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Relação entre normalização técnica e propriedade intelectual no ordenamento jurídico do comércio internacional; Relationship between technical standards and intelectual property in international trade law

Zibetti, Fabíola Wüst
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 11/05/2012 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
96.27%
Nas últimas décadas, a importância da normalização técnica para comércio internacional aumentou consideravelmente. Segundo dados da OCDE, estima-se que um total de 80% do comércio global na atualidade seja afetado por normas e regulamentos técnicos. Esse cenário justifica a preocupação dos Membros da OMC em incentivar o estabelecimento de padrões tecnológicos comuns nos diversos países, como um instrumento para evitar o incremento das barreiras técnicas e promover a facilitação do fluxo internacional de bens, serviços, investimentos e tecnologias. Contudo, o crescente envolvimento de direitos de propriedade intelectual nas normas técnicas internacionais tem preocupado algumas nações, principalmente em decorrência dos elevados custos, tensões e conflitos que resultam dessa situação, impactando de forma negativa o comércio. Sob a perspectiva do ordenamento jurídico do comércio internacional, o conflito revela-se no conjunto de obrigações que os Membros assumem no âmbito da OMC. Se os países devem obrigatoriamente utilizar como base as normas técnicas internacionais para estabelecer suas normas e regulamentos domésticos, e aquelas se encontram revestidas de direitos exclusivos privados, sua efetiva aplicação no plano doméstico depende da licença dos titulares desses direitos...

O diálogo sustentável entre o direito do comércio internacional e o direito à água; The sustainable dialogue between international trade law and right to water.

Vieira, Andréia Costa
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 03/02/2014 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.3%
O Direito Internacional Contemporâneo é um sistema pluralista e tem se defrontado com temas os mais diversos na atual agenda internacional. Um dos temas que têm merecido a preocupação do Direito Internacional é a chamada crise da água, assim entendida como a escassez, a poluição, a crise de abastecimento, a sede do setor privado para entrar nesse mercado e os diversos conflitos internacionais em torno da água. A problemática da água envolve, principalmente, três áreas distintas do Direito Internacional, a saber: o Direito do Comércio Internacional, o Direito Internacional do Meio Ambiente e o Direito Internacional dos Direitos Humanos. Para lidar com essa problemática e trazer soluções concretas à questão da água, a presente pesquisa sugere um diálogo entre essas distintas áreas do Direito. Parte do pressuposto do Direito Internacional como um sistema, apesar dos seus distintos regimes, identificando-o frente ao fenômeno da globalização e seu consequente fenômeno da governança global, emoldurado por distintos atores internacionais, distintas normas de direito e distintos fóruns de aplicação. Apresenta o Regime do Comércio Internacional e o Regime do Meio Ambiente Internacional, nos quais já se inserem as questões hídricas...

A proteção ambiental no âmbito do Sistema OMC: os Métodos de Processo e Produção ecossustentáveis e sua compatibilidade com as normas de comércio internacional

de Andrade, Mariana Clara
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina Publicador: Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina
Tipo: Trabalho de Conclusão de Curso Formato: 126 f.
PT_BR
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.24%
TCC(graduação) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina. Centro de Ciências Jurídicas. Direito.; RESUMO As normas de comércio internacional, tradicionalmente, não diferenciam produtos que tenham sido produzidos com menor impacto ambiental daqueles que tenham sido produzidos de maneira tradicional, de modo que a imposição de regulações que busquem privilegiar aquele primeiro grupo em detrimento do segundo são vistas com controvérsia pelo direito internacional. Diante dessa problemática, este trabalho se propõe a analisar a compatibilidade do arcabouço normativo da Organização Mundial do Comércio com medidas restritivas de comércio internacional baseadas nos métodos e processos produtivos (PPMs) ecossustentáveis, especialmente aqueles que não têm repercussões nas características físicas do produto final. Para tanto, parte-se da exposição dos fundamentos históricos e, principalmente, normativos da organização, delineando-se os principais objetivos da OMC e as principais regras de comércio internacional por ela estabelecidas. Em seguida, é exposto com maior detalhamento o conceito de PPM, bem como os motivos pelos quais existem controvérsias acerca da imposição de medidas baseadas em PPMs ambientais...

