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Direito internacional dos direitos humanos: uma discussão sobre a relativização da soberania face à efetivação da proteção internacional dos direitos humanos; International law of human rights: a discussion about the sovereignty relativity in face of the effectiveness of the international protection of the human rights.

Taiar, Rogerio
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 30/06/2009 PT
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A presente tese tem como objeto de estudo o direito internacional dos direitos humanos, trazendo como proposição a apresentação de uma nova concepção sobre a soberania. A justificativa que levou à escolha do tema e desenvolvimento do texto aflorou da verificação de diversas teorias emergentes na tentativa de melhor conceber o exercício contemporâneo da soberania estatal, diante da cada vez mais indispensável proteção dos direitos humanos no plano internacional. Esta constatação instigou o aprofundamento do assunto no sentido de contribuir para com o rompimento do dogma da soberania aliada à característica da supremacia, definição persistente que tem justificado a inefetividade do direito internacional dos direitos humanos. A pretensão foi buscar subsídios para a construção de um novo conceito de soberania estatal redesenhado a partir do paradigma da revitalização da soberania em decorrência da efetivação da proteção internacional dos direitos humanos. O texto demonstra que a tensão existente entre a efetivação concreta dos direitos humanos na esfera internacional e a suposta barreira da soberania estatal emerge da tentativa de se explicar institutos jurídicos novos com fundamentos principiológicos tradicionais que...

O domínio polar ártico perante o direito internacional público; The arctic polar dominium under international law

Cardoso, Luis Fernando de Paiva Baracho
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/10/2012 PT
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A presente dissertação tem como objetivo o estudo da situação jurídica do Ártico perante o direito internacional público, o que nos leva tanto à análise dos regimes jurídicos internacionais aplicáveis quanto à sua eventual coordenação e aplicação por um ente jurídico internacional de cooperação próprio, o Conselho do Ártico. Para tanto, teremos como referenciais paradigmáticos o direito internacional dos espaços e o direito internacional do meio ambiente. Sendo assim, iniciamos apresentando uma série de categorias jurídicas fundamentais a fim de elucidar o estudo proposto. Entre tais categorias jurídicas, a de território e a de espaços internacionais (direito internacional dos espaços), por um lado, e a de espaço ambiental internacional e a de área de interesse comum da humanidade (direito internacional do meio ambiente) são as mais importantes. Em seguida, analisamos o Ártico perante o direito internacional dos espaços, levando em consideração os seus dois domínios principais, o terrestre e o marítimo. No capítulo posterior, abordamos o Ártico perante o direito internacional do meio ambiente, por meio da identificação e estudo dos principais tratados aplicáveis ao ecossistema ártico. Com isso...

Teoria geral do estado aplicada à unidade sistêmica do direito internacional; General theory of the state and the systemic unity of international law.

Vasconcelos, Raphael Carvalho de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 13/05/2014 PT
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66.2%
Ultrapassado o debate em torno de seu caráter jurídico, impõem-se ao direito das gentes, na atualidade, perspectivas desafiadoras de seus contornos sistêmicos. Como ponto de partida teórico deste estudo, adotou-se a verificação da natureza dos conceitos utilizados pelas teorias fragmentárias do direito internacional que tendem a desestabilizar sua característica de unicidade. Política e direito conformam preceitos que não apenas interagem, mas muitas vezes se identificam. Propõe-se investigar, para tanto, em que medida o resgate de estruturas jurídico-políticas tradicionais como aquelas da teoria geral do estado poderia contribuir à institucionalização da ordem mundial. O trabalho se realiza sob o método dedutivo-indutivo de pesquisa. A partir das referências teóricas estabelecidas pela teoria geral do estado e de sua aplicação ao direito internacional e às propostas doutrinárias fragmentárias, estabelecem-se marcos particulares, os quais são analisados na busca de constatações mais abrangentes e gerais quanto à relação existente entre política e direito. O trabalho divide-se em três partes distintas. Na seção inicial, apresentam-se os elementos teóricos que embasam a pesquisa. Busca-se fixar na primeira parte do capítulo inaugural a perspectiva do direito como um sistema e...

