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Household Light Makes Global Heat: High Black Carbon Emissions From Kerosene Wick Lamps

Lam, Nicholas L.; Chen, Yanju; Weyant, Cheryl; Venkataraman, Chandra; Sadavarte, Pankaj; Johnson, Michael A.; Smith, Kirk R.; Brem, Benjamin T.; Arineitwe, Joseph; Ellis, Justin E.; Bond, Tami C.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.45%
Kerosene-fueled wick lamps used in millions of developing-country households are a significant but overlooked source of black carbon (BC) emissions. We present new laboratory and field measurements showing that 7–9% of kerosene consumed by widely used simple wick lamps is converted to carbonaceous particulate matter that is nearly pure BC. These high emission factors increase previous BC emission estimates from kerosene by 20-fold, to 270 Gg/year (90% uncertainty bounds: 110, 590 Gg/year). Aerosol climate forcing on atmosphere and snow from this source is estimated at 22 mW/m2 (8, 48 mW/m2), or 7% of BC forcing by all other energy-related sources. Kerosene lamps have affordable alternatives that pose few clear adoption barriers and would provide immediate benefit to user welfare. The net effect on climate is definitively positive forcing as co-emitted organic carbon is low. No other major BC source has such readily available alternatives, definitive climate forcing effects, and co-benefits. Replacement of kerosene-fueled wick lamps deserves strong consideration for programs that target short-lived climate forcers.

KEROSENE: A REVIEW OF HOUSEHOLD USES AND THEIR HAZARDS IN LOW- AND MIDDLE-INCOME COUNTRIES

Lam, Nicholas L.; Smith, Kirk R.; Gauthier, Alison; Bates, Michael N.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.06%
Kerosene has been an important household fuel since the mid-19th century. In developed countries its use has greatly declined because of electrification. However, in developing countries, kerosene use for cooking and lighting remains widespread. This review focuses on household kerosene uses, mainly in developing countries, their associated emissions, and their hazards. Kerosene is often advocated as a cleaner alternative to solid fuels, biomass and coal, for cooking, and kerosene lamps are frequently used when electricity is unavailable. Globally, an estimated 500 million households still use fuels, particularly kerosene, for lighting. However, there are few studies, study designs and quality are varied, and results are inconsistent. Well-documented kerosene hazards are poisonings, fires, and explosions. Less investigated are exposures to and risks from kerosene’s combustion products. Some kerosene-using devices emit substantial amounts of fine particulates, carbon monoxide (CO), nitric oxides (NOx), and sulfur dioxide (SO2). Studies of kerosene used for cooking or lighting provide some evidence that emissions may impair lung function and increase infectious illness (including tuberculosis), asthma, and cancer risks. However, there are few study designs...

Clean Lighting Leads to Improved Health in Rural Africa: Field Study and Design of a Dirt-Powered Generator

Aiden, Aviva Presser
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Thesis or Dissertation; text Formato: application/pdf
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.08%
Two billion people world-wide use kerosene-burning lamps for household lighting. These lamps produce large quantities of soot. In Chapter 2, I describe our field study examining 230 people in rural Uganda. I show that kerosene lamps are a major source of smoke exposure in the developing world, and that replacing such lamps with solar-powered lights reduces indoor soot levels 17-fold, leading to significant improvements in health within months. This finding is particularly notable because respiratory disease is the #1 cause of death in children under 5 worldwide. Because solar cells are a challenge to manufacture in the developing world, I next examined the potential of harvesting electrons from soil-based microbes as a source of clean energy. Such devices are known as microbial fuel cells (MFCs); because soil is available everywhere, MFCs can, in principle, be locally constructed all over the world. In Chapter 3, I describe our exploration of the biology of MFCs, using high-throughput DNA sequencing to demonstrate a role for genus Pseudomonas in energy production. I also examine numerous agricultural products available throughout the developing world to determine whether any could serve as a suitable ‘feed’ for MFC soil. I find that dried animal blood increases MFC energy production 10-fold. In Chapter 4...

