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O princípio da precaução no direito internacional do meio ambiente; The precautionary principle in international environmental law

Moraes, Gabriela Bueno de Almeida
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 09/05/2011 PT
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O propósito do princípio da precaução é evitar danos irreversíveis ao meio ambiente e à saúde humana ao permitir a ação preventiva, mesmo na ausência de certeza científica sobre as causas ou conseqüências de determinada atividade. A precaução é uma resposta às novas tecnologias e aos fenômenos que podem provocar impactos irreparáveis e incomensuráveis e que, portanto, precisam ser revistos pela comunidade internacional, Estados e indivíduos. Significa, também, envolver a participação popular nas decisões sobre quais riscos são aceitáveis em determinada sociedade e quais devem ser evitados. A base sociológica sob a qual está baseado o trabalho é a teoria de Ulrich Beck sobre a sociedade de risco global. O princípio da precaução é analisado sob os prismas dogmático e funcional: as principais características do princípio são apresentadas, bem como as críticas ao instituto; também são expostas as funções do princípio da precaução, sua eficácia social e status jurídico. A fim de explicar as dificuldades que circundam o tema dos princípios do direito internacional do meio ambiente, as principais teorias dos princípios são analisadas, concluindo-se que os princípios do DIMA necessitam de uma teoria própria. Na última parte...

O domínio polar ártico perante o direito internacional público; The arctic polar dominium under international law

Cardoso, Luis Fernando de Paiva Baracho
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/10/2012 PT
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A presente dissertação tem como objetivo o estudo da situação jurídica do Ártico perante o direito internacional público, o que nos leva tanto à análise dos regimes jurídicos internacionais aplicáveis quanto à sua eventual coordenação e aplicação por um ente jurídico internacional de cooperação próprio, o Conselho do Ártico. Para tanto, teremos como referenciais paradigmáticos o direito internacional dos espaços e o direito internacional do meio ambiente. Sendo assim, iniciamos apresentando uma série de categorias jurídicas fundamentais a fim de elucidar o estudo proposto. Entre tais categorias jurídicas, a de território e a de espaços internacionais (direito internacional dos espaços), por um lado, e a de espaço ambiental internacional e a de área de interesse comum da humanidade (direito internacional do meio ambiente) são as mais importantes. Em seguida, analisamos o Ártico perante o direito internacional dos espaços, levando em consideração os seus dois domínios principais, o terrestre e o marítimo. No capítulo posterior, abordamos o Ártico perante o direito internacional do meio ambiente, por meio da identificação e estudo dos principais tratados aplicáveis ao ecossistema ártico. Com isso...

O diálogo sustentável entre o direito do comércio internacional e o direito à água; The sustainable dialogue between international trade law and right to water.

Vieira, Andréia Costa
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 03/02/2014 PT
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O Direito Internacional Contemporâneo é um sistema pluralista e tem se defrontado com temas os mais diversos na atual agenda internacional. Um dos temas que têm merecido a preocupação do Direito Internacional é a chamada crise da água, assim entendida como a escassez, a poluição, a crise de abastecimento, a sede do setor privado para entrar nesse mercado e os diversos conflitos internacionais em torno da água. A problemática da água envolve, principalmente, três áreas distintas do Direito Internacional, a saber: o Direito do Comércio Internacional, o Direito Internacional do Meio Ambiente e o Direito Internacional dos Direitos Humanos. Para lidar com essa problemática e trazer soluções concretas à questão da água, a presente pesquisa sugere um diálogo entre essas distintas áreas do Direito. Parte do pressuposto do Direito Internacional como um sistema, apesar dos seus distintos regimes, identificando-o frente ao fenômeno da globalização e seu consequente fenômeno da governança global, emoldurado por distintos atores internacionais, distintas normas de direito e distintos fóruns de aplicação. Apresenta o Regime do Comércio Internacional e o Regime do Meio Ambiente Internacional, nos quais já se inserem as questões hídricas...

O direito à água no direito internacional; The right to water in international law.