Obligation and the political authority of international law

Reus-Smith, Christian
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 298010 bytes; 349 bytes; 349 bytes; 349 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream; application/octet-stream; application/octet-stream
EN_AU
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Why do states feel obliged to obey the rules of international law? The political elites who act in the name of states, their counterparts in international organisations and non-governmental organisations, and their ever more internationally-attuned populations all speak and act as though international law incurs real obligations. Yet existing accounts of international legal obligation suffer from the problem of ‘interiority’, in that they first ground obligation in some internal feature of the international legal system—such as sanction, consent, or discourse—but when these turn out to be insufficient they fall back on arguments about the legitimacy of the system as a whole, for which they cannot account. The roots of this problem lie in the underlying conceptions of politics that inform these accounts, and to overcome this problem I advance an alternative, ‘interstitial’ understanding politics which integrates ‘idiographic’, ‘purposive’, ‘moral’, and ‘instrumental’ forms of reason and action. This in turn allows the development of an ‘holistic’ conception of institutional rationality and an ‘anterior’ theory of international legal obligation. These innovations enable us to explain the relationship between historically grounded modes of politics and the legitimacy of particular institutional forms...

From Conscience and International Trade Law to Global Artificial Photosynthesis in the Sustainocene

Faunce, Thomas
Fonte: ANU International Law Society Publicador: ANU International Law Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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This article sets out a story of how my interest in international law commenced at the ANU Law Faculty, continued into international trade law, and then into global artificial photosynthesis. It addresses issues about the ultimate sources of law and about the future of governance of human society and its ecosystem.; ARC DP140100566

Great expectations : the fair and equitable treatment standard in the international law of foreign investment

TUDOR, Ioana
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.17%
The treatment of foreign investors and of their investments on the territory of a host State is often subject to a bilateral investment treaty (BIT) signed by the national State of the investors and the host State. These BITs usually contain a clause in which the two States offer fair and equitable treatment (FET) to the foreign investors on their territory. Moreover, this clause has become a norm of customary law, implying that investors may rely on it even outside the context of the BIT. Foreign investors whose rights under this clause have not been respected may bring the State in front of an international tribunal. This dissertation analyses not only the conventional and customary framework se the FET clause but also its scope and all its applications in the existing case law. This dissertation tackles the standard of fair and equitable treatment by applying four conceptual frames: the legal basis of FET, its nature as a standard, its content and finally the implications of its breach. The first two chapters explore the two classical sources of international law as possible sources for FET. The main sources of FET lie in a rich conventional framework, mainly bilateral and regional. Yet the high number of BITs does not appear to offer a uniform model of FET clauses...

Westphalia, Dualism and Contextual Interpretation: How to Better Engage International Law in Domestic Judicial Decisions

BEAULAC, Stephane
Fonte: European University Institute Publicador: European University Institute
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: 199538 bytes; application/pdf; digital
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The matrix within which the states operate and international affairs are conducted continues to be based on the Westphalian model, with its external-internal dichotomy. Consequently, the constitutional mandate of domestic courts is to interpret and apply domestic law, not international law. It is if, and to the extent that national legal rules of reception allow international law to be part of national law that the latter may have an impact domestically. This dualist logic is challenged by globalisation and inter/supra/transnational governance. Question: What are the changes required in the methodology of interpretation and application of law that would allow judges to better contribute to the actualisation of such normative inter-permeability? The paper argues that only a slight adjustment in the methodology of interpretation and application of law is needed for domestic courts to better engage international law. Indeed, a reinforced argument of contextual interpretation constitutes the appropriate means to operationalise a systematic role for international law in domestic judicial decision-making.

The Unity of Application of International Law at the Global Level and the Responsibility of Judges; Unité d’Application du Droit International à l’Echelle Globale et Responsabilité des Juges

DUPUY, Pierre-Marie
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf; digital
EN
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66.21%
This article analyses the relationship between Courts and tribunals in the interpretation and application of international law. The goal here is of crucial importance: that of guaranteeing the unity of international law and avoid fragmentation. This relationship is considered at two levels. The first level is vertical: how do national courts perceive and react to international law? In an ideal approach, based on a federalist model, there would be an organic hierarchy insuring that national judges accept and apply international law, under the control of the relevant international jurisdictions. If this model is not a reality today, it is misguided to believe that there are not any signs of its possible future realisation. Inspired by George Scelle’s role splitting theory, according to which national institutions act as the agents of the international legal order, this article shows the multiplicity of cases where the local judge is indeed directly called upon to give effect to international law. Classical institutions, such as the exhaustion of local remedies, but mostly new developments linked to the institutionalisation of the international community, in fields such as peace and security, the multilateralisation of obligations and its consequences on state responsibility...

