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Is the international business environment the actual context of IB research?

Ferreira, Manuel Portugal; Li, Dan; Guisinger, Stephen
Fonte: Instituto Politécnico de Leiria. globADVANTAGE - Center of Research in International Business & Strategy Publicador: Instituto Politécnico de Leiria. globADVANTAGE - Center of Research in International Business & Strategy
Tipo: Outros
Publicado em /08/2007 ENG
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The International Business Environment (IBE) is argued to be the essential context for international business (IB) studies and the distinguishing factor from other management studies, and from studies of large scale enterprises. In this paper we argue for a greater environmental focus and illustrate how and how much the IBE has been included in published IB research. While extant research has often taken a uni-dimensional view, which has been mostly anchored in the cultural environment, we suggest that: (a) there is a need to developed more uni-and multi-dimensional environmental constructs, (b) a more holistic view of the IBE provides richer insights on the actual complexity that underlies IB research. Future conceptual and empirical studies that provide more comprehensive models of the IBE that overcome the usual "everything out there" are warranted.

Teacher training in the field of health promotion : a proposal for International collaboration and preparation of a symposium for the 20th IUHPE World Conference

Jourdan, Didier; Simovska, V.; Valiama, R.; Pakkarár, L.; Simar, C.; Mannix-McNamara, P.; Samdal, O.; Viig, N.G.; Carvalho, Graça Simões de; Diagne, F.; Guével, M-R.; Buijs, G.; Young, I.
Fonte: IUHPE - International Union for Health Promotion and Education Publicador: IUHPE - International Union for Health Promotion and Education
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em 09/09/2008 ENG
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Schools are considered to be settings for both health education and health promotion. But the core business of schools is actually focussed on educational outcomes, not reducing health problems. In most countries, schools give low priority to health promotion and school staffs, mainly teachers, are not aware of their role in health promotion. Studies show that teachers who have received health promotion training tend to be involved more frequently in health promotion projects and have a more comprehensive approach to health education. Pre-service and In-service staff training is then a main challenge. That’s the reason why we have launched an initiative to join international forces to strengthen and advocate for teacher training in health promotion. The main goals are: develop research, affirm and reinforce the work done in teacher training in health promotion, support the institutes/colleges/universities in the provision of initial and in-service teacher training and stimulate international partnership work.; LIBEC/CIFPEC - unidade de investigação 16/644 da FCT.

Empirical test of the trust – performance link in international alliances context

Silva, Susana Costa e
Fonte: EIBA - European International Business Academy Publicador: EIBA - European International Business Academy
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2006 ENG
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This paper focuses on the influence of trust on international alliances performance. Trust has been theoretically recognised to produce positive effects on alliances success. However, the link has rarely been empirically proven. We elaborate on the major difficulties that may explain this and propose a model for the understanding of that influence, where trust antecedents are also considered. The link is validated through primary data collected from 232 international alliances of Portuguese firms and analysed through structural equation modelling.

The requirements of European international society: modernity and nationalism in the Ottoman Empire

Gol, Ayla
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 337828 bytes; 349 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
EN_AU
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This paper critically examines the ‘admittance’ of the Ottoman Empire as the first non-European and non-Christian state into European international society, challenges the idea that international society had a universal character, and explores how the Empire encountered and adapted to the requirements of this society. There are two premises to explore. First, the Empire was never accepted as an equal member of the European society of states. Second, the Ottoman Empire’s desire to enter European international society initiated its modernisation, which gradually led to the emergence of Turkish nationalism in the twentieth century. The first part of this paper deals with the ‘otherness’ of the Ottoman Empire within European international society. The second part explains the paradoxical character of Ottoman–European relations, which initiated the Empire’s modernisation. The last part explores the emergence of Turkish nationalism in relation to the policies of Ottoman modernisation that brought the transition from an Islamic empire into a modern secular nation-state. It concludes by questioning whether or not the modern Turkish state is considered a European member of international society.; no

