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Contribution of soil organic carbon to the ion exchange capacity of tropical soils

SOARES, Marcio Roberto; ALLEONI, Luis Reynaldo Ferracciu
Fonte: HAWORTH PRESS INC Publicador: HAWORTH PRESS INC
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.02%
Highly weathered soils represent about 3 billion ha of the tropical region. Oxisols represent about 60% of the Brazilian territory (more than 5 million km 2), in areas of great agricultural importance. Soil organic carbon (SOC) can be responsible for more than 80% of the cation exchange capacity (CEC) of highly weathered soils, such as Oxisols and Ultisols. The objective of this study was to estimate the contribution of the SOC to the CEC of Brazilian soils from different orders. Surface samples (0.0 to 0.2 m) of 30 uncultivated soils (13 Oxisols, 6 Ultisols, 5 Alfisols, 3 Entisols, I Histosol, 1 Inceptisol. and I Molisol), under native forests and from reforestation sites from Sao Paulo State, Brazil, were collected in order to obtain a large variation of (electro)chemical, physical, and mineralogical soil attributes. Total content of SOC was quantified by titulometric and colorimetric methods. Effective cation exchange capacity (ECEC) was obtained by two methods: the indirect method-summation-estimated the ECECi from the sum of basic cations (Ca+ Mg+ K+ Na) and exchangeable Al; and the direct ECECd obtained by the compulsive exchange method, using unbuffered BaCl2 solution. The contribution of SOC to the soil CEC was estimated by the Bennema statistical method. The amount of SOC var ied from 6.6 g kg(-1) to 213.4 g kg(-1). while clay contents varied from 40 g kg(-1) to 716 g kg(-1). Soil organic carbon contents were strongly associated to the clay contents...

"Desenvolvimento de eletrodos de troca iônica eletroquímica para o tratamento de rejeitos contendo íons Cromo ou Césio" ; DEVELOPMENT OF ELECTROCHEMICAL ION EXCHANGE ELECTRODES FOR THE TREATMENT OF WASTES CONTAINING CHROMIUM OR CESIUM IONS

Manosso, Helena Cristina
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 07/07/2006 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.14%
Atualmente são muito discutidos temas que abordam a preservação do meio ambiente, para o desenvolvimento de tecnologias de produção que não a agridam, gerando resíduos menos tóxicos e em menor quantidade. Resíduos poluentes contendo metais como o crômio, têm sido lançados nos solos e rios, degradando a água utilizada para o consumo humano. Não diferentes são os problemas decorrentes de atividades nucleares, as quais geram rejeitos nas instalações e laboratórios de pesquisa. Embora estes rejeitos não sejam lançados no meio ambiente, muitas vezes encontram-se armazenados em laboratório inadequadamente, o que pode resultar em graves acidentes. Na intenção de solucionar estes problemas, existem várias técnicas para o tratamento de rejeitos, entre elas a troca iônica eletroquímica (EIX – electrochemical ion exchange). A EIX é um processo avançado que une as vantagens da troca iônica convencional com o fato de usar como reagente o elétron, reduzindo consideravelmente o volume da solução a ser tratada. Esta técnica consiste na elaboração de um eletrodo, no qual o trocador iônico é incorporado fisicamente em uma estrutura do eletrodo com um aglutinante. Optou-se neste trabalho pela resina catiônica Amberlite CG-50 para o tratamento dos rejeitos contendo íons crômio e o trocador catiônico inorgânico fosfato de zircônio para os íons césio...