Riva, Gabriela Rodrigues Saab
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 15/05/2014 PT
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A presente dissertação tem como tema o direito à água e objetiva compreender como se dá sua inserção no Direito Internacional. Para tanto, pretende-se analisar o tratamento dado pelo Direito Internacional do Meio Ambiente e especialmente pelo Direito Internacional dos Direitos Humanos às questões relativas ao acesso à água, assim como à prioridade na alocação dos recursos hídricos para a satisfação das necessidades humanas. Inicialmente, procede-se a uma investigação analítica das principais discussões a respeito do acesso e da preservação da água, notadamente aquelas realizadas em conferências internacionais de cunho ambiental e explicitadas nas diversas declarações da comunidade internacional. Dedica-se, ainda de forma analítica, a refazer o caminho que levou ao reconhecimento do direito à água no âmbito dos direitos humanos, com o intuito de definir as suas bases normativas e jurisprudenciais. Finalmente, visando fornecer parâmetros doutrinários, normativos e jurisprudenciais para a ampla compreensão da presença e dos contornos do direito à água no Direito Internacional, procede-se à análise de seu conteúdo em termos de direitos e obrigações, das implicações de sua afirmação como um direito humano...

La responsabilité internationale pour le dommage transfrontière médiat

Paiva Faria Netto, Adolpho
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
FR
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L’interdépendance de l’environnement a mis en évidence le besoin de la communauté internationale de trouver des mécanismes capables de dépasser les frontières et de protéger les biens naturels d’intérêt commun. Étant donné l’inefficacité du concept de patrimoine commun de l’humanité en ce qui a trait à la protection des biens soumis à la souveraineté d’un État, cette étude analyse l’application de la responsabilité internationale au « dommage transfrontière médiat » (c’est-à-dire, le dommage environnemental qui a lieu à l’intérieur d’un territoire étatique, mais qui caractérise une perte au patrimoine environnemental planétaire) comme mesure capable de surmonter les frontières et de protéger l’environnement. La responsabilité internationale se présente sous deux formes en droit international public général, soit la responsabilité des États pour les activités non interdites par le droit international (ou la responsabilité objective), soit celle découlant d’un fait internationalement illicite. Cette dernière comporte encore deux subdivisions : celle ayant pour cause une « violation d’une obligation internationale » et celle pour une « violation grave d’obligation découlant de normes impératives du droit international général ». L’analyse des principes de droit environnemental international et du principe de la souveraineté démontre que le « dommage transfrontière médiat » pourrait...

The Legal and Regulatory Framework for Environmental Impact Assessments : A Study of Selected Countries in Sub-Saharan Africa

Bekhechi, Mohammad A.; Mercier, Jean-Roger
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
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Environmental impact assessment, or EIA as it is known, is a procedures for evaluating the impact, proposed activities may have on the environment. In recent years, significant strides have been made to build a legal foundation for EIAs in Sub-Saharan Africa. Whereas EIAs typically used to be carried out only to meet requirements of foreign donors, they are now mandated in twenty two Sub-Saharan countries, as an important element of domestic environmental law, and policy. This publication traces the development of EIA, both in terms of national policies, and international law, and, analyzes EIA-related laws and regulations in those countries. The substantive components of EIA requirements, as well as the similarities, and differences of the various national statutes, are noted and commented upon. Special attention is paid to the role, and degree of public participation, for the further development of law, and policy with respect to environmental impact assessments in Sub-Saharan Africa.

The global environment and the public interest

Anton, Donald
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 179855 bytes; 387 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
EN_AU
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Introduction: Few, if any, would argue against the proposition that it is in the interest of the international community to preserve and protect the environmental integrity of the planet on which all life, including human life, is dependent. Indeed, we are witnessing an inclination towards the wide acceptance of the notion that the care of the global environment “is a common concern of humanity”; a realisation that the interdependence of the world’s ecosystems calls for cooperative international solutions (both global and regional) to a large number of current environmental problems. We move quickly into disagreement, however, when the plethora of details asserted to be necessary or unnecessary to the goals of international environmental preservation and protection are addressed specifically in order to make policy decisions and preferences. At the international level, this disagreement has been most recently and noticeably manifested in the negotiations of the Preparatory Commission (PrepCom) leading up to the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED). The point of all this, of course, is to highlight that while governments (and indeed individuals) overwhelmingly agree that it is in the interest of all to protect and preserve the environment of planet Earth...