L’accès de la société civile à la justice internationale économique

El-Hosseny, Farouk
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
FR
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.2%
La fin de la guerre froide amorça une nouvelle ère de privatisation, de libéralisation et de dérégulation sans précédent. L’internet et les nombreuses autres avancées technologiques ont rapproché les citoyens du monde à un degré impressionnant. Le monde au XXIème siècle semble être plus interdépendant que jamais. De nombreuses problématiques contemporaines dépassent largement les contrôles et les frontières étatiques, des problématiques reliées par exemple aux investissements étrangers directs, aux droits de l’homme, à l’environnement, à la responsabilité sociale des entreprises, etc. La globalisation des marchés marque par ailleurs le recul de l’État face aux acteurs non étatiques. La société civile et les multinationales surgissent dès lors en tant que véritables partenaires dans l’ordre juridique international. Cela est illustré notamment par l’accès accordé aux multinationales/investisseurs à la justice internationale économique. Ces derniers ont la capacité de poursuivre un État qui violerait leurs droits marchands découlant d’un TBI devant une juridiction arbitrale internationale. Qu’en est-il par contre des droits non marchands violés par les investisseurs ? Cette étude explore les motifs militant pour un accès de la société civile à la justice internationale économique. Le but d’un tel accès serait d’opposer les droits non marchands...

Policy Barriers to International Trade in Services : Evidence from a New Database

Borchert, Ingo; Gootiiz, Batshur; Mattoo, Aaditya
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.15%
Surprisingly little is known about policies that affect international trade in services. Previous analyses have focused on policy commitments made by countries in international agreements but these commitments do not in many cases reflect actual policy. This paper describes a new initiative to collect comparable information on services trade policies for 103 countries, across a range of service sectors and the relevant modes of service delivery. The resultant database reveals interesting patterns in policy. Across regions, some of the fastest growing countries in Asia and the oil-rich Gulf states have the most restrictive policies in services, whereas some of the poorest countries are remarkably open. Across sectors, professional and transportation services are among the most protected in both industrial and developing countries, while retail, telecommunications and even finance tend to be more open. An illustrative set of results suggests that trade policies matter for investment flows and access to services. In particular...

South Asia - Policy Paper for Regional Energy Trade : Trading Arrangements and Risk Management in International Electricity Trade

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.19%
Economic Consulting Associates (ECA) and Cambridge Economic Policy Associates (CEPA) have been engaged by Energy Sector Management Assistance Program (ESMAP) and the World Bank to prepare a policy paper for enhanced regional electricity trade involving the Economic Cooperation Council (ECO) countries. The study has reviewed the opportunities for increased electricity trade within the ECO region and exports outside the region, considered the types of trade that will be most likely to develop in the short and evolve over the medium and longer term, and made an assessment of the risks and obstacles to further trade development. Drawing on international experience of national and regional trading arrangements, as well as four case studies of regional trade, the study has reviewed the financing options including risk mitigation products, considered the requirements for good governance of international trade including dispute resolution procedures, and made an initial assessment of the proposed Tajikistan-Afghanistan-Pakistan electricity trade project (TAP). Drawing on all aspects of the research...

ICSID 2013 Annual Report

International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.22%
International investment law and international investment arbitration are relatively new disciplines: the first bilateral investment treaty was signed by Pakistan and Germany in 1959, the first investment treaty offering investor-state arbitration was concluded in 1968 between the Netherlands and Indonesia, the first International Center for Settlement of Investment Dispute (ICSID) case was registered in 1972, and the first treaty-based investment case was registered by the Centre in 1987. The Centre itself was established in 1966, along with the coming into force of the ICSID convention. It was the first dispute resolution facility designed exclusively for international investment dispute settlement, and it continues to be the only international facility dedicated to this area. This specialized mandate has allowed ICSID to develop an unparalleled expertise and focus, which benefits disputing parties, arbitrators and contracting states. Cumulatively, ICSID has administered over 430 cases, involving foreign investors from all regions of the world and more than 95 states and state agencies under the ICSID convention and rules. In addition...

Trade Policy Instruments over Time

Bown, Chad P.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.23%
This paper surveys political-economic research on the variety of instruments that governments use to conduct international trade policy. It presents key insights on the relationships between instruments such as tariffs, quotas, voluntary export restraints, and other nontariff barriers, as well as the ebb and flow of the national use of temporary trade barriers such as antidumping, countervailing duties, and safeguards. The survey examines trends in use of these trade policy instruments over recent history; and it reviews the major theoretical and empirical explanations behind, and interrelationships between, their uses. Finally, the paper highlights potential institutional impacts of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and subsequent World Trade Organization (WTO) on choice of policy instruments, as well as how multilateral, unilateral, and preferential tariff liberalization may introduce political-economic shocks and affect incentives over time for how governments rely on different instruments.