Estudo do equilibrio dos sistemas binarios e ternario de troca ionica dos ions cobre, cadmio e calcio pelo biopolimero alginato; Equilibrium study of binaries and ternary ion exchange systems envolving copper, cadmium and calcium ions by alginate biopolymer

Rosilene Andrea Welter
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 04/03/2009 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.07%
Neste trabalho, estudou-se o processo de troca iônica envolvendo os íons Cobre, Cádmio e Cálcio, sendo que os metais pesados, Cobre e Cádmio, foram avaliados devido a alta toxicidade, à sua presença em efluente industriais e a dificuldade na sua remoção quando em baixas concentrações, entretanto, acima do permitido pela legislação vigente. O trocador iônico utilizado foi o Alginato, que na presença de íons divalentes possui a capacidade de gelificar-se formando partículas aptas à utilização em operações de troca iônica. As partículas foram obtidas por diferentes formas: gotejamento, atomização ou ainda, emulsificação, contudo, cada método apresentou partículas com propriedades físicas distintas. O método de emulsificação resultou em partículas com diâmetro e granulometria satisfatórios para o processo de troca iônica em leito poroso, além de, dentre os métodos analisados, apresentar maior capacidade de troca iônica para o ensaio realizado em banho finito sob as mesmas condições operacionais. Portanto, os ensaios de equilíbrio de troca iônica para os sistemas binários envolvendo os íons Cu-Ca, Cd-Ca e Cu-Cd e para o ensaio ternário Cu-Cd-Ca, foram realizados em leito poroso, utilizando partículas obtidas por emulsificação...

Desacidificação de óleo de soja por resina de troca iônica; Deacidification of soybean oil by ion exchange resin

Taiana Maria Deboni
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 16/03/2012 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.16%
Um método alternativo para a remoção de ácidos graxos livres presentes em óleos vegetais brutos se baseia no uso de resinas de troca iônica. Este método mostra-se adequado e vantajoso, devido às condições brandas de processamento, provável minimização das perdas de óleo neutro e a não geração de sabões. Deste modo, o objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o processo de desacidificação de óleo de soja utilizando resina de troca iônica em meio orgânico. Para isto, realizou-se um prétratamento da resina em coluna de leito fixo utilizando isopropanol. Avaliou-se a influência deste pré-tratamento sobre a capacidade de troca iônica e sobre o teor de água no interior da resina. Curvas de ruptura foram obtidas de acordo com um delineamento composto central rotacional 22, sendo que os parâmetros avaliados foram vazão e acidez da alimentação. As respostas obtidas foram a eficiência de recuperação de soluto e eficiência de utilização de leito, ambas calculadas a partir das curvas de ruptura. No estudo, foi utilizado leito fixo com 150 mL de resina aniônica forte (Amberlyst A26 OH), sendo que a miscela de alimentação do leito foi composta por uma mistura de óleo de soja degomado com acidez original igual 2...

Evaluation of ion exchange-modified Y and ZSM5 zeolites in Cr(VI) biosorption and catalytic oxidation of ethyl acetate

Silva, Bruna Andreia Nogueira Airosa; Figueiredo, Hugo; Soares, O. S. G. P.; Pereira, M. F. R.; Figueiredo, J. L.; Lewandowska, A. E.; Bañares, M. A.; Bañares, M. A.; Neves, I. C.; Tavares, M. T.
Fonte: Elsevier B.V. Publicador: Elsevier B.V.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2012 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.02%
The aim of this work was the evaluation of the performance of two zeolites with different structures (FAU and MFI) and acidity properties in the biosorption of Cr(VI) and catalytic oxidation of ethyl acetate. The starting zeolites, Y (FAU) and ZSM5 (MFI), were modified by ion exchange treatments with NaNO3 in order to obtain zeolites with different acidity and sodium content. A biosorption system consisting of a bacterium, Arthrobacter viscosus, supported on the different zeolites was used for Cr(VI) reduction and removal from solution. The best removal efficiencies and uptake of chromium, above 90% and 14 mgCr/gzeolite respectively, were achieved for Y zeolites due to their higher ion exchange capacity in comparison with ZSM5 zeolites. The ion exchange treatment did not produce considerable changes on the uptake process performed by the modified zeolites. Y and ZSM5 zeolites were characterized by ICP-AES, SEM, NH3 chemisorption, XRD and N2 adsorption. Y and ZSM5 zeolites obtained after biosorption presented chromium loadings between 0.92 and 1.20%, and were successfully reused as catalysts in the oxidation of ethyl acetate. The chromium-loaded ZSM5 zeolites were considerably more active and selective towards CO2 than chromium-loaded Y zeolites...

