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Potential for Wind-Generated Electricity in China

McElroy, Michael Brendon; Lu, Xi; Nielsen, Chris; Wang, Yuxuan
Fonte: American Association for the Advancement of Science Publicador: American Association for the Advancement of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
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Wind offers an important alternative to coal as a source of energy for generation of electricity in China with the potential for substantial savings in carbon dioxide emissions. Wind fields derived from assimilated meteorological data are used to assess the potential for wind-generated electricity in China subject to the existing government-approved bidding process for new wind farms. Assuming a guaranteed price of 0.516 RMB (7.6 U.S. cents) per kilowatt-hour for delivery of electricity to the grid over an agreed initial average period of 10 years, it is concluded that wind could accommodate all of the demand for electricity projected for 2030, about twice current consumption. Electricity available at a concession price as low as 0.4 RMB per kilowatt-hour would be sufficient to displace 23% of electricity generated from coal.; Engineering and Applied Sciences

A Review of Solar Energy : Markets, Economics and Policies

Timilsina, Govinda R.; Kurdgelashvili, Lado; Narbel, Patrick A.
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
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Solar energy has experienced phenomenal growth in recent years due to both technological improvements resulting in cost reductions and government policies supportive of renewable energy development and utilization. This study analyzes the technical, economic and policy aspects of solar energy development and deployment. While the cost of solar energy has declined rapidly in the recent past, it still remains much higher than the cost of conventional energy technologies. Like other renewable energy technologies, solar energy benefits from fiscal and regulatory incentives and mandates, including tax credits and exemptions, feed-in-tariff, preferential interest rates, renewable portfolio standards and voluntary green power programs in many countries. Potential expansion of carbon credit markets also would provide additional incentives to solar energy deployment; however, the scale of incentives provided by the existing carbon market instruments, such as the Clean Development Mechanism of the Kyoto Protocol, is limited. Despite the huge technical potential...

Water, Electricity, and the Poor : Who Benefits from Utility Subsidies?

Komives, Kristin; Foster, Vivien; Halpern, Jonathan; Wodon, Quentin
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
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While consumer utility subsidies are widespread in both the water and electricity sectors, their effectiveness in reaching and distributing resources to the poor is the subject of much debate. This publication brings together empirical evidence on subsidy performance across a wide range of countries. It documents the prevalence of consumer subsidies, provides a typology of the many variants found in the developing world, and presents a number of indicators useful in assessing the degree to which such subsidies benefit the poor, focusing on three key concepts: beneficiary incidence, benefit incidence, and materiality. The findings on subsidy performance will be useful to policy makers, utility regulators, and sector practitioners who are contemplating introducing, eliminating, or modifying utility subsidies, and to those who view consumer utility subsidies as a social protection instrument.

Investigation and Research of China Power Social Universal Services

North China Electric Power University
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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26.45%
The investigation conducted by this project concernt China power social universal services include: the investigation on the actuality of the domestic power social universal services or on the other industries and the research and study on abroad services. Through research of the domestic power social universal service, we could realize the actuality of the domestic power social universal services, hold the scale of the requirement, the characteristics of the region, and also the existing problems and obstacles of the universal service, furthermore, calculate the amount of capital that power social universal services needed; then draw the successful experience of domestic and foreign services to make suggestions on the policy, regulatory measures and implementation of programs which are adapt to the development of China power social universal service.

Pakistan : Household Use of Commercial Energy

Kojima, Masami
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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This study aimed to examine the impact of changing availability of different energy sources and their price levels on household energy choice, consumption, and expenditures. Knowledge of household expenditures and energy consumption patterns is an essential building block for further work on possible policies in the energy sector and associated poverty and social impact analysis. To this end, the four most recent household expenditure surveys-conducted in 1994, 1997, 1999, and 2001-were analyzed in detail. The survey periods included those with low fuel prices (1999) and a time of rising world oil prices (2001). No household expenditure surveys are available from the last two years, when the increase in fuel prices has far outstripped general inflation. Nevertheless, between 1994 and 2001, prices of electricity, natural gas, kerosene, and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) rose more rapidly than the consumer price index (CPI), potentially offering insights into how households might react to, and manage, sharply rising energy prices. The household survey analysis was supplemented by focus group discussions and individual interviews conducted in 2004 and 2005. Participants were asked questions about reasons for energy choice...