Quantifying Carbon and Distributional Benefits of Solar Home System Programs in Bangladesh

Wang, Limin; Bandyopadhyay, Sushenjit; Cosgrove-Davies, Mac; Samad, Hussain
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.89%
Scaling-up adoption of renewable energy technology, such as solar home systems, to expand electricity access in developing countries can accelerate the transition to low-carbon economic development. Using a purposely collected national household survey, this study quantifies the carbon and distributional benefits of solar home system programs in Bangladesh. Three key findings are generated from the study. First, dissemination of solar home systems brings about significant carbon benefits: the total carbon emissions avoided from replacing kerosene use for lighting by solar home systems in non-electrified rural households was equivalent to about 4 percent of total annual carbon emissions in Bangladesh in 2007. This figure increases to about 15 percent if the grid-electricity generation is used as the energy baseline to estimate the carbon avoided from the installation of solar home systems. Second, solar home system subsidies in rural Bangladesh are progressive when the program is geographically targeted. Third...

The Impact of Structural Gender Differences and its Consequences on Access to Energy in Rural Bangladesh

Fatema, Naureen
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
27%
This report studies the impact that gender differences in Bangladesh have on access to energy and energy services and the consequences of these impacts based on review of recent literature on the matter. The report concludes that the structural gender differences that arise from cultural and religious norms can lead to various impacts in access to energy services which in turn can have long term consequences on women and all these factors must be considered while designing rural energy- gender projects.

Energy Efficient Lighting Options for Afghanistan

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.39%
This study examines the potential options for implementing an energy efficient lighting program in Afghanistan. It analyzes the range of energy efficient options available in the region and identifies the best choices for specific market segments in off-grid and grid connected areas. Based on this analysis, it is recommended that in rural areas, where grid (local or from main network) is neither available nor likely to be available soon, lead emitting diode (LED) lights coupled with solar (photovoltaic) PV panels offer the least cost solution for expansion of energy access. In grid-connected areas, compact and tube fluorescent lamps are recommended for existing household connections, as well as community and street lighting. The analysis also shows there are numerous barriers and potential problems with implementing an energy efficiency program in Afghanistan. Therefore a phased implementation program is suggested, with careful oversight of the quality of products entering the market.

Connection Charges and Electricity Access in Sub-Saharan Africa

Golumbeanu, Raluca; Barnes, Douglas
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.86%
Sub-Saharan Africa trails other regions in providing access to electricity for poor urban and rural residents. This poor performance can be linked to various factors, including political interference in utility policy, higher investment costs and lower profitability of extending service to rural areas. But a major obstacle to wider access is the high charges consumers must pay to connect to the electricity network. The connection charges in Sub-Saharan Africa are among the highest in the world, which has resulted in low rates of electrification in many countries. This paper reviews ways to improve electrification rates by addressing the issue of high connection charges. Essential to the success of such efforts is concurrent political commitment to identify, examine, and implement various low-cost electrification approaches and financing solutions as part of a broad plan to improve access. Electricity companies can lower their connection-related costs, and thus consumer charges, by using a variety of low-cost technologies and materials in distribution networks and household connections; making bulk purchases of materials; and adjusting technical standards to reflect the lower loads of households that use a minimum amount of electricity. Strategies for lowering connection charges may also include spreading charges over a reasonable period...