Evaluation of ion exchange-modified Y and ZSM5 zeolites in Cr(VI) biosorption and catalytic oxidation of ethyl acetate

Silva, Bruna Andreia Nogueira Airosa; Figueiredo, Hugo; Soares, O. S. G. P.; Pereira, M. F. R.; Figueiredo, J. L.; Lewandowska, A. E.; Bañares, M. A.; Neves, Isabel C.; Tavares, M. T.
Fonte: Universidade do Minho Publicador: Universidade do Minho
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em //2012 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.98%
The aim of this work is the evaluation of the performance of two zeolites with different structures (FAU and MFI) and acidity properties in the biosorption of Cr(VI) and catalytic oxidation of ethyl acetate. The starting zeolites, Y (FAU) and ZSM5 (MFI), were modified by ion exchange treatments with NaNO3 in order to obtain zeolites with different acidity and sodium content. A biosorption system consisting of a bacterium, Arthrobacter viscosus, supported on the different zeolites was used for Cr(VI) reduction and removal from solution [1]. The best removal efficiencies and uptake of chromium, above 90% and 14 mgCr/gzeolite respectively, were achieved for Y zeolites due to their higher ion exchange capacity in comparison with ZSM5 zeolites. The ion exchange treatment did not produce considerable changes on the uptake process performed by the modified zeolites. Y and ZSM5 zeolites were characterized by ICPAES, SEM, NH3 chemisorption, XRD and N2 adsorption. Y and ZSM5 zeolites obtained after biosorption presented chromium loadings between 0.92 and 1.20%, and were successfully reused as catalysts in the oxidation of ethyl acetate [2]. The chromium-loaded ZSM5 zeolites were considerably more active and selective towards CO2 than chromium-loaded Y zeolites...

The Li+, Na+ and K+ ion exchange reaction process on the surface of mixed oxide SiO2/TiO2/Sb2O5 surface prepared by the sol-gel processing method

Ferreira,C. U.; Gonçalves,J. E.; Kholin,Y. V.; Gushikem,Y.
Fonte: Fundação Editora da Universidade Estadual Paulista Júlio de Mesquita Filho - UNESP Publicador: Fundação Editora da Universidade Estadual Paulista Júlio de Mesquita Filho - UNESP
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2005 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.07%
The porous mixed oxide SiO2/TiO2/Sb2O5 obtained by the sol-gel processing method presented a good ion exchange property and a high exchange capacity towards the Li+, Na+ and K+ ions. In the H+/M+ ion exchange process, the H+ / Na+ could be described as presenting an ideal character. The ion exchange equilibria of Li+ and K+ were quantitatively described with the help of the model of fixed tetradentate centers. The results of simulation evidence that for the H+ / Li+ exchange the usual situation takes place: the affinity of the material to the Li+ ions is decreased with increasing the degree of ion exchange. On the contrary, for K+ the effects of positive cooperativity, that facilitate the H+ / K+ exchange, were revealed.

Determination of the maximum retention of cobalt by ion exchange in h-zeolites

Zola,A. S.; Barros,M. A. S. D.; Sousa-Aguiar,E. F.; Arroyo,P. A.
Fonte: Brazilian Society of Chemical Engineering Publicador: Brazilian Society of Chemical Engineering
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.03%
This work aimed to determine the maximum content of cobalt that can be incorporated by ion exchange in zeolites H-USY, H-Beta, H-Mordenite, and H-ZSM-5. To reach this goal, batch isotherms at 75ºC were constructed after addition of zeolite samples in flasks filled with cobalt nitrate solution. The equilibrium data were fitted to Langmuir, Freundlich, and Tóth adsorption isotherm models. Langmuir was the best model for zeolites H-Beta, H-Mordenite, and H-ZSM-5, whereas experimental data for H-USY were better fitted to the Freundlich isotherm model. From the isotherms, it was possible to determine the maximum cobalt exchange level (q max) that can be incorporated in each zeolite through ion exchange. In this sense, H-USY presented the highest q max value (2.40 meq/g zeol), while H-ZSM-5 showed the lowest one (0.64 meq/g zeol). These results also show the influence of the zeolite framework related to the channel system, pore opening, presence of cavities and secondary porosity and SiO2/Al2O3 ratio (SAR) on the maximum capacity and behavior of cobalt ion exchange in protonic zeolites.