Precaution and cooperation in the World Trade Organization: an environmental perspective

Briese, Robyn
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 526335 bytes; 351 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
EN_AU
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.21%
Introduction: The Trade Environment Nexus:- Proposition 1: Protection of the environment has become exceedingly important, and promises to be more important for the benefit of future generations. Protecting the environment involves [both national environmental regulation and] rules of international cooperation, sanction, or both, so that some government actions to enhance environmental protection will not be undermined by the actions of other governments. Sometimes such rules involve trade-restricting measures. Proposition 2: Trade liberalisation is important for enhancing world economic welfare and for providing a greater opportunity for billions of individuals to lead satisfying lives. Measures that restrict trade will often decrease the achievement of this goal. The above propositions reflect one of the major tensions that governments and international society face today in promoting sustainable development. The principle of sustainable development, a main organisational concept in international environmental law (‘IEL’), seeks to integrate environmental and socio-economic considerations through the development of human systems capable of meeting the basic needs of all individuals, both now and in the future, whilst respecting ecological integrity. Three main arguments support positive synergies between free trade and environmental protection. First...

From Conscience and International Trade Law to Global Artificial Photosynthesis in the Sustainocene

Faunce, Thomas
Fonte: ANU International Law Society Publicador: ANU International Law Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
106.16%
This article sets out a story of how my interest in international law commenced at the ANU Law Faculty, continued into international trade law, and then into global artificial photosynthesis. It addresses issues about the ultimate sources of law and about the future of governance of human society and its ecosystem.; ARC DP140100566

The impact of the world trade organisation on the protection and promotion of human rights

HARRISON, James
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: Paper
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.17%
This dissertation examines the impact of international trade rules on the promotion and protection of human rights, and explains why human rights are an important mechanism for assessing the social justice impact of the international trading system. The core of the dissertation is an in depth analysis of the impact of international trade law rules on the protection and promotion of human rights, emphasising the significance of the jurisdictional context in which the human rights issues arise: coercive measures that are taken by one country to protect and promote human rights in another country are distinguished from measures taken by a country to protect and promote the human rights of its own population. The author contends that international trade law rules have utilised certain ad hoc mechanisms to deal with particularly pressing human rights concerns in the trade context, but also argues that these mechanisms do not provide systemic solutions to the inter-linkages between the two legal systems. The author therefore examines mechanisms by which human rights arguments could be more appropriately raised and adjudicated upon in WTO dispute settlement proceedings. He concludes by considering broader systemic issues outside the dispute settlement process that need to be addressed if trade law rules are to successfully protect and promote human rights.; Defence date: 2 December 2005; Examining board: Prof. Ernst-Ulrich Petersmann...

Multi-Level Judicial Trade Governance without Justice? On the Role of Domestic Courts in the WTO Legal and Dispute Settlement System

PETERSMANN, Ernst-Ulrich
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: 229502 bytes; application/pdf; digital
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.23%
The fragmented nature of national and international legal and dispute settlement regimes, and the formalistic nature of the customary international law rules on treaty interpretation and conflicts of laws, offer little guidance on how national and international judges should respond to the proliferation of competing jurisdictions and the resultant incentives for forum shopping and rule shopping by governments and non-governmental actors in international economic law. Due to their different jurisdictions, procedures and different rules of applicable laws, national and international judges often interpret international trade law from different (inter)national, (inter)governmental, constitutional and judicial perspectives. This paper explores the judicial functions of national and international judges to reach justified decisions based on positive law, on the basis of transparent, predictable and fair procedures, and to interpret international treaties “in conformity with principles of justice.” Chapters I to III explain some of the “principles of justice” underlying international trade law and argue that international rules for a mutually beneficial division of labour among private citizens should be construed with due regard to the human rights obligations of governments. Chapters III and IV propose to strengthen international cooperation among national and international courts...

European film policies in the context of EU and international law: a misalliance of culture and free market?

