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Clustering entrepreneurship aspirations: innovation, growth and international orientation of activities

Nunes, Alcina; Balsa, Carlos
Fonte: Inderscience Publishers Publicador: Inderscience Publishers
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.27%
It is sometimes argued that nations differ in their underlying entrepreneurial spirit. So, in recent years, more researchers started being interested in the analysis of entrepreneurship across regions. Associated with entrepreneurship comes the concept of innovation. Innovation allows the creation of new firms and/or ensures the survival of the existing ones, and in both cases, generates growth. Applying the statistical technique of cluster analysis to a country dataset gathered by the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) this paper groups countries into four clusters regarding their entrepreneurial activity and the aspirations of national entrepreneurs concerning innovation, business growth and international orientation of their activities. This is particularly important not only because the achievement of a relevant national entrepreneurship rate depends on the social and economic business environment but also because it is not known if there are particular regions where the entrepreneurial activity is characterised by special patterns of entrepreneurship aspirations.

Clustering entrepreneurship aspirations: innovation, growth and international orientation of activities

Nunes, Alcina; Balsa, Carlos
Fonte: Academic Publishing Limited Publicador: Academic Publishing Limited
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.38%
It is sometimes argued that nations differ in their underlying entrepreneurial spirit. So, in recent years, more researchers started being interested in the analysis of entrepreneurship across countries and regions. Some of the international literature on the subject recognises that regional variation in entrepreneurship is significant and persistent, and often even exceeds national differences. Associated with entrepreneurship comes the concept of innovation. Indeed the seminal work of Schumpeter establishes conceptually the entrepreneur as an innovator. Nowadays the belief that innovation has an important role in the international entrepreneurial activity rate has been theoretical and empirically analysed/tested. Innovation allows the creation of new firms and/or ensures the survival of the existing ones. In both cases, it generates growth. Applying the statistical technique of cluster analysis to a dataset gathered by the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) and that includes, in 2010, 59 countries; this paper intends to group countries into clusters regarding their entrepreneurial activity and the aspirations of national entrepreneurs concerning innovation, business growth and international orientation of their activities. It aims to identify and characterise different international entrepreneurial aspiration profiles. Note...

Clustering entrepreneurship aspirations : innovation, growth and international orientation of activities

Nunes, Alcina; Balsa, Carlos
Fonte: Academic Publishing Limited Publicador: Academic Publishing Limited
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.19%
It is sometimes argued that nations differ in their underlying en-trepreneurial spirit. So, in recent years, more researchers started being interested in the analysis of entrepreneurship across countries and re-gions. Some of the international literature on the subject recognises that regional variation in entrepreneurship is significant and persistent, and often even exceeds national differences. Associated with entrepreneurship comes the concept of innovation. Indeed the seminal work of Schumpeter establishes conceptually the entrepreneur as an innovator. Nowadays the belief that innovation has an important role in the international entrepre-neurial activity rate has been theoretical and empirically analysed/tested. Innovation allows the creation of new firms and/or ensures the survival of the existing ones. In both cases, it generates growth. Applying the statistic-al technique of cluster analysis to a dataset gathered by the Global Entre-preneurship Monitor (GEM) and that includes, in 2010, 59 countries; this paper intends to group countries into clusters regarding their entrepre-neurial activity and the aspirations of national entrepreneurs concerning innovation, business growth and international orientation of their activi-ties. It aims to identify and characterise different international entrepre-neurial aspiration profiles. Note...

Born Globals brasileiras: estudo da internacionalização de empresas de base tecnológica; Brazilian Born globals: study of technology-based firms internationalization