Precaution and cooperation in the World Trade Organization: an environmental perspective

Briese, Robyn
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 526335 bytes; 351 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
EN_AU
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Introduction: The Trade Environment Nexus:- Proposition 1: Protection of the environment has become exceedingly important, and promises to be more important for the benefit of future generations. Protecting the environment involves [both national environmental regulation and] rules of international cooperation, sanction, or both, so that some government actions to enhance environmental protection will not be undermined by the actions of other governments. Sometimes such rules involve trade-restricting measures. Proposition 2: Trade liberalisation is important for enhancing world economic welfare and for providing a greater opportunity for billions of individuals to lead satisfying lives. Measures that restrict trade will often decrease the achievement of this goal. The above propositions reflect one of the major tensions that governments and international society face today in promoting sustainable development. The principle of sustainable development, a main organisational concept in international environmental law (‘IEL’), seeks to integrate environmental and socio-economic considerations through the development of human systems capable of meeting the basic needs of all individuals, both now and in the future, whilst respecting ecological integrity. Three main arguments support positive synergies between free trade and environmental protection. First...

The Future of Environmental Law: International and European Perspectives [COLLECTED REPORTS 2004-2005]

EUI - Working Group on Environmental Law
Fonte: European University Institute Publicador: European University Institute
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: 731441 bytes; application/pdf; digital
EN
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The materials collected in this Working Paper are the result of intensive and interactive discussions that took place in the Working Group on Environmental Law of the European University Institute during the 2004-2005 academic year. The contributions consider recent developments in environmental law and offer an international or European perspective on the future in the areas of: sustainable development, the reform of the United Nations, climate change, biodiversity and biotechnology, environmental justice and environmental liability.

Realism, utopia and the future of international environmental law

FRANCIONI, Francesco
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
EN
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In spite of its impressive development at the level of treaty law and soft law, international environmental law remains a weak and under-developed body of law. This is due especially to the persistent institutional “deficit” and lack of compulsory dispute settlement mechanisms that hamper effective monitoring and implementation of environmental standards. To overcome these limits, in a perspective that avoids wishful thinking, such as the project of an “international court for the environment”, and the hard realism of an unfettered sovereignty over the natural resources, this paper argues for a “realistic utopia” that recoups the original idea of the natural environment as a “common good”. Congruent with this idea is the re-discovery of the category of erga omnes obligations to be administered in the interest of the international community as a whole. At the normative level, this entails a re-conceptualisation of “sovereignty” in terms of responsible exercise of state powers over natural resources located in the national territory and over activities capable of impacting on the global environment, so as to make such exercise responsive and functional to the achievement of the goal of conserving the quality of the environment that sustain our life. At the institutional level this approach invites two responses: rejection of the need for reform of global institutions and reliance instead on market mechanisms of self-regulation and transnational private enforcement; or a search for reform of the institutional system of environmental governance in view of creating effective multilateral institutions that can mirror what has been done in other areas of international law...

Revising international environmental law through the paradigm of ecological sustainability

MONTINI, Massimiliano
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
EN
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International environmental law is undergoing a serious crisis. In order to improve its “environmental effectiveness”, the adoption of a new founding paradigm is necessary. The new paradigm ought to be based on the concept of “ecological sustainability”, grounded on the duty to protect and restore the integrity of the eco-systems. Besides setting the framework for the revision of international environmental law on the basis of the “ecological sustainability” paradigm, this paper focuses on its application in climate change law. In this sense, a critical analysis is provided on the application of the most relevant flexibility mechanisms foreseen at international level by the Kyoto Protocol, namely the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and Emissions Trading, as well as of the most interesting instruments applied at EU level, namely the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) and Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS).; The Redefining the Transatlantic Relationship and its Role in Shaping Global Governance (TRANSWORLD) project is funded by the European Union’s 7th Framework Programme under grant agreement no. 290454.

Unravelling the maze of multilateral environmental agreements: a macroscopic analysis of international environmental law and governance for the anthropocene

Rak Hyun, Kim
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Thesis (PhD)
EN_AU
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Earth has entered a new geological epoch, the Anthropocene, where humans have become a major driver of global environmental change. Many believe, however, that current international environmental law is a maze of international agreements, and it is unsuitable for navigating the Anthropocene. It is generally agreed that, for global sustainability, this institutional maze needs to be modelled in ways more appropriately aligned with the functioning of the Earth system itself. For the purpose of improving the alignment, this PhD thesis explores the structural and functional dynamics of multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs) as a systemic whole in relation to Earth system dynamics. The thesis begins with a preliminary review of international environmental law through the lens of a specific systems theory called complex adaptive systems. It then provides two parallel empirical studies on the macroscopic structure and function of the MEA system. In terms of the structure, I quantitatively analysed and characterized the topological properties of the dynamic web of 747 MEAs as approximated by 1,001 cross-references found in their texts. This network analysis provided novel insights into how MEAs have self-organized into an interlocking network with complex topology and what the emergent order looks like. In terms of the function...