The neo-roman republican legacy and international political theory

Slaughter, Steven
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 172364 bytes; 349 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
EN_AU
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This paper claims that established accounts of international political theory overlook the neo-roman strand of republican political theory. It seeks to address this case of neglect and extend republican observations into international political theory in three steps. The first step examines the nature of international political theory. The second step examines the neo-roman strand of republicanism’s conception of liberty and the institutions whereby this type of liberty is secured. Lastly, the main elements of a republican approach to international political theory are developed in a way that highlights republicanism’s institutional approach to world politics and its commitment to the state.; no

Hedley Bull and international security

Makinda, Samuel M
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 1620760 bytes; 349 bytes; 356 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream; application/octet-stream
EN_AU
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Hedley Bull made a significant contribution to international security studies, but his role as a security theorist remains largely unexplored. This paper argues that Bull’s ideas went beyond the traditional international security agenda and helped establish the foundation for critical security theory. Although Bull did not describe himself as a critical security theorist, his work indirectly provided a basis on which the assumptions underpinning the traditional international security assumptions could be challenged. Bull was a trans-paradigm theorist who utilised realism, pluralism, classical solidarism and cosmopolitan solidarism not only to shed significant light on the traditional international security perspective, but also to lay the foundation for critical security theory. In his early work, Bull used realism and pluralism to address the traditional international security agenda, with its emphasis on threats to the states, power politics, and the use of military force. Classical solidarism provided a framework through which he explored ideas about collective security and the ability of the United Nations to deal with common threats to international order and security. Through cosmopolitan solidarism, Bull explained the need for international society and world society to deal with poverty and injustice in the world. It is through cosmopolitan solidarist ideas that Bull can be portrayed as a critical security theorist.; no

Critical liberalism in international relations

Richardson, James L
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 243196 bytes; 349 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
EN_AU
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A number of recent developments have prompted a revival of interest in liberal theories of international relations, among them the spread of democratic institutions, economic liberalisation and the increasing significance of international institutions in many aspects of life. This paper argues that liberal international relations theory, overimpressed by developments such as these, risks becoming an apologia for a narrow version of liberalism currently promoted by Western governments. The challenge of rethinking the meaning of liberalism in a ‘globalising’ world characterised by extreme economic inequality, social upheavals and the reassertion of cultural differences—and the questions whether and how liberal values can at all be realised in such a world—have been left to political theorists, whose struggles with these issues attract little interest in an international relations discipline still largely committed to the idea of a purely empirical social science. The paper suggests that a different, ‘critical’ conception of liberalism offers a way of relating pressing liberal normative concerns to empirical research, instead of seeking to keep the two entirely separate. It presents a critique of current liberal international relations theory and outlines an alternative approach.; yes

Australia and nuclear arms control as ‘good international citizenship’

Hanson, Marianne
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 95417 bytes; 349 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
EN_AU
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Good International Citizenship, as applied to Australian foreign policy from the late 1980s to the mid-1990s, incorporated elements of pragmatism as well as idealism, but also required active leadership in the international system. This paper explores this concept and argues that arms control and disarmament initiatives, particularly the Canberra Commission, represented the most effective application of the concept of Good International Citizenship.; yes

Obligation and the political authority of international law

Reus-Smith, Christian
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 298010 bytes; 349 bytes; 349 bytes; 349 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream; application/octet-stream; application/octet-stream
EN_AU
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Why do states feel obliged to obey the rules of international law? The political elites who act in the name of states, their counterparts in international organisations and non-governmental organisations, and their ever more internationally-attuned populations all speak and act as though international law incurs real obligations. Yet existing accounts of international legal obligation suffer from the problem of ‘interiority’, in that they first ground obligation in some internal feature of the international legal system—such as sanction, consent, or discourse—but when these turn out to be insufficient they fall back on arguments about the legitimacy of the system as a whole, for which they cannot account. The roots of this problem lie in the underlying conceptions of politics that inform these accounts, and to overcome this problem I advance an alternative, ‘interstitial’ understanding politics which integrates ‘idiographic’, ‘purposive’, ‘moral’, and ‘instrumental’ forms of reason and action. This in turn allows the development of an ‘holistic’ conception of institutional rationality and an ‘anterior’ theory of international legal obligation. These innovations enable us to explain the relationship between historically grounded modes of politics and the legitimacy of particular institutional forms...