Promoting Energy Access Projects under the Clean Development Mechanism : Standardized Baselines and Suppressed Demand

Gadde, Harikumar; Platonova-Oquab, Alexandrina; Affouda, Leon Biaou; Godin, Julie; Oppermann, Klaus
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.14%
New concepts under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), namely standardized baselines and suppressed demand, should facilitate the implementation of CDM energy access projects, particularly in Least Developed Countries (LDCs), by reducing transaction costs and reflecting the real emission reductions achieved. Governments and authorities in LDCs can play a prominent role in making these new CDM opportunities available. The improvement of the regulatory framework can facilitate the development of innovative carbon-based financing schemes required for successful scaling-up of CDM energy access projects in LDCs. The main purpose of this paper is to outline how the new CDM concepts of standardized baselines and suppressed demand may be used to promote energy access projects under the CDM, in the context of new and expanded role of host country Designated National Authorities (DNAs). In the process, the paper also identifies challenges in the use of these concepts and opportunities for further simplification. By way of illustration...

Pakistan : Household Use of Commercial Energy

Kojima, Masami
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.83%
This study aimed to examine the impact of changing availability of different energy sources and their price levels on household energy choice, consumption, and expenditures. Knowledge of household expenditures and energy consumption patterns is an essential building block for further work on possible policies in the energy sector and associated poverty and social impact analysis. To this end, the four most recent household expenditure surveys-conducted in 1994, 1997, 1999, and 2001-were analyzed in detail. The survey periods included those with low fuel prices (1999) and a time of rising world oil prices (2001). No household expenditure surveys are available from the last two years, when the increase in fuel prices has far outstripped general inflation. Nevertheless, between 1994 and 2001, prices of electricity, natural gas, kerosene, and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) rose more rapidly than the consumer price index (CPI), potentially offering insights into how households might react to, and manage, sharply rising energy prices. The household survey analysis was supplemented by focus group discussions and individual interviews conducted in 2004 and 2005. Participants were asked questions about reasons for energy choice...

Power for All : Electricity Access Challenge in India

Banerjee, Sudeshna Ghosh; Barnes, Douglas; Singh, Bipul; Mayer, Kristy; Samad, Hussain
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.89%
India has led the developing world in addressing rural energy problems. By late 2012, the national electricity grid had reached 92 percent of India s rural villages, about 880 million people. In more remote areas and those with geographically difficult terrain, where grid extension is not economically viable, off-grid solutions using renewable-energy sources for electricity generation and distribution have been promoted. The positive results of the country s rural energy policies and institutions have contributed greatly to reducing the number of people globally who remain without electricity access. Yet, owing mainly to its large population, India has by far the world s largest number of households without electricity. More than one-quarter of its population or about 311 million people, the vast majority of whom live in poorer rural areas, still lack an electricity connection; less than half of all households in the poorest income group have electricity. Among households with electricity service, hundreds of millions lack reliable power supply.

Asmara Power Distribution and Rural Electrification Project : Pre-electrification Survey Analysis

O'Sullivan, Kyran; Fitzgerald, Kevin
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Energy Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.27%
This report presents the findings and recommendations of a Pre-electrification Survey done in preparation for the Asmara Power Distribution and Rural Electrification Project. The survey was designed to characterize energy use in existing institutions, commercial enterprises and households before electrification and, thereby, set a baseline for monitoring and evaluation of the impacts of the project going forward. The report begins with a summary of the survey s main findings. It continues with an introduction describing the background of the project. Section 1 presents an estimation of electrification s benefits using the household survey data. Section 2 discusses recommendations for ongoing monitoring and evaluation of the project. An appendix follows.

Restoring Balance : Bangladesh's Rural Energy Realities

Asaduzzaman, Mohammad; Barnes, Douglas F.; Khandker, Shahidur R.
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.89%
Bangladesh is one of the world's poorest countries. Nearly 80 percent of the nation's 140 million people reside in rural areas; of these, 20 percent live in extreme poverty. Geographically, many low-lying areas are vulnerable to severe flooding, while other regions are prone to drought, erosion, and soil salinity. Such an unfavorable agricultural landscape, combined with mismanagement of natural resources and increasing population pressure, is pushing many of the rural poor to the brink. Because Bangladesh is such a poor country, it also is one of the world's lowest energy producers. Total annual energy supply is only about 150 liters of oil equivalent per capita (International Energy Agency, or IEA 2003); in rural areas, conditions are even worse. Compared to other developing countries, Bangladesh uses little modern energy. Despite its successful rural electrification program, close to two-thirds of households remain without electricity and, with the exception of kerosene, commercial fuels are beyond reach for many. Moreover...