Hydrous Tantalum Phosphates for Ion Exchange Purposes: A Systematic Study

Silva,M.L.C.P.da; Silva,G.L.J.P. da; Villela Filho,D.N.
Fonte: ABM, ABC, ABPol Publicador: ABM, ABC, ABPol
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/03/2002 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
76%
This work describes two methods of preparation of hydrous tantalum phosphates and their characterization as ion exchangers. The hydrous metallic phosphate compounds were chemically and physically characterized by thermal gravimetric analysis, X-ray diffractometry and surface area measurements. By the first method, tantalum phosphate was prepared by alkaline fusion of Ta2O5 with an excess of K2CO3, followed by lixiviation of the tantalate fusion product with hot water, and precipitation with diluted H3PO4. Preparation II was performed using metallic Ta dissolved in concentrated HF/HNO3 acidic mixture followed by hydrolysis of fluortantalic acid intermediary and precipitation with diluted H3PO4. Both freshly prepared materials (I and II) were exaustively refluxed with concentrated H3PO4, in its boiling point temperature, resulting respectively in Ta2O5. 2.1 H2O, (IR) and Ta2O5. 1.3 H2O, (IIR). Characterization of the prepared products have presented the following values: surface area of 108.27 ± 2.80; 220.14 ± 2.67; 117.07 ± 5.25 and 141.61 ± 0.27 m².g-1 respectively for I, IR, II and IIR. All these materials were amorphous. The ion exchange behavior for all four hydrous tantalum phosphates was studied using Na+, K+ and Ba+2 as the exchanged species. The values for typical ion exchange capacity were 1.64; 1.23; 1.47 and 1.01 miliequivalent.g-1...

A study of ion-exchange chromatography in an expanded bed for bovine albumin recovery

Severo Jr.,João Batista; Souza,Roberto Rodrigues de; Santana,José Carlos Curvelo; Tambourgi,Elias Basile
Fonte: Instituto de Tecnologia do Paraná - Tecpar Publicador: Instituto de Tecnologia do Paraná - Tecpar
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2009 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.02%
In the present work, the effect of bed expansion on BSA adsorption on Amberlite IRA 410 ion-exchange resin was studied. The hydrodynamic behavior of an expanded bed adsorption column on effects of the biomolecules and salt addition and temperature were studied to optimize the conditions for BSA recovery on ion-exchange resin. Residence time distribution showed that HEPT, axial dispersion and the Pecletl number increased with temperature and bed height, bed voidage and linear velocity. The binding capacity of the resin increased with bed height. The Amberlite IRA 410 ion-exchange showed an affinity for BSA with a recovery yield of 78.36 % of total protein.

Rapid Preparation of Biosorbents with High Ion Exchange Capacity from Rice Straw and Bagasse for Removal of Heavy Metals

Rungrodnimitchai, Supitcha
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 21/01/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.11%
This work describes the preparation of the cellulose phosphate with high ion exchange capacity from rice straw and bagasse for removal of heavy metals. In this study, rice straw and bagasse were modified by the reaction with phosphoric acid in the presence of urea. The introduced phosphoric group is an ion exchangeable site for heavy metal ions. The reaction by microwave heating yielded modified rice straw and modified bagasse with greater ion exchange capacities (∼3.62 meq/g) and shorter reaction time (1.5–5.0 min) than the phosphorylation by oil bath heating. Adsorption experiments towards Pb2+, Cd2+, and Cr3+ ions of the modified rice straw and the modified bagasse were performed at room temperature (heavy metal concentration 40 ppm, adsorbent 2.0 g/L). The kinetics of adsorption agreed with the pseudo-second-order model. It was shown that the modified rice straw and the modified bagasse could adsorb heavy metal ions faster than the commercial ion exchange resin (Dowax). As a result of Pb2+ sorption test, the modified rice straw (RH-NaOH 450W) removed Pb2+ much faster in the initial step and reached 92% removal after 20 min, while Dowax (commercial ion exchange resin) took 90 min for the same removal efficiency.

