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O direito ao desenvolvimento e o comércio internacional de serviços educacionais; Right to development and international trade in education services

Oliverio, Cecília Kaneto
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 21/05/2009 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.3%
O presente estudo pode ser considerado parte da linha de pesquisa Comércio, Direitos Humanos e Desenvolvimento, temática recorrente que procura entender e analisar os impactos do comércio internacional na realização dos direitos humanos e no desenvolvimento, além de propor alternativas sobre o inter-relacionamento das três áreas. A integração positiva entre elas depende de muito mais do que a adoção de medidas preventivas contra os possíveis prejuízos advindos da liberalização. Um sistema de comércio internacional que seja realmente favorável aos direitos humanos e ao desenvolvimento entendido não apenas como benefício econômico, mas principalmente como desenvolvimento social, político e cultural , deve ir além e atuar de forma positiva e não passiva. Neste sentido, não se pode considerar a liberalização dos serviços educacionais no âmbito da Organização Mundial do Comércio (OMC), se não forem conduzidas de forma a contribuir para a realização do direito ao desenvolvimento em todas as nações e a todos os indivíduos. No entanto, evidenciada existência de um atual mercado educacional, deve-se buscar alternativas para colocar a realização do direito ao desenvolvimento um direito humano que garante a realização de diversos outros direitos humanos no topo dos objetivos do comércio internacional. Assim...

Estudo da relação entre comércio internacional, capital humano e crescimento econômico no Brasil no período de 1995 a 2006; Study of the relationship between international trade, human capital and economic growth in Brazil between 1995 thru 2006

Fraga, Gilberto Joaquim
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 18/07/2011 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.26%
Existe uma ampla literatura tratando dos efeitos da abertura comercial sobre a taxa de crescimento econômico e outra que trata dos efeitos do capital humano sobre esse crescimento. No entanto, é bastante limitada a literatura que ressalta a interligação da abertura comercial e do capital humano sobre o crescimento econômico. Os poucos trabalhos existentes nesse último grupo se concentram em análises considerando diferenças entre países. No entanto, o Brasil tem grandes dimensões e a análise dos fatores que explicam o crescimento do PIB de seus estados é de suma importância para os planejadores econômicos. Diante desse cenário, procura-se nesta tese quantificar e analisar os impactos de variações no capital humano dos indivíduos e da abertura comercial dos estados brasileiros sobre o crescimento econômico dos respectivos estados. O capital humano aqui é entendido como o número médio de anos de estudos da parcela da PEA ocupada em cada unidade da federação e a abertura comercial é definida como a proporção entre o volume de comércio internacional (exportações mais importações) em relação ao PIB dos respectivos estados. A análise compreende o período de 1995 a 2006 e os dados anuais estão organizados no formato de painel...

Relação entre normalização técnica e propriedade intelectual no ordenamento jurídico do comércio internacional; Relationship between technical standards and intelectual property in international trade law

Zibetti, Fabíola Wüst
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 11/05/2012 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.34%
Nas últimas décadas, a importância da normalização técnica para comércio internacional aumentou consideravelmente. Segundo dados da OCDE, estima-se que um total de 80% do comércio global na atualidade seja afetado por normas e regulamentos técnicos. Esse cenário justifica a preocupação dos Membros da OMC em incentivar o estabelecimento de padrões tecnológicos comuns nos diversos países, como um instrumento para evitar o incremento das barreiras técnicas e promover a facilitação do fluxo internacional de bens, serviços, investimentos e tecnologias. Contudo, o crescente envolvimento de direitos de propriedade intelectual nas normas técnicas internacionais tem preocupado algumas nações, principalmente em decorrência dos elevados custos, tensões e conflitos que resultam dessa situação, impactando de forma negativa o comércio. Sob a perspectiva do ordenamento jurídico do comércio internacional, o conflito revela-se no conjunto de obrigações que os Membros assumem no âmbito da OMC. Se os países devem obrigatoriamente utilizar como base as normas técnicas internacionais para estabelecer suas normas e regulamentos domésticos, e aquelas se encontram revestidas de direitos exclusivos privados, sua efetiva aplicação no plano doméstico depende da licença dos titulares desses direitos...