Federal environmental law in Australia

Anton, Donald
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 179091 bytes; 383 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
EN_AU
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Contemporary Australian environmental law is commonly viewed by the nations' leaders as representing "best practice" environmental regulation. Many Australians consider Australia an environmental policy world leader. Others have been much less sanguine in their assessment. In a recent provocative text, for instance, two prominent academics assert that "not only is the hold of environmental considerations in Australian politics more precarious [than they have ever been], but determined attempts have been and continue to be made by elected representatives to ignore and obliterate them". The Australian Conservation Foundation, Australia's largest environmental nongovernmental organization, has also been highly critical of what it considers recent retrograde environmental law "reforms". The truth, as usual, probably lies between these two extremes. Australia, like a number of developed, western democracies, finds itself at an environmental cross-roads. Over the past three years the Federal Commonwealth Government has undertaken the first major revision of national environmental laws since their inception in the early 1970s. The revision is far from complete, but the central premise behind the current conservative Coalition Government (comprised of the Liberal Party and National Party) appears to be a determined move to a devolution of regulatory responsibility...

Nationalizing environmental protection in Australia: the international dimensions

Anton, Donald; Kohout, Jennifer; Pain, Nicola
Fonte: http://www.lclark.edu/law/law_reviews/environmental_law/ Publicador: http://www.lclark.edu/law/law_reviews/environmental_law/
Tipo: Journal article; Accepted Version; Lewis & Clark College Formato: 21 pages
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A national approach to environmental protection is the most effective way for Australia to protect its own environment and to contribute to the common cause of global environmental protection.[1] The centerpiece of this approach should be a federal environmental protection authority (EPA), able to deal with the issues which arise on a transboundary basis, both nationally and internationally. However, the powers of a national agency will need to be tailored to avoid conflict within the system of cooperative federalism in Australia. This article reviews constitutional tensions between federal and state government as they relate to several of the major international environmental conventions that bind Australia. The authors conclude that a federal authority, committed to enforcing Australia's international agreements to protect the environment, is the most effective means of addressing worldwide concern with the state of the natural world.; According to the publisher's website there are no online details available for issues prior to volume 25, 1995. (as at 05/10/10). The material in this article was presented 18 June 1991, at the Powerhouse Museum in Sydney, to a conference on the establishment and role of an national environmental protection agency which the Australian Government is presently considering.

Soberania à luz do direito internacional ambiental; Sovereignity in the light of international environmental law

Amaral, Gustavo de Souza
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 02/03/2015 PT
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Atualmente, a soberania ainda é tida como um poder supremo que qualifica cada Estado diante dos demais, porém, com o desenvolvimento do DIMA, ao longo das últimas décadas, a responsabilidade de cada Estado tornou-se uma responsabilidade de toda a sociedade internacional, com relação à proteção do meio ambiente. Desta forma, os Estados não podem mais justificar a ineficácia da proteção do meio ambiente, dentro de seu território, sob o argumento do exercício supremo de sua soberania. A Sociedade Internacional tem enfrentado dificuldades, no âmbito internacional, como resultado da crise de governabilidade, das discrepâncias e dos objetivos nada solidários demonstrados pelos Estados. Há uma tensão entre a concreta e efetiva proteção ambiental, no âmbito internacional, e o suposto entrave da soberania estatal, tensão esta fundamentada em princípios tradicionais que, se ao seu tempo já tiveram seu devido valor, atualmente, já não conseguem dar respostas mais complexas exigidas pelo constante desenvolvimento do DIMA, fazendo surgir, assim, a tentativa de se explicarem novos institutos jurídicos. A presente dissertação pretende demonstrar que a soberania e a proteção do meio ambiente não são conceitos antagônicos...