Integration of Electricity Networks in the Arab World : Regional Market Structure and Design

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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The Arab countries have enjoyed sustained economic growth in recent years, and the high economic growth has triggered a rapid increase in energy demand, particularly for electricity. Besides enabling energy imports, interconnected power networks impart a series of additional benefits such as improved system reliability, reduced reserve margins, reactive power support, and energy exchanges that take advantage of daily and seasonal demand diversity and disparities in marginal production costs. As a result, a world-class electricity supply system can be achieved with much lower capital expenditures and ongoing expenses than will otherwise be attainable on an individual-country basis. The regional power interconnection of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), allows electricity exchange among its six member states: Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates (UAE), and Oman under an agreement signed in 2009. The interconnection is targeted at sharing capacity reserve and improving supply reliability...

The Design and Sustainability of Renewable Energy Incentives : An Economic Analysis

Meier, Peter; Vagliasindi, Maria; Imran, Mudassar; Eberhard, Anton; Siyambalapitiya, Tilak
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
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Rapid urbanization and economic growth, new demographic trends, and climate change are key challenges that developing countries must face as they strive to meet growing energy demand. The main objectives of this study are to offer: (a) a global taxonomy of the economic and financial incentives provided by renewable support schemes and (b) an economic modeling of the sustainability and affordability of such support schemes. In an attempt to contribute to the lively debate, this study provides a global taxonomy of the economic and financial incentives provided by renewable energy (RE) support schemes. It summarizes economic models of the sustainability and affordability of such support schemes, alongside operational advice on how the regulatory design may need to be modified to minimize the impact on the budget and be affordable to the poor, as well as how to identify and fill the financing gap. This analytical framework: (a) differentiates and illustrates tradeoffs among local, regional, and national impacts...

Power for All : Electricity Access Challenge in India

Banerjee, Sudeshna Ghosh; Barnes, Douglas; Singh, Bipul; Mayer, Kristy; Samad, Hussain
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
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26.85%
India has led the developing world in addressing rural energy problems. By late 2012, the national electricity grid had reached 92 percent of India s rural villages, about 880 million people. In more remote areas and those with geographically difficult terrain, where grid extension is not economically viable, off-grid solutions using renewable-energy sources for electricity generation and distribution have been promoted. The positive results of the country s rural energy policies and institutions have contributed greatly to reducing the number of people globally who remain without electricity access. Yet, owing mainly to its large population, India has by far the world s largest number of households without electricity. More than one-quarter of its population or about 311 million people, the vast majority of whom live in poorer rural areas, still lack an electricity connection; less than half of all households in the poorest income group have electricity. Among households with electricity service, hundreds of millions lack reliable power supply.

Energy Efficiency in Russia : Untapped Reserves

International Finance Corporation; World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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This report was designed to provide senior Russian policymakers with a comprehensive and practical analysis of energy efficiency in Russia: potential, benefits, and recommendations on how to fully tap into this resource. Shortly after his inauguration, President Medvedev made several public statements identifying Russia s inefficient use of energy, and the associated economic and ecological consequences, as one of the most pressing problems facing the nation. He has called for an action plan to halve Russia s energy intensity by 2020. The goal of this report is to make a significant contribution toward developing such a plan.

Tecnologías de acumulación de energía para su uso en la compañía eléctrica : baterías de sodio-azufre

Gil González-Madroño, Eduardo
Fonte: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid Publicador: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/bachelorThesis; info:eu-repo/semantics/masterThesis Formato: application/pdf
SPA
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Cada vez tiene más aceptación el hecho de que el sector energético en general, y el eléctrico en particular, debe comenzar a enfrentar grandes retos en el medio y largo plazo relacionados no sólo con el futuro agotamiento de los recursos fósiles, también con el auge que presentan las energías renovables y con la nueva concepción de las redes de transporte y energía eléctrica. La componente de acumulación dentro del sistema eléctrico es, tanto a escala nacional como global, de muy pequeña importancia y, sin embargo, es uno de los talones de Aquiles de dicho sistema. La temática de este proyecto se centra, primeramente, en aportar una visión global del papel a jugar por la acumulación en el sector eléctrico, qué clase de aplicaciones pueden obtenerse y cuál es el rol del almacenamiento de energía en la integración de las energías renovables. En una segunda parte se realiza una descripción del estado del arte de la tecnología de acumulación de baterías de sodio-azufre ya que es una tecnologías que presenta características favorables para su uso estacionario en el escenario de la empresa eléctrica (buena capacidad de almacenamiento, elevada densidad energética y potencia especifica buen rendimiento...) En la parte final del texto se ofrece un análisis a escala nacional sobre la viabilidad de aplicación de las tecnologías de acumulación en técnicas de afeitado de pico. Asimismo se realiza un análisis de viabilidad técnico-económica de la instalación de baterías de sodio-azufre...

