmanuel; Srinivasan, Sharath
Fonte: CGHR, Dept. of Politics and International Studies, University of Cambridge Publicador: CGHR, Dept. of Politics and International Studies, University of Cambridge
Tipo: Working Paper; published version
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.14%
The PiMA Working Papers are a series of peer-reviewed working papers that present findings and insights from Centre of Governance and Human Rights? (CGHR) Politics and Interactive Media in Africa (PiMA) research project (2012-14). The project, jointly funded by the ESRC and DFID (ES/J018945/1), focuses on expressions of ?public opinion? in broadcast media via new information and communication technologies (ICT) such as mobile phones in Kenya and Zambia. PiMA examines the political implications of such interactions in the two African countries, with a view to drawing conclusions of wider significance to practitioners and policymakers. Series Editors: Sharath Srinivasan, Stephanie Diepeveen.; To better understand who participates in media-driven public discussion and opinion-making, this working paper presents the results of a randomised household survey implemented in four constituencies in Kenya and Zambia, one urban and one rural constituency in each country. The survey was conducted as part of Politics and Interactive Media in Africa (PiMA), a collaborative research project analysing the nature and political implications of expressions of public opinion in broadcast media in Kenya and Zambia, via new information and communication technologies (ICT) such as mobile phones. This paper presents descriptive survey results that are the basis of a deeper comparative analysis of drivers of listenership and participation in interactive broadcast media shows...

Background Paper: Politics and Interactive Media in Kenya

Mitullah, Winnie V.; Mudhai, Okoth Fred; Mwangi, Sammy
Fonte: CGHR, Dept. of Politics and International Studies, University of Cambridge Publicador: CGHR, Dept. of Politics and International Studies, University of Cambridge
Tipo: Working Paper; not applicable
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.99%
The PiMA Working Papers are a series of peer-reviewed working papers that present findings and insights from Centre of Governance and Human Rights? (CGHR) Politics and Interactive Media in Africa (PiMA) research project (2012-14). The project, jointly funded by the ESRC and DFID (ES/J018945/1), focuses on expressions of ?public opinion? in broadcast media via new information and communication technologies (ICT) such as mobile phones in Kenya and Zambia. PiMA examines the political implications of such interactions in the two African countries, with a view to drawing conclusions of wider significance to practitioners and policymakers. Series Editors: Sharath Srinivasan, Stephanie Diepeveen; This background paper provides an overview of the history and context of interactive media and public opinion in Kenya. It is intended to contextualise and inform the study, Politics and Interactive Media in Africa (PiMA), a collaborative study by researchers from the University of Cambridge, University of Nairobi and University of Zambia. The main objectives of the PiMA project are: (a) to explore the extent to which media interactivity is widening (and deepening) political participation in Africa; (b) to investigate how public opinion is collected and represented by African media and for what (and whose) purposes; and (c) to establish the extent to which public opinion expressed via interactive media affects accountability mechanisms and policy-makers? behaviour. This working paper is organised into three sections. The first section discusses the policy and legal context for interactive media in Kenya. The second section discusses the history of broadcast media and interactive shows. The final section examines the intersection of public opinion and interactive media in Kenya.; PiMA was jointly funded by the ESRC and DFID (ES/J018945/1)

Conceptualization of Health Among United Methodist Church Clergy in Western Kenya

Georggi, Nicole A.
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2012
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.04%

Abstract

INTRODUCTION

Clergy are a dynamic group of the population: they point people to God, navigate social and spiritual waters, provide advice and guidance, and teach and visit parishioners. Research has shown that caregivers often neglect their health to tend to the health and well-being of others. Because of their unique role in society, the health and well-being of the clergy themselves is an important subject of research. While clergy health is a growing topic of interest in the Western world, very little is known. The few studies conducted on the health of clergy have found that in some areas, this group is less healthy than the general population due to their hectic schedules, lacking social support, and job-related stressors. With the exception of the United States, Canada, and Great Britain, almost nothing has been studied internationally regarding clergy health. In Africa, religion is known to play an important role in the daily life of its inhabitants; however, the overall well-being of clergy including mental, spiritual, and physical health remains under-studied. To date, nothing has been reported regarding the health of pastors in Kenya. This exploratory study sought to better understand how United Methodist Church (UMC) clergy in Western Kenya conceptualize health and how that relates to their health seeking behaviors.

METHODS

This study partnered with religion and public health researchers at Moi University in Eldoret...

Maternal and congenital syphilis programmes: case studies in Bolivia, Kenya and South Africa

Deperthes,Bidia D.; Meheus,André; O'Reilly,Kevin; Broutet,Nathalie
Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2004 EN
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Preventing congenital syphilis is not technically difficult, however operational difficulties limit the effectiveness of programmes in many settings. This paper reports on programmes in Bolivia, Kenya, and South Africa. All three countries have established antenatal syphilis control programmes. Early antenatal syphilis screening and management of positive cases were difficult to implement since most women presented for their first antenatal clinic visit after 6 months of pregnancy. Most women had rapid plasma reagin (RPR) testing; results were available on the same day in some clinics but took up to 4 weeks in others. No clinic had a system for tracking RPR-reactive women who did not return for their results. There were no guidelines for providers in Kenya and Bolivia. In all countries, supplies, drugs, notification cards, and other consumables were often unavailable. Health-care providers were unmotivated in Kenya and reported an excessive client load. In South Africa and Kenya some clients reported at their exit interview that they had never heard of syphilis nor had they been informed why blood was collected. Several prevention strategies could be implemented at the clinic level. These include encouraging women to attend for antenatal care before the fourth month of pregnancy...