EVALUATION OF LOGISTIC PERFORMANCE INDEXES OF BRAZIL IN THE INTERNATIONAL TRADE

FARIA,ROSANE NUNES DE; SOUZA,CAIO SILVESTRE DE; VIEIRA,JOSÉ GERALDO VIDAL
Fonte: Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie Publicador: Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/02/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.29%
The importance of efficient logistics for trade growth is widely acknowledged. Literature has shown that better logistics performance is strongly associated with trade expansion, export diversification, ability to attract foreign direct investments, and economic growth. On the other hand, international trade represents a challenge to logistic operations in transporting and storing products. High logistic costs and low quality of services may be considered obstacles to international trade. This research aims to assess Brazil’s Logistics Performance Index (LPI) in relation to its major competitors in international trade. The international trade data was collected from SECEX and COMTRADE, while the LPI was provided by the World Bank. Statistical techniques such as cluster analysis and multiple comparison tests of means have been applied to analyze the data. After using LPI index for the 39 competitors, it has been observed that Brazil occupies the 26th position in the rank of performers, behind South Africa, Kuwait and Saudi Arabia. The top performers are in general the leading exporters and importers worldwide (Germany, U.S.A., Japan and the Netherlands). Furthermore, they are the strongest competitors of Brazil in international trade. Thus...

14.54 International Trade, Fall 2005; International Trade

Lorenzoni, Guido
Fonte: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology
EN-US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.26%
Introduction to the theory of international trade and finance with applications to current policy issues. From the course home page: Course Description The course will help us understand what determines the flow of goods across countries, i.e. international trade, and what determines the flow of savings and investments from one country to another, i.e. international finance. The subject is one of the oldest fields in economics and is extremely topical at the moment, with the ongoing debate on globalization, free trade agreements, the large current account deficits of the US, the prospects for exchange rates, and the calls for a new global financial architecture following the financial crises in East Asia and Argentina. In the course we will both cover the basic tools and some topics of current interest.

International Trade in Services : New Trends and Opportunities for Developing Countries

Cattaneo, Olivier; Engman, Michael; Sáez, Sebastián; Stern, Robert M.
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.31%
International trade in services also provides an assessment of how policy makers can further bolster their service industries by leveraging the changes prompted by technological advancements. The book provides policy recommendations that include the reduction of barriers to services trade across all sectors and the promotion of health- and environment-related development policies that should be promoted in parallel with a burgeoning services market. The first recommendation is considered the most important, because it focuses on the need to ensure trade openness, which helps ensure the access to services and promotes the quality of services provision through foreign and domestic competition. Moreover, the issue of temporary movement of labor is another focus of this book, given that it is one of the most important means of service exports for developing countries. This is an issue that is considered technically complex and politically sensitive because of its political and security implications. The book examines mechanisms that have been used by various countries to liberalize the temporary movement of persons and concludes that regardless of the negotiating forum- multilateral...

Exchange Rate Uncertainty and Optimal Participation in International Trade

Mundaca, Gabriela
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.32%
Instead of just focusing on the effect of exchange rate levels (undervalued or overvalued exchange rates) on trade, this paper provides an analysis of the effects of exchange rate volatility levels on international trade. Intuitively, an increase in exchange rate volatility leads to uncertainty for agents participating in international trade, and such uncertainty might have a negative impact on international trade flows and participation, thereby reducing the advantages of world-wide specialization. This is especially crucial for countries where exchange rate derivatives markets are not yet well developed and the costs of hedging exchange rate risk are very high. The model here considers optimal decisions about participation in international trade under uncertainty about the exchange rate. The main conclusion is that a high level of exchange rate volatility can deter entrepreneurs from becoming exporters, even though exporting can be highly profitable. For those already participating in international trade...