Africa Energy Poverty : G8 Energy Ministers Meeting 2009

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Energy Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
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Worldwide, about 1.6 billion people lack access to electricity services. There are also large populations without access in the poorer countries of Asia and Latin America, as well as in the rural and peri-urban areas of middle income countries. However large-scale electrification programs that is currently underway in middle income countries and the poor countries of Asia will increase household electricity access more rapidly than in sub-Saharan Africa. Africa has the lowest electrification rate of all the regions at 26 percent of households, meaning that as many as 547 million people are without access to electricity. On current trends less than half of African countries will reach universal access to electricity even by 2050. Without access to electricity services, the poor are deprived of opportunities to improve their living standards and the delivery of health and education services is compromised when electricity is not available in clinics, in schools and in the households of students and teachers. The total financing needs for Africa to resolve the power supply crisis are of the order of approximately US$40 billion per annum or 6.4 percent of region's Gross Domestic Product (GDP). In response to the power crisis...

Turning the Lights on Across Africa

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
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Africa is in the midst of a power crisis. Despite abundant low-carbon, a low-cost energy resource, Africa faces chronic energy shortages. The region s power generation capacity is lower than that of any other region in the world, and when compared with other developing regions, its capacity growth has stagnated. The power crisis is the result of several constraints that, together, create a vicious cycle. Africa's electricity access is the worst in the world. Almost 70 percent of the continent s population (nearly 600 million people) and 10 million small- and medium-sized enterprises have no access to electricity. Sub-Saharan African's(SSA) account for nearly 45 percent of people lacking electricity across the globe. Most regions in the world have urban electrification rates of 90 percent or higher; in SSA, less than 60 percent of those living in urban areas have electricity. If current electricity connection trends continue, fewer than 40 percent of SSA countries will reach universal access to electricity by 2050.

Ashta Hydropower—Turning a Doubtful Concept into a Technological Trailblazer

Sobek, Martin
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
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International Finance Corporation (IFC) played a key role in helping the Republic of Albania structure and implements it first large public-private partnership (PPP) transaction in the energy sector, which brought a strong and reliable international investor into the country. Verbund, Austria's largest electricity company won a 35-year concession to build and operate the Ashta plant, the first major hydropower plant built in Albania in 30 years. Verbund will invest more than $220 million in the project, resulting in an expected savings on Albania's electricity imports in excess of $45 million during the first five years of the plant's operation. The Ashta hydropower plant is a great example of how IFC involvement can bring about real change by fostering innovative solutions.

Africa's Power Infrastructure : Investment, Integration, Efficiency

Eberhard, Anton; Rosnes, Orvika; Shkaratan, Maria; Vennemo, Haakon
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
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This study is a product of the Africa Infrastructure Country Diagnostic (AICD), a project designed to expand the world's knowledge of physical infrastructure in Africa. The AICD provides a baseline against which future improvements in infrastructure services can be measured, making it possible to monitor the results achieved from donor support. It also offers a more solid empirical foundation for prioritizing investments and designing policy reforms in the infrastructure sectors in Africa. The book draws upon a number of background papers that were prepared by World Bank staff and consultants, under the auspices of the AICD. The main findings were synthesized in a flagship report titled Africa's infrastructure: A time for transformation, published in November 2009. Meant for policy makers, that report necessarily focused on the high-level conclusions. It attracted widespread media coverage feeding directly into discussions at the 2009 African union commission heads of state summit on infrastructure.

Africa's ICT Infrastructure : Building on the Mobile Revolution

Williams, Mark D. J.; Mayer, Rebecca; Minges, Michael
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
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Information and communication technologies (ICTs) have been a remarkable success in Africa. Across the continent, the availability and quality of service have gone up and the cost has gone down. In just 10 years dating from the end of the 1990s mobile network coverage rose from 16 percent to 90 percent of the urban population; by 2009, rural coverage stood at just under 50 percent of the population. Although the performance of Africa's mobile networks over the past decade has been remarkable, the telecommunications sector in the rest of the world has also evolved rapidly. Many countries now regard broadband Internet as central to their long-term economic development strategies, and many companies realize that the use of ICT is the key to maintaining profitability. This book is about that challenge and others. Chapters two and three describe the recent history of the telecommunications market in Africa; they cover such issues as prices, access, the performance of the networks, and the regulatory reforms that have triggered much of the investment. This part of the book compares network performance across the region and tries to explain why some countries have moved so much more quickly than others in providing affordable telecommunications services. Chapter four explores the financial side of the telecommunications revolution in Africa and details how the massive investments have been financed and which companies have most influenced the sector. Chapter five deals with the future of the sector. The final chapter synthesizes the main chapters of the book and presents policy recommendations intended to drive the sector forward.