Ribeiro, Fernanda Cecilia Ferreira
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 16/02/2012 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.38%
O objetivo desta tese é analisar a relação dos fatores do ambiente externo da empresa no país de origem, fatores organizacionais e fatores do empreendedor pelos quais algumas empresas de base tecnológica (EBTs) se internacionalizam de maneira acelerada desde sua fundação ou poucos anos após sua fundação. Cerca de 1000 EBTs foram aleatoriamente convidadas para responder o questionário. Ao final da coleta de dados a primeira base de dados gerada continha 214 respostas, das quais 85 foram obtidas de empresas com algum tipo de negócio no exterior, 39,7%. Destes, 54 questionários foram considerados válidos para esta pesquisa. Os resultados mostram que os fatores externos à empresa influenciam mais na internacionalização das EBTs em relação aos fatores internos. Assim, o habitat de localização, as parcerias, as políticas governamentais e a integração na cadeia de valor explicam de maneira significativa o processo de internacionalização das EBTs brasileiras. Porém, é a integração em cadeias produtivas globais o fator que melhor discrimina a internacionalização das EBTs born globals. Em relação aos fatores do empreendedor, as habilidades gerenciais internacionais do empreendedor também apareceram como importantes no processo acelerado de entrada no exterior das EBTs. Além disso...

Growing research where economies grow: essays on strategy and international expansion of companies from emerging countries

Conti, Claudio Ramos
Fonte: Fundação Getúlio Vargas Publicador: Fundação Getúlio Vargas
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.43%
In recent years, emerging countries have assumed an increasingly prominent position in the world economy, as growth has picked up in these countries and slowed in developed economies. Two related phenomena, among others, can be associated with this growth: emerging countries were less affected by the 2008-2009 global economic recession; and they increased their participation in foreign direct investment, both inflows and outflows. This doctoral dissertation contributes to research on firms from emerging countries through four independent papers. The first group of two papers examines firm strategy in recessionary moments and uses Brazil, one of the largest emerging countries, as setting for the investigation. Data were collected through a survey on Brazilian firms referring to the 2008-2009 global recession, and 17 hypotheses were tested using structural equation modeling based on partial least squares. Paper 1 offered an integrative model linking RBV to literatures on entrepreneurship, improvisation, and flexibility to indicate the characteristics and capabilities that allow a firm to have superior performance in recessions. We found that firms that pre-recession have a propensity to recognize opportunities and improvisation capabilities for fast and creative actions have superior performance in recessions. We also found that entrepreneurial orientation and flexibility have indirect effects. Paper 2 built on business cycle literature to study which strategies - pro-cyclical or counter-cyclical – enable superior performance in recessions. We found that while most firms pro-cyclically reduce costs and investments during recessions...

How Business Is Done and the ‘Doing Business’ Indicators : The Investment Climate When Firms Have Climate Control

Hallward-Driemeier, Mary; Pritchett, Lant
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.19%
This paper examines de jure and de facto measures of regulations, finding the relationship between them is neither one for one, nor linear. "Doing Business" provides indicators of the formal time and costs associated with fully complying with regulations. Enterprise Surveys report the actual experiences of a wide range of firms. First, there are significant variations in reported times to complete the same transaction by firms facing the same formal policy. Second, regulatory compliance appears "under water" as firms report actual times much less than the Doing Business reported days. Third, the data reveal substantial differences between favored and disfavored firms in the same location. Favored firms show minimal variation, so Doing Business has little predictive power for the times they report. For disfavored firms, the variation is greater, although still not significantly correlated with Doing Business. Fourth, where multiple Enterprise Surveys are available, there is little association over time...

Does It Pay Firms to Register for Taxes? The Impact of Formality on Firm Profitability

McKenzie, David; Sakho, Yaye Seynabou
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.19%
This paper estimates the impact of registering for taxes on firm profits in Bolivia, the country with the highest levels of informality in Latin America. A new survey of micro and small firms enables the authors to control for a rich set of measures of owner ability and business motivations that can affect both profits and the decision to formalize. The paper identifies the impact of tax registration on business profitability using the distance of a firm from the tax office where registration occurs, conditional on the distance to the city center, as an instrument for registration. Proximity to the tax office provides firms with more information about registration, but is argued to not directly affect profits. The findings show that tax registration leads to significantly higher profits for the firms that the instrument affects. However, there is also evidence of heterogeneous effects of tax formality on profits. Tax registration is found to increase profits for the mid-size firms in the sample, but to lower profits for both the smaller and larger firms...