The Effects of Sulfonated Poly(ether ether ketone) Ion Exchange Preparation Conditions on Membrane Properties

Yee, Rebecca S. L.; Zhang, Kaisong; Ladewig, Bradley P.
Fonte: MDPI Publicador: MDPI
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 13/08/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.02%
A low cost cation exchange membrane to be used in a specific bioelectrochemical system has been developed using poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK). This material is presented as an alternative to current commercial ion exchange membranes that have been primarily designed for fuel cell applications. To increase the hydrophilicity and ion transport of the PEEK material, charged groups are introduced through sulfonation. The effect of sulfonation and casting conditions on membrane performance has been systematically determined by producing a series of membranes synthesized over an array of reaction and casting conditions. Optimal reaction and casting conditions for producing SPEEK ion exchange membranes with appropriate performance characteristics have been established by this uniquely systematic experimental series. Membrane materials were characterized by ion exchange capacity, water uptake, swelling, potential difference and NMR analysis. Testing this extensive membranes series established that the most appropriate sulfonation conditions were 60 °C for 6 h. For mechanical stability and ease of handling, SPEEK membranes cast from solvent casting concentrations of 15%–25% with a resulting thickness of 30–50 µm were also found to be most suitable from the series of tested casting conditions. Drying conditions did not have any apparent impact on the measured parameters in this study. The conductivity of SPEEK membranes was found to be in the range of 10−3 S cm−1...

Hydrolyzed Poly(acrylonitrile) Electrospun Ion-Exchange Fibers

Jassal, Manisha; Bhowmick, Sankha; Sengupta, Sukalyan; Patra, Prabir K.; Walker, Douglas I.
Fonte: Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Publicador: Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/06/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.03%
A potential ion-exchange material was developed from poly(acrylonitrile) fibers that were prepared by electrospinning followed by alkaline hydrolysis (to convert the nitrile group to the carboxylate functional group). Characterization studies performed on this material using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier-Transform infra-red spectroscopy, and ion chromatography confirmed the presence of ion-exchange functional group (carboxylate). Optimum hydrolysis conditions resulted in an ion-exchange capacity of 2.39 meq/g. Ion-exchange fibers were used in a packed-bed column to selectively remove heavy-metal cation from the background of a benign, competing cation at a much higher concentration. The material can be efficiently regenerated and used for multiple cycles of exhaustion and regeneration.

SÍNTESE DE POLI (ÁCIDO LÁTICO-CO-ÁCIDO GLICÓLICO) ATRAVÉS DE POLICONDENSAÇÃO CATALISADA POR RESINA DE TROCA IÔNICA CONTENDO ÓXIDO DE ESTANHO COMO CO-CATALISADOR.; SYNTHESIS OF POLY (lactide-co-glycolic acid) BY Polycondensation Catalyzed by ION EXCHANGE RESIN CONTAINING OXIDE TIN AS CO-CATALYST