The Role of the International Criminal Judge in the Formation of Customary International Law; Le Rôle du Juge Pénal International dans la Formation du Droit International Coutumier

ARAJÄRVI, Noora Johanna
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf; digital
EN
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The thrust of this Paper is to analyse the transformation of international custom construction and creation from the model of state practice supported by opinio iuris to a new concept reflected in the judicial decision of the international criminal tribunals, with the main emphasis being on the case law of the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia. The following questions are examined in analysing the interpretation, application, and in some instances, also the creation of customary international norms: from which sources do the judges look for evidence of customary international law? Is the requisite of actual state practice diminishing? What is the significance of international treaties, reports of international committees, and international case-law as sources of custom? Does the case law of the tribunals show that the role of the judge is more prevalent than traditionally in the formation of customary international law, at least in the area of international criminal law? The first part of the paper offers an analysis of customary law in the International Military Tribunal of Nuremberg, which, along with many post-Second World War legal instruments, case law, and academic commentary, has contributed to and clarified the content of customary norms in international criminal law. The second part reviews the decisions of the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia in relation to the concept...

The Interrelationship between EU Law And Private International Law in Contractual Obligations: Private autonomy, overriding mandatory provisions and a European justice area

KUIPERS, Jan-Jaap
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN
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The aim of this research is to analyse the interrelationship between Private International Law and European Union law in the area of contractual obligations. The Rome I Regulation on the Law Applicable to Contractual Obligations is used to delimit the scope of research. The material rules of Rome I will be discussed in order to demonstrate that the instrument follows the traditional European conflict of laws approach without any specific orientation towards internal market objectives. The influence of Union law upon PIL goes however beyond positive harmonisation, being the codification of conflict of law norms on the European level. In the analysis of the effects of Union law upon the conflict of law process, a distinction will be drawn between international and =European‘ contracts. As regards international contracts Rome I could be used to establish the international scope of application of secondary Union law when the contract involves a link with a third country. However the legislator seems to have given preference to an autonomous approach based upon the object and purpose of the relevant instrument. These directives create nuisance in the conflict of law process and it will be proposed to integrate sector specific scope rules in Rome I. With regard to contracts that exclusively have connections with two or more Member States it will be analysed to what extent rules of contract law are caught by the fundamental freedoms. It will be argued that primary law does not favour ex ante the application of the law of a specific Member State...

Beyond history and sovereignty : China and the future of international law

MULLER, Wim
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN
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Examining Board: Professor Martin Scheinin, EUI Supervisor Professor (emeritus) Francesco Francioni, EUI Professor Wenqi Zhu, Renmin University China Dr. Jonas Grimheden, EU Fundamental Rights Agency, Vienna.; Defence date: 19 September 2013; Since the beginning of its 'reform and opening up’ policy in 1978, the People’s Republic of China has grown into a major power in international relations. This thesis explores the implications of this development for public international law, which itself has grown and undergone structural changes since the end of the Second World War. The number of actors has grown, the place of the individual has been enhanced and efforts have been made towards the development of normative hierarchy and in the views of some even constitutionalisation. Yet the PRC has retained an outlook firmly rooted in the concept of state sovereignty, emphasising non-interference and equality of states. This approach stems from the history of China’s encounter with the international legal order in the nineteenth century, when its own sinocentric world order fell victim to its violent encounter with western international law. The current international legal order still retains traces of the legacy of imperialism, although international law has also served as a vehicle for the realisation of the humanitarian ideals of its practitioners and participants. In China’s sovereigntist approach to international law...

The concept of cultural genocide : an international law perspective

NOVIC, Elisa
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN
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66.17%
Defence date: 10 June 2014; Examining Board: Professor Francesco Francioni, EUI (Supervisor) Professor A. Dirk Moses, EUI (Co-Supervisor) Professor Yvonne Donders, University of Amsterdam Professor Ana F. Vrdoljak, University of Technology, Sydney.; This thesis seeks to determine whether the evolution of international law has allowed for the concept of cultural genocide to be addressed in spite of its non-codification. It firstly provides an assessment of the evolution of the concept of cultural genocide, from a technique to a process of genocide, also known as 'ethnocide'. Acknowledging that the codification of the concept is unlikely in the future, it therefore undertakes a study of the evolution of international law with regard to the main components of the concept, namely genocide, culture and group. The evolution of the legal concept of 'genocide' raises the question of the interpretation of the international definition of genocide, which is enshrined in the 1948 Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, so as to encompass instances of cultural destruction. The state of international and domestic judicial practice illustrates the limits of an evolutionary interpretation. In contrast, international law has evolved considerably in relation to the protection of some groups and their culture...