Leveling the Field for Renewables : Mexico's New Policy Framework for Incorporating External Costs of Electricity Generation

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
ENGLISH; EN
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Mexico has started a number of efforts to develop adequate policy frameworks in several areas including the energy sector, transportation and industrial policies, and forestry and natural resources management. Its Climate Change Law and the National Strategy on Climate Change envision is changing the upward trend of its carbon dioxide emissions towards a total decline of emission of thirty percent by 2020, and fifty percent by 2050. Achieving these ambitious policy goals is challenging for the country and will require many distinct efforts to mainstream climate change in policy design. Careful economic analysis will be critical to effectively reduce emissions while allowing for sustainable development. The policy evaluated in the study is part of Mexico's policy framework to promote renewable energy. The Ministry of Energy in Mexico, SENER, has issued a Methodology to incorporate external costs of electricity generation. While external costs are not privative of fossil energy, the Mexican government has started this process by focusing on the external costs on health and climate change...

The Republic of Congo’s Infrastructure : A Continental Perspective

Pushak, Nataliya; Briceno-Garmendia, Cecilia M.
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
ENGLISH
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Infrastructure contributed half a percentage point to the Republic of Congo's annual per capita GDP growth from 2001 to 2006. If the country's infrastructure were improved to the level seen in Mauritius, the regional leader, it could contribute more than 3 percentage points to annual per capita growth. The Republic of Congo's existing infrastructure is concentrated in the developed south, reflecting the country's urbanization patterns. Links spread from there to the less-developed north, where there are vast areas of underexploited dense forest. The Republic of Congo's power sector offers the greatest potential for infrastructure-based economic growth, but major inefficiencies need to be addressed. Transit improvements would also make significant contributions to growth by improving connections to the north and to neighboring countries. Additional opportunities include rehabilitating the fixed-line telephone operator to spread Internet access. The country's water and sanitation infrastructure is in relatively good shape. Spending on infrastructure was $460 million per year in the Republic of Congo during the mid-2000s. Based on these spending levels...

Power Tariffs : Caught between Cost Recovery and Affordability

Briceno-Garmendia, Cecilia; Shkaratan, Maria
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
ENGLISH
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26.76%
This is the first paper to build a comprehensive empirical picture of power pricing practices across Sub-Saharan Africa, based on a new database of tariff structures in 27 countries for the years 2004-2008. Using a variety of quantitative indicators, the paper evaluates the performance of electricity tariffs against four key policy objectives: recovery of historic power production costs, efficient signaling of future power production costs, affordability to low income households, and distributional equity. As regards cost recovery, 80 percent of the countries in the sample fully recover operating costs, while only around 30 percent of the countries are practicing full recovery of capital costs. However, due to the fact that future power development may be based on a shift toward more economic technologies than those available in the past, existing tariffs look as though they would be consistent with Long Run Marginal Costs in nearly 40 percent of countries and hence provide efficient pricing signals. As regards affordability...

Tanzania’s Infrastructure : A Continental Perspective

Shkaratan, Maria
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
ENGLISH
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26.76%
Infrastructure contributed 1.3 percentage points to Tanzania's annual per capital GDP growth during the 2000s. If the country's infrastructure endowment were improved to the level of the African leader, Mauritius, annual per capita growth rates could increase by 3.4 percent. Tanzania has made great progress in reforming its trunk roads, improving the quality of the road network. The country has also seen significant gains in ICT networks, and has one of the most competitive domestic air transport sectors in Africa. The power sector poses Tanzania's most serious infrastructure challenge. Despite significant improvements in pricing and operational performance in recent years, inefficiency still absorbs about 1.4 percent of GDP. Moreover, due to heavy reliance on hydro-power the sector remains vulnerable to climate variability. The port of Dar es Salaam also suffers from performance problems as rapid traffic growth has increasingly exposed deficiencies in storage and access to the port. Poor access to safe water is another challenge...

Peru : Overcoming the Barriers to Hydropower; Peru - El desarrollo hidroeléctrico en el Peru

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
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26.62%
Hydropower has been the major source of electricity in Peru, traditionally supplying more than 80 percent of electricity requirements, and serving as a source of independent generation for major mines and industries. With the development of natural gas in the early 1990s, and the opening of the Camisea pipeline, the Government of Peru's (GOP's) attention turned to providing incentives for the use of natural gas in power generation. This resulted in a virtual moratorium on hydropower development as a result of the very low price of natural gas (below economic cost). With the development of export markets for gas and increased attention to the impacts of climate change, the Government has recently begun to pay renewed attention to hydropower. Recent developments include: (a) introduction of accelerated depreciation for hydropower investments; (b) introduction of a "discount" to permit hydropower to compete with gas-fired plants in auctions; and (c) announcement of a special hydropower auction to be held in 2009 by ProInversion...