OLIVEIRA, Leonardo François de
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Goiás; BR; UFG; Mestrado em Química; Educação em Química Publicador: Universidade Federal de Goiás; BR; UFG; Mestrado em Química; Educação em Química
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.93%
In this study PLGA copolymers were synthesized with molecular weight above 10 kDa through direct polycondensation of L-lactic acid and glycolic acid monomers. Catalysts based on sulfonated styrenedivinylbenzene copolymer (SC) containing or not Sn2+ íons adsorbed as SnCl2.H2O colloidal particles from neutral solution or [SnCl3]- complex anions from acid solution were prepared. All catalysts were evaluated by specific surface area and pore volume measurements, infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, atomic absorption spectrophotometry and ion exchange capacity. The obtained PLGA copolymers were characterized by infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and inherent viscosity measurements. Independent of pH solution of the adsorptions, it was observed that Sn2+ ions were oxidized to Sn4+ forming SnO2. This oxidation probably occurred during catalysts drying process in the presence of oxygen. The PLGA copolymers with highest inherent viscosities, i.e., highest molecular weights were obtained with SC catalyst containing SnO2 prepared by adsorption of SnCl2.H2O colloidal particles in neutral solution. It was estimated that the highest PLGA molecular weights were equal or larger than 35 kDa. The produced PLGA presented white or lightly yellow color and Sn contamination less than 1 ppm which is below the limit allowed by the Brazilian legislation; No presente trabalho foram sintetizados copolímeros PLGA com massa molar acima de 10 kDa por policondensação direta dos monômeros ácido L-láctico e ácido glicólico. Foram preparados catalisadores à base de copolímero estireno-divinilbenzeno sulfonado (CS) contendo ou não íons Sn2+ adsorvidos na forma de partículas coloidais de SnCl2.H2O em meio neutro ou na forma do ânion complexo [SnCl3]- em meio ácido. Todos os catalisadores foram avaliados por medidas de área superficial específica e volume de poros...

Functionalized periodic mesoporous titanium phosphonate monoliths with large ion exchange capacity

Ma, T.Y.; Yuan, Z.Y.
Fonte: Royal Society of Chemistry Publicador: Royal Society of Chemistry
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.96%
Periodic mesoporous titanium phosphonate (PMTP-2) monoliths were synthesized by combining autoclaving process and evaporation-induced self-assembly strategy, which was functionalized by ClSO(3)H treatment, acting not only as an ion exchanger with large ion exchange capacity but also as a strong acid catalyst possible for some low-temperature reactions.; Tian-Yi Ma and Zhong-Yong Yuan

The Effects of Secondary Stationary-Phase Polymers on Adsorption and Transport in Ion-Exchange Chromatography

Petroff, Matthew G.
Fonte: University of Delaware Publicador: University of Delaware
Tipo: Undergraduate Thesis
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.08%
A.M. Lenhoff; Recent attempts to improve the adsorption and transport properties of ion-exchange adsorbents have included the modification of the adsorbent base matrix with a secondary polymer layer. This work attempts to characterize the relevant adsorption and transport properties of two related strong cation exchange adsorbents, Toyopearl GigaCap and Toyopearl SP-650M, which differ in that the GigaCap adsorbent consists of the SP-650M base matrix functionalized with a secondary-polymer layer. The studies performed utilized a combination of equilibrium adsorption isotherm determination, batch uptake, and isocratic pulse response experiments. Results were obtained for two model proteins, lysozyme (14.7 kDa) and lactoferrin (78 kDa), and were compared between the adsorbents to allow for elucidation of the effects of protein charge, protein size, and GigaCap???s secondary-polymer layer on the transport and adsorption behavior. The batch uptake results indicate higher effective pore diffusivities for lysozyme than for lactoferrin, but similar effective pore diffusivities for the respective proteins in the two adsorbents. The adsorption isotherms indicate that both proteins display much higher static capacities for the GigaCap S-650M particles than for the SP 650M particles. While the capacity differences are significant at low ionic strengths...

Cation exchange capacity of kaolinite

Ma, C; Eggleton, Richard
Fonte: Clay Minerals Society Publicador: Clay Minerals Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.08%
Experimental cation exchange capacities (CEC) of kaolinites were determined and compared to theoretical calculations of CEC. The comparison reveals that the exchangeable cations occur mostly on the edges and on the basal (OH) surfaces of the mineral. It also shows that permanent negative charge from isomorphous substitution of Al3+ for Si4+ is insignificant. The CEC of kaolinite strongly depends on the particle size (both thickness and diameter in the (00l plane) and pH value. Particle size is more important than crystallinity in affecting kaolinite CEC. This study shows that they hydroxyls on the exposed basal surfaces may be ionizable in aqueous solutions. The amount of negative charge on the edges and the exposed basal hydroxyls depends on pH and other ion concentrations. A higher pH value gives rise to more negative charges, which lead to a higher CEC value. This study indicates that charge from broken edges and exposed OH planes rather than charge from Al/Si substitution determines the kaolinite CEC, even at zero point charge. A high CEC in some kaolinites is found to be due to smectite layers on the surface of the kaolinite crystals.