International Trade and Inclusive Growth : A Primer for Busy Policy Analysts

Lederman, Daniel
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.31%
This note provides two analytical frameworks for understanding the role of trade in promoting inclusive growth in developing economies. A working definition of inclusive growth focuses on long-term, sustained growth associated with productivity growth and employment opportunities for broad portions of households and firms within countries. International integration can promote inclusive growth when workers and firms are able to adjust to enter into growing economic activities and adopt technologies availed through international trade. The frameworks described in this note build on simple household and firm choice models, which require only basic knowledge of development economics. The discussion highlights how these frameworks can help analysts focus on research and policy questions related to the impacts of international trade across the distribution of households and firms within countries. It also discusses publicly available data sets that can be used to explore some aspects of inclusive growth. In addition...

Policy Barriers to International Trade in Services : Evidence from a New Database

Borchert, Ingo; Gootiiz, Batshur; Mattoo, Aaditya
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.29%
Surprisingly little is known about policies that affect international trade in services. Previous analyses have focused on policy commitments made by countries in international agreements but these commitments do not in many cases reflect actual policy. This paper describes a new initiative to collect comparable information on services trade policies for 103 countries, across a range of service sectors and the relevant modes of service delivery. The resultant database reveals interesting patterns in policy. Across regions, some of the fastest growing countries in Asia and the oil-rich Gulf states have the most restrictive policies in services, whereas some of the poorest countries are remarkably open. Across sectors, professional and transportation services are among the most protected in both industrial and developing countries, while retail, telecommunications and even finance tend to be more open. An illustrative set of results suggests that trade policies matter for investment flows and access to services. In particular...

International Trade and Green Growth

Copeland, Brian R.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.29%
This paper reviews the challenges and opportunities raised by international trade for developing countries considering a green growth strategy. A key concern is the effect of environmental policies on international competitiveness. For production-generated pollution, there is evidence that stringent environmental policy reduces some indicators of competitiveness, but the effect is small in most sectors. However, tightening up environmental standards is unlikely to reduce international competitiveness when pollution is generated by consumption. And where depletion of natural capital is a threat, effective environmental policy is an important component of a policy aimed at developing long-run international competitiveness. The effects of trade on environmental policy, the interaction between trade and technology transfer, and the interaction between trade and transboundary environmental problems are also reviewed. An emerging issue is the potential use of border taxes to curtail carbon leakage. The paper discusses some of the possible responses by developing countries. Some work has indicated that export taxes or voluntary export restraints applied to carbon-intensive production in non-coalition countries may be preferable to a carbon tariff regime. The paper concludes by suggesting some topics for further research.

The Role of Trade in Ending Poverty

World Bank Group; World Trade Organization
Fonte: Geneva: World Trade Organization Publicador: Geneva: World Trade Organization
Tipo: Relatório
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.25%
The expansion of international trade has been essential to development and poverty reduction. Todays economy is unquestionable global. Trade as a proportion of global GDP has approximately doubled since 1975. Markets for goods and services have become increasingly integrated through a fall in trade barriers, with technology helping drive trade costs lower. But trade is not an end in itself. People measure the value of trade by the extent to which it delivers better livelihoods, through higher incomes, greater choice, and a more sustainable future, among other benefits. For the extreme poor living on less than $1.25 a day, the central value of trade is its potential to help transform their lives and those of their families. In this way, there is no doubt that the integration of global markets through trade openness has made a critical contribution to poverty reduction. The number of people living in extreme poverty around the world has fallen by around one billion since 1990. Without the growing participation of developing countries in international trade...

The Impacts of Trade Facilitation Measures on International Trade Flows

de Sá Porto, Paulo C.; Canuto, Otaviano; Morini, Cristiano
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.33%
This paper analyzes the impacts of selected trade facilitation measures on international trade flows. A gravity model is used to estimate four equations: a pooled cross-section model; a fixed-effects model; a random effects model; and a Poisson maximum likelihood estimator. The contribution of the paper is twofold. First, the analysis uses a recent data set, a panel that includes trade data from 2011 and 2012 for 72 countries. Second, to measure the impacts of trade facilitation measures, the analysis includes dummy variables for the presence of an authorized economic operator program, the existence of a single-window program in the countries in the sample, and the existence of a mutual recognition arrangement between pairs of countries in the sample. The results show that the presence of an authorized economic operator program and the existence of a single-window program will improve countries’ trade performance. By contrast, the existence of a mutual recognition arrangement will not necessarily improve countries’ trade performance. These results suggest that...