Informal Firms and Financial Inclusion : Status and Determinants

Farazi, Subika
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.31%
Many firms in the developing world -- including a majority of micro, small, and medium enterprises -- operate in the informal economy. The informal firms face a variety of constraints, making it harder for them to do business and grow. Lack of access to finance is often cited as the biggest operational constraint these firms face. This paper documents the use of finance and financing patterns of informal firms, highlights differences between use of finance by formal and informal firms, and identifies the most significant characteristics of informal firms that are associated with higher use of financial services. The analysis shows that use of loans and bank accounts for business by informal firms is very low and a vast majority finances their day-to-day operations and investments through sources other than financial institutions (internal funds, moneylenders, family, and friends). A majority of informal firm owners would like their firms to become formal but do not do so as it would require them to pay taxes. Registered firms are 54 percent more likely to have a bank account and 32 percent more likely to have loans. Results also show that firm size...

Drivers of Entrepreneurship and Post-entry Performance of Newborn Firms in Developing Countries

Quatraro, Francesco; Vivarelli, Marco
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.54%
The aim of this paper is to provide an updated survey of the "state of the art" in entrepreneurial studies with a particular focus on developing countries (DCs). In particular, the concept of "entrepreneurship" is critically discussed, followed by a discussion of the institutional, macroeconomic, and microeconomic conditions that affect the entry of new firms and the post-entry performance of newborn firms. The reviewed literature bears some policy implications for the support of the creation new firms, such as the targeting of policy measures to prospective entrepreneurs who possess high education levels, long previous job experience, and innovative skills. Specifically, for DCs, tailored subsidies and support should be coupled with framework and infrastructural policies that are able to improve the business environment such that new ventures can start and grow.

Closing the Credit Gap for Formal and Informal Micro, Small, and Medium Enterprises

Stein, Peer; Ardic, Oya Pinar; Hommes, Martin
Fonte: International Finance Corporation, Washington, DC Publicador: International Finance Corporation, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.22%
Job creation and economic growth through private sector development have become primary areas of focus for policy makers around the world in the aftermath of the global financial crisis. Recent evidence points to the importance of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in providing employment across countries. In addition to employing the largest number of people in aggregate, SMEs generate the most new jobs. But SMEs also face many challenges in day-to-day operations and to grow. This note is a report back on the state of the credit gap for MSMEs with this new and updated data, while providing additional focus on the sizable informal enterprise sector in the developing world. In addition, this report examines various operational challenges that small and informal firms face, and some formalization obstacles they often cite as the primary reasons for not registering their business. A framework to differentiate the informal sector is offered, with the intention of segmenting the vast landscape of informal firms some of which exist today due to opportunistic behavior...

Small and Medium Enterprise Finance

Global Partnership for Financial Inclusion; International Finance Corporation
Fonte: International Finance Corporation, Washington, DC Publicador: International Finance Corporation, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.03%
This update considers new findings since the initial Stocktaking report, substantiating the contribution of the private sector, and of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in particular, for new jobs and investment. These findings further illustrate the key role access to finance plays in SMEs abilities and willingness to add jobs including the special circumstances of fast-growing SMEs, or gazelles. The new findings further detail availability and gaps in SME financing, including for specific subsectors such as women-owned firms and agri-enterprises. New trends include progress made in recent years to improve financial markets infrastructure, and expanded lending in countries such as China, which have made progress in this area. The findings also include key private sector innovations pioneered by the SME Finance Challenge winners and other private sector institutions, focusing on key sector opportunities (such as agribusiness and energy), product innovation (such as expanded local currency options), and risk management alternatives. The new findings and trends highlight the potential of collaborative platforms that have emerged from the G-20/GPFI (Global Partnership for Financial Inclusion) process to combine resources to improve SME access to finance...

Entrepreneurial orientation and international entrepreneurial business venture startup

Kropp, F.; Lindsay, N.; Shoham, A.
Fonte: Emerald Group Publishing Limited Publicador: Emerald Group Publishing Limited
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2008 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.34%
Purpose – This study seeks to examine the interrelationships among three elements of an entrepreneurial orientation (proactiveness, innovativeness, and risk-taking), age and education of the entrepreneur, and the international entrepreneurial business venture (IEBV) start-up decision. Design/methodology/approach – Data were collected from a sample of 539 individuals from dynamic internationally focused South African firms. Since the dependent variable is non-metric and the independent variables associated with the IEBV new entry decision are metric, multiple discriminant analysis was used to test new entry decisions. Findings – Results indicate that the start-up decision is positively related to the proactiveness and risk-taking components of an entrepreneurial orientation and the age of the lead entrepreneur and negatively related to the education of the lead entrepreneur. As predicted, the innovativeness component of entrepreneurial orientation is not a factor in the start-up decision. Practical implications – Investors can determine the likelihood of venture start-up by examining the proactiveness and risk-taking dimensions of entrepreneurial orientation and the age and education of the lead entrepreneur. Since older and less educated entrepreneurs have a greater likelihood of starting ventures...