Removal of Boron from the Bittern Solution of Lake Qarun Water by Electrically Assisted Ion Exchange

Ismail,Ibrahim; Abdel-Salam,Omar; Barakat,Fatma; Fateen,Seif; Soliman,Ahmed; Nogami,Masanobu
Fonte: Sociedade Portuguesa de Electroquímica Publicador: Sociedade Portuguesa de Electroquímica
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/03/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.06%
In this study, we investigated the use of ion exchange processes using a chelating resin, Diaion CRB02 for the removal of boron from the bittern solution left after the extraction of sodium sulfate and sodium chloride from the water of Lake Qarun, located in Egypt. The effects of parameters such as the initial boron concentration and the pH value on the breakthrough volume were studied using boric acid as the synthetic simulant of the bittern solution. The breakthrough capacity was shown to be directly proportional to the height of the resin bed and inversely proportional to the initial boron concentration and the feed flow rate. In addition, the optimum pH for boron removal was found to be 10. An electrically assisted process, which had been found to be effective for a strongly acidic cation exchange resin, was also applied to the ion exchange by taking the electric current as a parameter. However, no remarkable effect was observed, which may result from the difference in the function group between an ion exchange resin using electrostatic attractive force and a chelating resin using complex formation.

Preparation and characterisation of tamarind 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (THBA) resin and its use in extraction of heavy metal ions from industrial wastewater

Singh,AV; Kumawat,Indraj Kumar
Fonte: Water SA Publicador: Water SA
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66%
The adsorption of heavy metal cations, Pb(II), Cd(II), Cu(II), Zn(II) and Fe(II) from aqueous solution by newly-synthesized tamarind 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (THBA) resin was investigated. The resin was characterised on the basis of FTIR, elemental analysis, ion-exchange capacity and physico-chemical properties. The distribution coefficients (Kd) and percentage adsorption of metal ions on resin were determined by batch methods using atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). The effect of experimental parameters, such as pH, treatment time, temperature, adsorbent dose, initial metal ion concentration and flow rate, on the removal of metal ions was also studied. THBA resin proved to be an effective adsorbent for the removal of different heavy metal ions from aqueous solution; removal efficiency followed the order: Fe(II) > Cu(II) > Zn(II) > Cd(II) > Pb(II). These results suggest that the cation exchange resin THBA holds great potential to remove cationic heavy metal species from industrial wastewater.

Characterisation and applications of synthesised cation exchanger guar gum sulphonic acid (GSA) resin for removal and recovery of toxic metal ions from industrial wastewater

Singh,AV; Sharma,Naresh Kumar
Fonte: Water SA Publicador: Water SA
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/07/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.03%
The chemically modified guar gum sulphonic acid (GSA) resin was used for removal and pre-concentration of Zn2+, Cd2+, Fe2+, Pb2+ and Cu2+ ions in aqueous solutions and steel industry effluent from Jodhpur, India. This type of ion exchange resin represents a new class of hybrid ion exchangers with higher stability, reproducibility and selectivity for toxic metal ions. The characterisation of the resin was carried out by determining the ion exchange capacity, elemental analysis, FT-IR spectra and thermal analysis (TGA). The distribution coefficients (Kd) of toxic metal ions were determined for different pH values. The adsorption of different metal ions on GSA resin follows the order: Cu2+ > Fe2+ > Zn2+ > Cd2+ > Pb2+. The adsorbency of different metal ions on the GSA resin was studied for up to 10 cycles.