From Conscience and International Trade Law to Global Artificial Photosynthesis in the Sustainocene

Faunce, Thomas
Fonte: ANU International Law Society Publicador: ANU International Law Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.12%
This article sets out a story of how my interest in international law commenced at the ANU Law Faculty, continued into international trade law, and then into global artificial photosynthesis. It addresses issues about the ultimate sources of law and about the future of governance of human society and its ecosystem.; ARC DP140100566

Trade facilitation: defining, measuring, explaining and reducing the cost of international trade

Sourdin, P.; Pomfret, R.
Fonte: Edward Elgar Publishing Limited; United Kingdom Publicador: Edward Elgar Publishing Limited; United Kingdom
Tipo: Livro
Publicado em //2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.3%
This up-to-date and informative book provides a comprehensive treatment of the costs of trading across borders and of trade facilitation policies. While traditional tariff and non-tariff barriers to trade have been reduced, international trade continues to involve higher costs in money and time than domestic trade. These include not only transport costs, that are determined by distance and commodity characteristics, but also at-the-border and behind-the-border costs which can be reduced by appropriate policies. Research on trade costs has flourished since the turn of the century, and this book by Patricia Sourdin and Richard Pomfret, takes stock of our increased knowledge of the nature and magnitude of trade costs, analysing why they are high and how they can be reduced to increase the gains from trade. Trade Facilitation will appeal to economists and policymakers at the national level and in multinational institutions, researchers and postgraduate students interested in international trade and trade policy, as well as students in international business.; Patricia Sourdin and Richard Pomfret

Optimal regulation and the law of international trade : a law & economics analysis of the WTO law on domestic regulation

RIGOD, Boris
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.28%
Defence date: 15 January 2014; Examining Board: Professor Petros C. Mavroidis, EUI (Supervisor) Professor Ernst-Ulrich Petersmann, EUI Professor Robert Howse, New York University Doctor Werner Zdouc, World Trade Organisation.; Background: Conflicts between domestic regulatory preferences and the law of the World Trade Organization (WTO) are numerous and a constant bone of contention. The list of regulatory objectives that potentially collide with the trade interests of other WTO members include subjects, such as human health, animal welfare and cultural diversity, to mention just a few. Aim: Against this backdrop, the question this thesis aims to answer is whether the law of the WTO on domestic regulation systematically obstructs or supports governments in attaining the optimal protection of societal and individual values. In other words, the thesis asks the question of whether the relevant WTO law is efficient. In order to provide a response to the main research question, it is necessary to address a number of sub-questions: (i) when are levels of regulation optimal?; (ii) why and under which conditions are levels of regulation distorted, i.e. sub-optimal?; (iii) why and under which conditions should member states' determination of the appropriate level of regulation be subjected to the disciplines set forth in international trade agreements?; and (iv) against this background...

Conflict of Laws as Constitutional Form: Reflections on International Trade Law and the Biotech Panel Report

JOERGES, Christian
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.31%
Hardly anywhere is the trend towards a perfection of transnational governance arrangements and their 'legalization' more visible than in international trade. Governance arrangements established through and alongside WTO law are both practically important and theoretically challenging. They do not just organise international trade relations. They also affect national and regional (European) regulatory policies partly directly, partly more indirectly. How can we explain and how should we evaluate their emergence? The WTO system of 1994, which replaced the GATT of 1947, responded to the ever increasing importance of non-tariff barriers to trade. These barriers reflect regulatory concerns especially in the fields of health and safety, consumer and environmental protection. The importance for WTO members is such that they cannot simply be abandoned for the sake of free trade. This is why the responses the new international trade system institutionalised by special agreements concerning non-tariff barriers to free trade such as the Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS) and the Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) reflect a politicisation of international trade. Can we conclude that international markets have been re-regulated and that international trade law ensures their 'social embeddedness'? The paper seeks yardsticks for an answer to these questions in the debates on transnational constitutionalism. It submits that constitutionalisation can and should be based on a conflict-of approach. For its elaboration of this suggestion...