Entrepreneurial, market, and learning orientations and international entrepreneurial business venture performance in South African firms

Kropp, F.; Lindsay, N.; Shoham, A.
Fonte: Emerald Group Publishing Limited Publicador: Emerald Group Publishing Limited
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2006 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.5%
Purpose – This study examines the interrelationships between aspects of entrepreneurial, market, and learning orientations, and international entrepreneurial business venture (IEBV) performance. Design/methodology/approach – Data were collected from 396 entrepreneurs and 143 senior managers from early stage, growth-oriented firms in the Republic of South Africa. These firms had an international focus in that 20 per cent began exporting from their inception and the remaining 80 per cent either began exporting within three years of inception or planned to export within three years of inception. Given the multidimensional nature of IEBV performance, structural equation modeling (AMOS) was used to test the measurement and substantive models. Findings – Results indicate that IEBV performance is positively related to the innovativeness component of an entrepreneurial orientation (EO), a market orientation, and a learning orientation. Contrary to expectations, the communications aspect of EO is inversely related to objective performance measures. Research limitations/implications – By design, only successful IEBVs in South Africa were studied, potentially limiting generalizability. Practical implications – Financiers can enhance the probability of success by assigning a greater weight to an entrepreneur's creativity. Originality/value – This is the first examination of the role of all three orientations and multidimensional measures of objective and subjective performance. It examines South Africa...

Entrepreneurship, Public Policy, and Cities

Lerner, Josh
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.32%
Since the 2008-09 global financial crises, interest among policy makers in promoting innovative, ventures has exploded. The emerging great hubs of entrepreneurial activity, like Bangalore, Dubai, Shanghai, Silicon Valley, Singapore, and Tel Aviv, bear the unmistakable stamp of the public sector. Enlightened government intervention played a key role in each region's emergence. But for each effective government intervention, dozens, even hundreds, disappointed, with substantial public spending bearing no fruit. This paper sheds light on how governments can avoid mistakes in stimulating entrepreneurship. In recent decades, efforts have increased to provide the world's poorest with financing and other assistance to facilitate their entry into entrepreneurship or the growth of their small ventures. These are typically subsistence businesses offering services like snack preparation or clothing repair. Such businesses typically allow business owners and their families to get by, but little else. The public policy literature...

Gender in Bolivian Production : Reducing Differences in Formality and Productivity of Firms

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.24%
A main goal of this study is to determine the variables responsible for the lower formality of women-owned businesses. The companion study (the World Bank 2007a) shows that Bolivia's informal sector is the largest in Latin America by many definitions and measures. It also provides a rationale for promoting formality given the many negative effects of a high rate of informality. These negative effects include a lower growth potential as informal firms tend to be less productive owing to limited access to physical, financial, and human capital, and a smaller scale of operations; negative fiscal impacts as informal firms "free ride" on services provided with fiscal resources; and negative social externalities, including weaker rule of law and public institutions, increased corruption, and weakened ability to enforce contracts. A second goal of this study is to identify gender-based productivity constraints that hinder the growth of female-owned businesses. First, author's analysis of the impact of formality on profitability shows that the gains of formalization for most female-owned businesses increase as the firms grow. Second...

The Demand for, and Consequences of, Formalization among Informal Firms in Sri Lanka

de Mel, Suresh; McKenzie, David; Woodruff, Christopher
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.29%
The majority of firms in most developing countries are informal. The authors of this paper conducted a field experiment in Sri Lanka that provided incentives for informal firms to formalize. Offering only information about the registration process and reimbursement for direct registration costs had no impact on formalization. Adding payments equivalent to one-half to one month's profits for the median firm led to registration of around one-fifth of firms. A larger payment equivalent to two months' median profits induced half the firms to register. The main reasons for not formalizing when offered incentives included issues related to ownership of land and concerns about facing labor taxes in the future. The degree of bureaucracy in the registration process also seems to matter for those with the incentive to register, with response to the incentives higher in Colombo, where the registration process was easier, than in Kandy. Three follow-up surveys, at 15 to 31 months after the intervention, measure the impact of formalizing on these firms. Although mean profits increased...