Houston, we have a problem: the compatibility of the report of the expect panel on asylum seekers with international law

Jehne, Mark
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
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The Houston Panel's Report provides the next chapter in Australian asylum seeker policy, which has been a central political issue over the last decade. The Houston Panel was appointed in the wake of a political and humanitarian crisis - the Government's burden sharing arrangement with Malaysia had been rejected by the High Court and many asylum seekers had perished at sea on boat journeys to Australia. The Houston Panel was tasked with establishing a policy that would prevent deaths of asylum seekers at sea. This paper analyses the compatibility of the Panel's recommendations with international law. International human rights law provides protections for refugees through various treaties. Although the human rights framework has been critiqued by both the humanitarian and state sovereignty perspectives, the human rights framework protects refugees better than humanitarianism and withstands the criticisms of those who advocate the primacy of state interests and state autonomy over asylum seeker protection. Central recommendations of the Houston Panel's Report are analysed in light of Australia's obligations under international law. The Report considers policies relating to regional processing, the no advantage principle, temporary protection...

Protecting whales by hue and cry – is there a role for non-state actors in the enforcement of international law?

Anton, Donald
Fonte: ANU College of Law; http://www.ssrn.com/link/Australian-Nat-U-LEG.html Publicador: ANU College of Law; http://www.ssrn.com/link/Australian-Nat-U-LEG.html
Tipo: Other; Working/Technical Paper Formato: 10 pages
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The 2009/10 whaling season in the Southern Ocean witnessed a dramatic escalation in the clashes between the Japanese whaling fleet and the Sea Shepherd Conservation Society. In January a collision between the Sea Shepherd’s Ady Gil and the Japanese whaler Shonan Maru No. 2 resulted in the sinking of the Ady Gil. Then in February the skipper of the Ady Gil, Pete Bethune, boarded the Shonan Maru No. 2 to effect a ‘citizen’s arrest’ of its Master whilst also presenting a demand for compensation. This paper considers the place, if any, for the sort of hue and cry enforcement of international law envisioned by Sea Shepherd.

International Law as a Source of Constitutional Law; El Derecho Internacional como fuente del Derecho Constitucional

Monroy Cabra, Marco Gerardo
Fonte: Universidade do Rosário Publicador: Universidade do Rosário
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 24/10/2008 SPA
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This article has the purpose to prove that the Customary International Law and the Conventional International Law are sources of Constitutional Law. First, it analyses the matter of the relations between International Law and National or Domestic law according with the theories dualism and monist and international decisions. Then, it studies the reception and the hierarchy of International Customary and Conventional Law to Domestic Law including Constitution. This matter has been studied according with several Constitutions and the international doctrine. Then, it considers the constitutional regulations about international law in the Constitution of the Republic of Colombia. The general conclusion is that International Law is incorporated in domestic law according with the Constitution of each country. But every state has the duty to carry out in good faith its obligations arising from treaties and other sources of International Law, and it may not invoke provisions in its Constitutions or its Laws as an excuse for failure to perform this duty. Accordingly, state practice and decided cases have established this provision, and the same rule is established in articles 27 and 46 of the Vienna Convention on Law of Treaties of 1969.; El presente trabajo trata de demostrar que el Derecho Internacional ha llegado a constituirse en fuente del Derecho Constitucional. Para este efecto...

The Social Power of Bodin's 'Sovereignty' and International Law

Beaulac, Stéphane
Fonte: Melbourne Journal of International Law Publicador: Melbourne Journal of International Law
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 291513 bytes; application/pdf
EN
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The word ‘sovereignty’ provides a forceful example of the social power of language as an organic instrument playing a leading role in the continuous and continuing process of creating and transforming human reality. The paper examines a pivotal episode in the history of the word ‘sovereignty’ — its formal introduction in the 16th century by Jean Bodin in his Six Livres de la Republique. It focuses on the social effects ‘sovereignty’ has had on the shared consciousness of humanity, including that of the international community. The proposed metalogical inquiry adopts a method that draws from the hermeneutic school of historical knowledge. The argument is that Bodin used ‘sovereignty’ for the purpose of attributing to the ruler (the French king) supreme power in the hierarchical organisational structure of society. This idea of a pyramid of authority is found in different elements of the discourse in Six Livres de la Republique, which is examined in the immediate context of Bodin’s personal background as well as the extended social, political and intellectual context of 16th century France. The conclusion shows that Bodin’s work was the first seminal step in the development of contemporary ideas of ‘internal sovereignty’ and ‘external sovereignty’. It is thus part of the history of the true power that the word at hand has exercised in framing the international state system and hence the international legal system.