Brazil - Rural Electrification with Renewable Energy Systems in the Northeast : A Preinvestment Study

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.86%
This ESMAP study was a response to a request by the World Bank's Latin America and Caribbean (LAC) Regional Office for support in designing an innovative project to deliver energy services to dispersed rural areas of Brazil. The project aims to address the likely adverse consequences of privatizing the state power utilities on incentives for investments to supply essential electricity services to the dispersed, low-income population in rural areas of Brazil. To improve electricity access to these areas in the long term, needed is a commercially sustainable dissemination activity that should be carried out by and with equity from the private sector, through a system of incentives that assures fair returns to private participants while minimizing government subsidies. The coverage should include productive applications, community-oriented or public service applications, and residential applications. An optimal mix of subsidized and unsubsidized market segments and a critical total mass of potential customers are the key ingredients that could attract private investors in the dispersed area market. This type of effort is consistent with the Bank's current Country Assistance Strategy for Brazil...

Surge in Solar-Powered Homes : Experience in Off-Grid Rural Bangladesh

Khandker, Shahidur R.; Samad, Hussain A.; Sadeque, Zubair K.M.; Asaduzzaman, Mohammed; Yunus, Mohammad; Haque, A.K. Enamul
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.08%
Bangladesh has made remarkable progress in raising living standards and reducing poverty, particularly in previously lagging regions. Rapid solar home system (SHS) expansion in Bangladesh to some 3 million rural households by early 2014 has drawn the attention of donors and governments of other countries. The book s broad aim is twofold: (a) to assess the welfare impact of SHS on households, and (b) to evaluate the present institutional structure and financing mechanisms in place, noting that households want cheaper systems and good quality service while suppliers require a reasonable market-based profit to stay in business. The study entailed an intensive empirical investigation based on both primary and secondary data. The primary data consisted mainly of a large-scale, nationally representative household survey with appropriate geographic spread. Conducted in 2012 by the Bangladesh Institute of Development Studies (BIDS) and assisted by the World Bank, the household survey was designed to examine SHS benefits and costs. The book addresses a number of research issues...

Ghana : Women's Energy Enterprise - Developing a Model for Mainstreaming Gender into Modern Energy Service Delivery

Kumasi Institute of Technology and Environment
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.08%
This paper looks at the feasibility of creating employment in the energy sector for women in rural communities in Ghana. The report is based on a stakeholders' analysis of the feasibility of embarking on a micro-enterprise on multiple energy services for women in rural fishing and farming communities. The objective of the study is to test a business model for empowering women through income generation in energy service delivery. It is based on the background experience of a successful pilot project, in Bangladesh. The model involves capacity-building among rural women and micro-enterprise development for modern energy service delivery to their communities and surrounding ones. The focus of this study is to see if transfer of skills for manufacturing and production of energy service appliances can be accomplished without a high level of education among rural women. Such skills are considered as opportunities for initiating social transformation. The stakeholders' analysis in five selected communities was carried out to assess the willingness and preparedness of women in these communities to engage in other similar projects in Ghana. The findings of the analysis have recommended that the Nyanyano region be selected as the pilot electrified community. The findings are presented in the report and are followed up with some recommendations on how to proceed and what the next steps should be.