International Harmonization of Product Standards and Firm Heterogeneity in International Trade

Reyes, Jose-Daniel
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.32%
As free trade areas have proliferated and statutory tariffs have been dramatically reduced in recent decades, non-tariff barriers (NTBs) to international trade have risen in importance. Destination-specific product standards are one of the major types of NTBs as they impose additional costs on exporters and increase the time required to bring a product to market. This paper examines the response of U.S. manufacturing firms to a reduction of this NTB by looking at the harmonization of European product standards to international norms in the electronics sector. Using a highly detailed dataset that links U.S. international trade transactions to U.S. firms and a new industry-level database of EU product standards, the author finds that harmonization increases U.S. exports to the EU and that this increase is due to more U.S. firms entering the EU market the extensive margin of trade. New entrants to the EU region are drawn mainly from the most productive set of firms already exporting to developing markets before harmonization -the extensive margin of trade composition. These firms are characterized by being smaller and less productive than the firms that were already exporting to the EU before harmonization. Furthermore...

International Trade and Wage Discrimination : Evidence from East Asia

Berik, Gunseli; Van der Meulen Rodgers, Yana; Zveglich, Joseph E., Jr.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.35%
This study explores the impact of competition from international trade on wage discrimination by sex in two highly open economies. If discrimination is costly, as posited in neoclassical theory based on Becker (1959), then increased industry competitiveness from international trade reduces the incentive for employers to discriminate against women. Alternatively, increased international trade may contribute to employment segregation and reduced bargaining power for women to achieve wage gains. The approach centers on comparing the impact of international trade on wage discrimination in concentrated and nonconcentrated sectors. The effect of international trade competition is expected to be more pronounced in concentrated sectors, where employers can use excess profits in the absence of trade to cover the costs of discrimination. Wage discrimination is proxied by the portion of the wage gap that cannot be explained by observable skill differences between men and women. The empirical model is estimated using a rich panel data set of residual wage gaps...

North-South Standards Harmonization and International Trade

Disdier, Anne-Célia; Fontagné, Lionel; Cadot, Olivier
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.37%
Recent years have seen a surge in economic integration agreements (EIAs) and the development of non-tariff measures (NTMs). As a consequence, a growing number of EIAs include provisions on NTMs. However, little attention has been given in the literature to the effects of NTM liberalization in the context of EIAs. In this paper, we focus on provisions for technical regulations and analyze whether the North-South harmonization of technical barriers affects international trade. Using a gravity equation, it tests whether, as a result of the deep integration associated with standards provisions included in the EIA, the Southern partners' trade expands with the North, but at the expense of their trade with non-bloc Southern partners. Empirical results provide strong support for this conjecture. Moreover, harmonization on the basis of regional standards negatively impacts the exports of developing countries to the North.

Essays on International trade and economic growth

Giraldo Salazar, Iader
Fonte: Facultad de Economía Publicador: Facultad de Economía
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/doctoralThesis; info:eu-repo/semantics/acceptedVersion Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 27/10/2015 SPA
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.26%
At present, we are witnessing globalization as a truly worldwide phenomenon. Trade agreements among differing countries, a reduction in trade costs, the mobility of production factors, the free flow of information and so on are all proof of the present day era of globalization. Countries are trading with one another more and more every day and the effects of international trade on economies represent a central discussion in all economic spheres. In spite of increasing trade around the world and the promotion of globalization by multilateral organisms such as WTO and IMF, the effects of international trade are not yet clear. Economics literature concerning the effects of international trade on economic growth and welfare remains ambiguous in terms of both theoretical models and empirical research. The present thesis tries to contribute to the theoretical debate surrounding the effects of dynamic international trade, focusing in particular on the implications for economic growth, welfare and changes in the preferences of individuals.