THE RESPONSIBILITY TO PROTECT AND THE USE OF FORCE IN INTERNATIONAL LAW

Piancastelli, Luís Paulo Bogliolo; Universidade de Brasília
Fonte: Revista dos Estudantes de Direito da UnB; Journal of Law Students from University of Brasilia Publicador: Revista dos Estudantes de Direito da UnB; Journal of Law Students from University of Brasilia
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Avaliado por Pares Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 10/02/2010 POR
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The following article deals with the developments in recent years on the debate concerning humanitarian intervention and the framework of public international law regarding the use of force. It specifically focuses on how the doctrine of the Responsibility to Protect (R2P) has developed over the years and why it cannot be seen as a contribution to the affirmation of a so-called “right” of humanitarian intervention

Hybrid norms in international law

Heyvaert, Veerle
Fonte: Department of Law, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Department of Law, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /01/2009 EN; EN
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The paper analyses the emergence of legal provisions in international law that can neither be categorised as hard law or soft law, but contain elements of both. It identifies such provisions as 'hybrid norms.' The paper examines common but differentiated responsibilities (CBDRs) for financial and technical assistance under the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants, and argues that the implementation of State responsbilities for assistance through a heterarchical implementation network, involving the cooperation between State and transnational actors, hybridises the international legal framework. While hybridisation is a productive response to the challenge of regulating global risks, it also puts pressure on the adoption of enforcement mechanisms and problematises the communicative role of international law. The paper preliminarily maps out three responses to the challenges of hybridisation: a conservative response, a contractual one, and an administrative response.

We are teachers of International Law

Craven, Matthew; Simpson, Gerry; Marks, Susan; Wilde, Ralph
Fonte: Cambridge University Press for The Foundation of the Leiden Journal of International Law Publicador: Cambridge University Press for The Foundation of the Leiden Journal of International Law
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2004 EN; EN
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In the general debate prior to the onset of war in Iraq, we made public our view, in a letter to the Guardian newspaper, that the war could be justified neither by reference to earlier UN Security Council resolutions nor by way of the doctrine of self-defence. In this article we reflect on some of the anxieties we experienced both before and after that ‘intervention’ in terms of the vision of international law we might unwillingly promote, and in terms of the role we appeared to assume for ourselves, and our professional colleagues, in public debate. Despite our efforts to prevent legal issues from dominating, we came to be viewed as the defenders of an anti-hegemonic legality – resisting the erosion by an opportunistic coalition of the principles of sovereignty, non-intervention, and collective security. We were concerned that this made us appear champions of international law in a way with which none of us was entirely comfortable. On the other hand, in contesting that, we seemed in danger of valorising a politics of expertise that gave international lawyers a privileged position within the debate. We reflect, then, on the consequences, intentional or otherwise, of our intervention, and explore the dilemmas associated with it. The problem with which we finally grapple is whether the relationship between critical scholarship and the techniques associated with it (anti-formalism...

The interplay between international law and labour law in South Africa: piercing the diplomatic immunity veil

Gericke,SB
Fonte: PER: Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad Publicador: PER: Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2014 EN
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This article investigates the interplay between labour law and international law in the context of the diplomatic employment relationship. The overriding effect of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996 as supreme law to protect the labour rights of employees is weighed against the effect of various binding international legal instruments aimed at protecting diplomats' right to immunity. In view of the competing rights of employees and diplomatic employers, the question in this regard is to what extent employees in a diplomatic employment relationship can rely on their right to "fair labour practices" in the broad sense and the overall protection afforded to employees whose rights are infringed. In view of the perception that diplomatic employers can hide behind a veil of diplomatic immunity and in the absence of judgments by the Commission for Conciliation, Mediation and Arbitration (CCMA) and the Labour Court, answers and guidelines were sought from various international courts and legal instruments. However, it is pointed out that the application of labour law and international law to protect the interests of individuals against a state is an exceptionally sensitive and controversial issue. It is suggested that the international relationship between two states be used as a holistic framework...