Entrepreneurship, Public Policy, and Cities

Lerner, Josh
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.26%
Since the 2008-09 global financial crises, interest among policy makers in promoting innovative, high-potential ventures has exploded. The emerging great hubs of entrepreneurial activity, like Bangalore, Dubai, Shanghai, Silicon Valley, Singapore, and Tel Aviv, bear the unmistakable stamp of the public sector. Enlightened government intervention played a key role in each region's emergence. But for each effective government intervention, dozens, even hundreds, disappointed, with substantial public spending bearing no fruit. This paper sheds light on how governments can avoid mistakes in stimulating entrepreneurship. In recent decades, efforts have increased to provide the world's poorest with financing and other assistance to facilitate their entry into entrepreneurship or the growth of their small ventures. These are typically subsistence businesses offering services like snack preparation or clothing repair. Such businesses typically allow business owners and their families to get by, but little else. The public policy literature...

The international entrepreneurial firms' social networks

Ferreira,Manuel Portugal; Santos,João Carvalho; Serra,Fernando A. Ribeiro
Fonte: Fundação Getulio Vargas, Escola Brasileira de Administração Pública e de Empresas Publicador: Fundação Getulio Vargas, Escola Brasileira de Administração Pública e de Empresas
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/03/2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.34%
This paper investigates theoretically the importance and impact of the international entrepreneurial firms' (IEFs) social networks on selected firms' strategies. We focus specifically on some core attributes of IEFs and the impact of social networks on such strategies as the choice of the foreign markets to operate and the foreign entry modes. The social networks are a major driver of the internationalization from inception and help in overcoming a variety of physical and social resource limitations as well as transactional hazards. We conclude that it is likely that both some fundamental characteristics of the IEFs and those of the foreign markets entered account for these firms reliance on their social networks.

The international entrepreneurial firm's social networks

Ferreira, Manuel Portugal; Serra, Fernando Ribeiro; Santos, João Carvalho
Fonte: Instituto Politécnico de Leiria. globADVANTAGE - Center of Research in International Business & Strategy Publicador: Instituto Politécnico de Leiria. globADVANTAGE - Center of Research in International Business & Strategy
Tipo: Outros
Publicado em /12/2007 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
86.36%
This paper investigates theoretically the importance and impact of the international entrepreneurial firms’ (IEFs) social networks on selected firms’ strategies. We focus specifically on some core attributes of IEFs and the impact of social networks on such strategies as the choice of the foreign markets to operate and the foreign entry modes. The social networks are a major driver of the internationalization from inception and help in overcoming a variety of physical and social resource limitations as well as transactional hazards. We conclude that it is likely that both some fundamental characteristics of the IEFs and those of the foreign markets entered account for these firms reliance on their social networks.

The influence of entrepreneurial intensity and capabilities on internationalisation and firm performance

Urban,Boris; Sefalafala,Mpho R
Fonte: South African Journal of Economic and Management Sciences Publicador: South African Journal of Economic and Management Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.38%
International entrepreneurship represents the process of discovering and creatively exploiting opportunities that exist outside a firm's national borders in order to obtain a competitive advantage. Firms in emerging economies are increasingly looking towards internationalisation since they are faced with rising competition in their domestic markets and attracted to opportunities in foreign markets. This article investigates international entrepreneurship by examining how the influence of entrepreneurial intensity and capabilities at the firm level influence performance, while at the same time considering environmental influences on this relationship. Based on past theoretical and empirical findings, hypotheses are formulated and then tested using correlational and regression analysis. Generally, the results support the hypotheses where both entrepreneurial intensity and capabilities are positively related to internationalisation and firm performance, while weak evidence is found for environmental hostility as a moderating influence. Several recommendations are made in light of the findings, where it is suggested that firms foster higher levels of innovativeness, risk-taking and proactiveness while developing human, social and technology related capabilities in order to enhance their performance and increase their levels of internationalisation.