Restoring Balance : Bangladesh's Rural Energy Realities

Asaduzzaman, M.; Barnes, Douglas F.; Khandker, Shahidur R.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.08%
This study, the first to concentrate on Bangladesh's energy systems and their effects on the lives of rural people, drew on these background studies, as well as other World Bank-financed research on IAP and rural infrastructure, to present a rural energy strategy for the country. The study's broad aim was to identify ways to improve the living standard in rural Bangladesh through better and more efficient use of energy, while creating an environment conducive to growth and poverty reduction. For any developing country, the crux of a rural energy strategy is to have more and better choices for meeting rural demand for energy through market mechanisms and sound policy. This goes hand in hand with the development of competent implementing institutions, which are critical to the process. Also important are new supply- and demand side technologies that can be used to raise rural people's welfare and improve productivity to increase growth prospects. Accordingly, the rural energy strategy advocated by this study aims to satisfy the types of demand that increase household welfare and raise rural growth prospects as energy becomes a direct input into the production process.

Energy Strategy for Rural India : Evidence from Six States

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.86%
The fieldwork for this report consisted of a household energy survey of households living in 180 villages in six states (Andhra Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Maharashtra, Punjab, Rajasthan and West Bengal). The report was initiated in response to concerns that energy strategies for rural India were not progressing toward modern energy use.It examines energy use, including renewable energy, to determine if households in rural areas have access to modern forms of energy use. In addition, analysis and recommendations are targeted toward poor households, who spend a significant proportion of their time and income on energy. Despite urbanization, 74 percent of India (some 120 million households) reside in rural areas, villagers still depend on traditional fuels to meet their energy needs. Fuelwood, crop residues, dung and other traditional fuels, as presently used, have inherent disadvantages: collection is arduous and time-consuming; combustion is difficult to control; and cooking captures a fraction of these fuels' available energy. Today...

The Impact of Energy on Women's Lives in Rural India

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.61%
This report highlights the tremendous difference that access to improved energy services in the form of biomass stoves, petroleum fuels, and household electrification makes for the life of rural women. Of course, the benefits of rural energy services can differ by region, class, caste, education, and household occupation, but the overall pattern that emerges is that the benefits of improved rural energy services for rural women in India are substantial. The use of Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) or kerosene stoves relieves women of much of the most arduous tasks involved in cooking for their families and permits them to lead a relatively comfortable and healthy life. Household electrification also has positive consequences for women in terms of their general quality of life, including an increased likelihood that they will read, watch television, and earn income. Having lights at night increases their ability to read in the evening after dark. However, the advantages of electrification could be exploited even more...

The Benefits of Solar Home Systems : An Analysis from Bangladesh

Samad, Hussain A.; Khandker, Shahidur R.; Asaduzzaman, M.; Yunus, Mohammad
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.83%
The Government of Bangladesh, with help from the World Bank and other donors, has provided aid to a local agency called Infrastructure Development Company Limited and its partner organizations to devise a credit scheme for marketing solar home system units and making these an affordable alternative to grid electricity for poor people in remote areas. This paper uses household survey data to examine the financing scheme behind the dissemination of these solar home systems, in particular the role of the subsidy; the factors that determine the adoption of the systems in rural Bangladesh; and the welfare impacts of such adoption. The paper finds that while the subsidy has been declining over time, the demand for solar home systems has seen phenomenal growth, mostly because of technological developments that have made the systems increasingly more affordable. Households with better physical and educational endowments are more likely to adopt solar home systems than poor households. The price of the system matters in household decision making -- a 10 percent decline in the price of the system increases the overall demand for a solar panel by 2 percent. As for the benefits...

Energy Policies and Multitopic Household Surveys : Guidelines for Questionnaire Design in Living Standards Measurement Studies

O'Sullivan, Kyran; Barnes, Douglas F.
Fonte: Washington, DC : World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC : World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.35%
Analysis using data on household energy use from Living Standards Measurement Study (LSMS) surveys can help policymakers to identify which households are affected by energy poverty and then design policies that will accelerate the household energy transition. This paper shows that LSMS can provide accurate data on household energy use, combined with other data on household wellbeing (including consumption, income, health, and education), to monitor the progress in the household energy transition from traditional biomass fuels to modern fuels and electricity and to evaluate the effect of government energy policies on living conditions.