HEROLD, Anna
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.16%
The thesis presents in a comprehensive fashion European film policies in the context of both EU and international law. It relies on a broad survey of national and EU film policy measures, the EU practice in the areas of state aid, antitrust and merger law with respect to the sector and the application of international trade law to film policy instruments. These three different bodies of law are systematically analysed to assess how cultural policy considerations underlying film policy can be married to market forces. The EU experience is studied in depth as the book argues that it can effectively serve as a model to reconcile these sometimes conflicting goals in the global trade arena. This justifies the attention paid to the way in which cultural objectives of film policies are accommodated within the EU competition law framework. The thesis contributes valuably to the current debate on cultural diversity and free trade by providing a more harmonious if not a symbiotic vision of this relationship.; Defence date: 12 February 2007; Examining board: Prof. Bruno de Witte (Supervisor, European University Institute) ; Prof. Giuliano Amato (European University Institute) ; Prof. Rachael Craufurd Smith (University of Edinburgh) ; Prof. Thomas Cottier (University of Bern)

Theory and practice of EC external trade law and policy

LEAL ARCAS, Rafael
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.23%
Both the European Community (EC) and its Member States agree that it is in their best interest to coordinate their action vis-à-vis the rest of the world in international trade agreements. Theory and Practice of EC External Trade Law and Policy looks at the intricacies of the institutional framework of EC trade law, and with special emphasis on services trade, examines the law and practice of EC external trade relations from a policy, economic, legal and an overarching European constitutional perspective. The objective of the author’s analysis is not only to find ways to nurture and preserve the unitary character of EC external trade relations in areas of shared competence between EU Member States and EU institutions, but also to understand the management of the EC’s external trade relations. The book begins with an analysis of the evolution of the EC common commercial policy, through which the author examines the checks and balances at the micro, meso and macro levels. The author then proceeds to analyse the problems faced by the EU in its external relations and the legal complexity of mixed agreements. This unique legal phenomenon is tackled from an intra-EC perspective as well as from an extra-EU perspective taking into account various implications for third parties. The major EU institutions are examined: the Commission as the negotiator of international trade agreements...

Optimal regulation and the law of international trade : a law & economics analysis of the WTO law on domestic regulation

RIGOD, Boris
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.27%
Defence date: 15 January 2014; Examining Board: Professor Petros C. Mavroidis, EUI (Supervisor) Professor Ernst-Ulrich Petersmann, EUI Professor Robert Howse, New York University Doctor Werner Zdouc, World Trade Organisation.; Background: Conflicts between domestic regulatory preferences and the law of the World Trade Organization (WTO) are numerous and a constant bone of contention. The list of regulatory objectives that potentially collide with the trade interests of other WTO members include subjects, such as human health, animal welfare and cultural diversity, to mention just a few. Aim: Against this backdrop, the question this thesis aims to answer is whether the law of the WTO on domestic regulation systematically obstructs or supports governments in attaining the optimal protection of societal and individual values. In other words, the thesis asks the question of whether the relevant WTO law is efficient. In order to provide a response to the main research question, it is necessary to address a number of sub-questions: (i) when are levels of regulation optimal?; (ii) why and under which conditions are levels of regulation distorted, i.e. sub-optimal?; (iii) why and under which conditions should member states' determination of the appropriate level of regulation be subjected to the disciplines set forth in international trade agreements?; and (iv) against this background...

Conflict of Laws as Constitutional Form: Reflections on International Trade Law and the Biotech Panel Report

JOERGES, Christian
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
86.21%
Hardly anywhere is the trend towards a perfection of transnational governance arrangements and their 'legalization' more visible than in international trade. Governance arrangements established through and alongside WTO law are both practically important and theoretically challenging. They do not just organise international trade relations. They also affect national and regional (European) regulatory policies partly directly, partly more indirectly. How can we explain and how should we evaluate their emergence? The WTO system of 1994, which replaced the GATT of 1947, responded to the ever increasing importance of non-tariff barriers to trade. These barriers reflect regulatory concerns especially in the fields of health and safety, consumer and environmental protection. The importance for WTO members is such that they cannot simply be abandoned for the sake of free trade. This is why the responses the new international trade system institutionalised by special agreements concerning non-tariff barriers to free trade such as the Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS) and the Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) reflect a politicisation of international trade. Can we conclude that international markets have been re-regulated and that international trade law ensures their 'social embeddedness'? The paper seeks yardsticks for an answer to these questions in the debates on transnational constitutionalism. It submits that constitutionalisation can and should be based on a conflict-of approach. For its elaboration of this suggestion...