Citizenship entitlements beyond borders?: identifying mechanisms for access and redress for affected publics in international environmental law

Mason, Michael
Fonte: Lynne Rienner Publishers Publicador: Lynne Rienner Publishers
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /09/2006 EN; EN
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I argue that although international law is state centric in nature, there is a growing body of international environmental law that allows at least some input from public actors in implementing key substantive and procedural obligations. The evolution of these environmental entitlements is linked to the global diffusion of democratic norms of civic participation, the appli-cation of the nondiscrimination principle in both public and private inter-national law, and the cosmopolitan reach of human rights claims. It is at the intersection of individual and nongovernmental organization (NGO) rights with interstate obligations that transnational citizenship entitlements are emerging—notably equal opportunities for access and redress for affected publics. I critically survey relevant multilateral environmental agreements to gauge the significance of rule making bestowing entitle-ments on publics affected by transboundary and global environmental harm.

Theorising international environmental law

Humphreys, Stephen; Otomo, Yoriko
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /02/2014 EN; EN
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From The Oxford Handbook of International Legal Theory (Florian Hoffmann and Anne Orford, eds, Oxford UP, forthcoming 2014). --- This paper, part of a larger work on international law theory, sketches some early lines of inquiry towards a theoretical understanding of international environmental law. As the body of international law regulating human interaction with the natural world, one might expect this branch of law to be a cornerstone of the international system. Yet in practice, international environmental law's reach is strikingly circumscribed. Little of the governance of natural resources, for example, is 'environmental'. Subsisting at the periphery, environmental law focuses on conserving particular (rare, exotic) species and 'ecosystems', and curbing certain kinds of pollution. Its principles are vague, peppering the margins of rulings within other judicial fora: it is quintessential soft law. In this paper, we suggest that international environmental law's dilemmas are due to two competing heritages. On one hand, this law enshrines the peculiar pantheism of the European romantic period, positing the 'natural world' as sacred, inviolable, redemptive. On the other, its main antecedents are found in colonial era practices...

International environmental law and naval war: The effect of marine safety and pollution conventions during international armed conflict.

Boelaert-Suominen, Sonja Ann Jozef
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //1998 EN
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The cornerstone of modern International Environmental Law is the prohibition of transfrontier pollution, according to which States have the responsibility to ensure that activities within their jurisdiction or control do not cause damage to the environment of other States, or of areas beyond national jurisdiction. In addition, there is now a substantial body of international treaties laying down detailed regimes for various environmental sectors. Recent international conflicts have raised fundamental questions about the relationship between International Environmental Law and armed conflict. The notion that the rules of general International Environmental Law continue to apply during armed conflict is now well accepted. But the principles which are usually cited, remain at a very high level of abstraction. This thesis examines the extent to which international law has developed more detailed rules to protect the environment in international armed conflict. After a discussion of the main legal issues, the thesis concentrates on the marine environment, examining the relationship between naval warfare on the one hand, and multilateral environmental treaties on marine safety and prevention of marine pollution on the other. It concludes that the majority of these treaties do not apply during armed conflict...

A Call for Rethinking the Sources of International Law: Soft Law and the Other Side of the Coin

Cárdenas Castañeda,Fabián Augusto
Fonte: UNAM, Instituto de Investigaciones Jurídicas Publicador: UNAM, Instituto de Investigaciones Jurídicas
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2013 EN
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This article revisits the traditional conception on the study of the sources of international law by contrasting it with one of the notions that challenges classical law making: soft law. In doing so, the article presents an overall review of the concept of soft law, exploring its main features and actual legal implications. Finally, the paper formulates a series of questions whose main aim is to make a call for rethinking the sources of international law. It is posited here that such sources should not remain static but rather develop at the speed of contemporary international relations. Special reference is made to international environmental law considered as a particular branch of international law, which dynamics are to be useful and pertinent to such an endeavor.

International environmental law and global public health

Schirnding,Yasmin von; Onzivu,William; Adede,Andronico O.
Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2002 EN
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The environment continues to be a source of ill-health for many people, particularly in developing countries. International environmental law offers a viable strategy for enhancing public health through the promotion of increased awareness of the linkages between health and environment, mobilization of technical and financial resources, strengthening of research and monitoring, enforcement of health-related standards, and promotion of global cooperation. An enhanced capacity to utilize international environmental law could lead to significant worldwide gains in public health.