ICSID 2012 Annual Report; CIRDI rapport annuel 2012 CIADI 2012 informe anual

International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Annual Report
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.17%
The recent growth in investor-state arbitration has continued apace. International Center for Settlement of Investment Dispute (ICSID) registered a record 38 cases in 2011, and had registered 19 further cases by June 30, 2012. Included in these numbers are 3 new conciliation cases, showing an increased resort not simply to arbitration but also to alternative methods of dispute resolution available under the ICSID convention and additional facility. Such statistics should not be considered in isolation from their broader economic context. There have been unprecedented increases in global flows of foreign direct investment in the last two decades. These statistics must also be read in light of the fact that international investment law and investor-state dispute settlement are a new discipline. ICSID continues to play a vital role in the evolving international investment legal system. Its primary job is very specific: to offer foreign investors and host States an impartial, effective and accessible facility for arbitration and conciliation of international investment disputes. ICSID has taken numerous steps in the past year to enhance its capacity to fulfill this role. In September of 2011...

Turkey : Country Procurement Assessment Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Country Procurement Assessment (CPAR); Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.19%
Public procurement legislation in Turkey has not kept pace with the sweeping reforms undertaken in the national procurement systems of many other countries during the same period nor with the development of internationally recognized bodies of procurement legislation, such as those of United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL), the European Union (EU) and the World Trade Organization (WTO). Following Turkey's acceptance, in December 1999, as a candidate country for accession to the EU, the Government has committed itself to achieving approximation and, eventually, alignment with EU law in many areas, including public procurement. To that end, the MOF and MPWS have already begun the process of drafting a new public procurement law, a draft of which has already been promulgated within Government and on which both the World Bank and the European Commission have offered their comments. Clearly, it is essential that this new draft law should not only make up the ground lost in the 17 years since the GPL was last amended but also bring the Turkish law up to date with recognized models of best practice and achieve an appropriate degree of approximation with the EU Directives. However...

International Trade Law and Environmental Protection by the Example of The Procedure. US-Shrimp; Welthandelsrecht und umweltschutz am beispiel des verfahrens us-shrimp

Fischmann, Filipe
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Direito Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Direito
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/01/2006 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
86.18%
This article proposes an analysis of the relationship between the tendencies of liberalization of international trade, on one hand, and environmental protection, on the other hand. It is presented the judgment of a case by the World Trade Organization, regarding the American law, which had forbidden the importation of shrimp that was harvested by vessels not equipped with turtle excluder devices. Composing the analysis, the article brings a description of the case and of the judgment, offering an approach of the legal reasoning of the WTO judgment decision and discussing the consequences of such a decision.; O presente trabalho analisa a relação entre as tendências de liberalização do comércio internacional e a proteção ao meio ambiente, tendo em vista o julgamento de caso concreto pela Organização Mundial do Comércio, em que legislação americana proibia a importação de camarão que fosse capturado sem observação de alguns requisitos, que visavam à proteção de tartarugas ameaçadas. A análise aborda os fundamentos jurídicos da decisão, bem como uma discussão das conseqüências da mesma.

The requirements for the inclusion of standard terms in international sales contracts

Eiselen,S
Fonte: PER: Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad Publicador: PER: Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.08%
The problem dealing with the inclusion of standard terms and conditions in contracts is a problem that has engaged most legal systems. The United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods, Vienna 1980 (CISG) does not expressly deal with this problem. Accordingly the solution to the issue must be found in an interpretation and application of the general principles found in articles 8, 14 and 18. One of the main objects of the CISG is the harmonisation of international trade law. It is generally recognised that in order to achieve harmonisation it is necessary that courts should interpret and apply the convention in a consistent and harmonious manner. Unfortunately a number of approaches have emerged from courts around the world in regard to the inclusion of standard terms. German courts have developed a strict approach which requires that the standard terms be made available to the addressee at the time of the conclusion of the contract. They also require that the standard terms be couched in the language of the main contract. In stark contrast an American court has used an approach which is very lax in regard to incorporation, even allowing incorporation after the conclusion of the contract. There is, however a more moderate approach set out in decisions of the Austrian Supreme Court where the court adopted an approach which is more akin to that found in most legal systems...