From Conscience and International Trade Law to Global Artificial Photosynthesis in the Sustainocene

Faunce, Thomas
Fonte: ANU International Law Society Publicador: ANU International Law Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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This article sets out a story of how my interest in international law commenced at the ANU Law Faculty, continued into international trade law, and then into global artificial photosynthesis. It addresses issues about the ultimate sources of law and about the future of governance of human society and its ecosystem.; ARC DP140100566

The contribution of the International Court of Justice to international humanitarian law

Gardam, J.
Fonte: Kluwer Law International Publicador: Kluwer Law International
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2001 EN
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This article considers the contribution of the International Court of Justice (‘ICJ’) to the development of the rules and principles of international humanitarian law (‘IHL’). In recent times, the contribution of the Court to this body of the law has been overshadowed by the work of the two ad hoc international criminal tribunals, the ICTY and the ICTR, established by the Security Council to punish those responsible for serious breaches of IHL. Nevertheless, the ICJ, in both its contentious and advisory jurisdictions, has considered the provisions of IHL on a number of occasions, and in the process has clarified many areas of IHL. This article is concerned with one particular issue: how does the Court perceive the fundamental nature of IHL? The analysis adopts two themes. First, an assessment is made of the part played by the Court in the process of bringing IHL into conformity with the changing emphasis of general international law. In both the Nicaragua case and the Nuclear Weapons Advisory Opinion the Court continued the process of what has been referred to as the “humanization of international law.” Second, the approach of the Court to the vexed issue of the relationship between ius ad bellum and IHL is considered. The conclusion is reached that the approach of the Court to this latter issue has undermined its contribution to infusing the humanitarian ethos into IHL.; © 2001 Kluwer Law International

International opportunity identification by entrepreneurs: the process and cognitive determinants

Muzychenko, O.
Fonte: International Academy of Management Publicador: International Academy of Management
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2011 EN
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The broad research problem explored in this research study is "How do entrepreneurs identify business opportunities internationally?" More specifically, it investigated (1) the process of international opportunity identification (IOI) by entrepreneurs and (2) an entrepreneur's cognitive properties and cognitive activities instrumental to successful IOI. This qualitative study is based on seven case studies of Australian entrepreneurs in manufacturing sector who pursued a traditional 'stages' pathway into international markets. The study identified three stages in the process of IOI and examined the role of serendipity. In terms of cognitive properties, the information-processing mechanisms used in the process of IOI were anchored to an industry context only and were enacted internationally without limitations. In terms of cognitive activities, effective IOI depended on new knowledge acquisition and learning that facilitated establishing a cognitive connection with a target country environment by an entrepreneur. The cognitive connection with a target country environment enabled its correct perception, facilitated comprehending it as an insider and was instrumental in recognising a market opportunity and identifying a business partner. Heuristics and biases-based risk perception was less applicable to the process of opportunity identificationinternationally than domestically. The most significant risk perceived by entrepreneurs was partnership risk...

Embedding Learning Guides in a flexible delivery model: A pilot study to improve international students' academic acculturation at an Australian university

Velliaris, D.; Warner, R.
Fonte: ISANA International Education Association Inc; Queensland Publicador: ISANA International Education Association Inc; Queensland
Tipo: Conference paper
Publicado em //2009 EN
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International students transitioning to Australian universities are required to fulfil academic expectations while positioned on the margin of the academic community, coupled with engagement in discipline-specific language prior to significant exposure to the discipline. Adding to this challenge, oftentimes academic expectations and expert discourse must be accomplished in their non-native tongue - English. This paper focuses on the creation of an environment that provides international students with greater opportunity to achieve learning outcomes and academic acculturation through access to a plethora of integrated academic support services. To elevate the provision of such access and as part of an ongoing process, Academic Learning and Language (ALL) staff at the University of Adelaide have developed a series of ‘Learning Guides’. These guides not only articulate learning requirements and scaffold international students’ capacity to understand and embrace scholarly processes, but are becoming embedded across their support offerings, thus enabling more fluid and rapid acculturation to academic life at this institution.; Velliaris, Donna and Warner, Richard

Reimagining international society through the emergence of Japanese imperialism

Suzuki, Shogo
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 381387 bytes; 349 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
EN_AU
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This article contributes to the debate that 'international society is what states have made of it' by examining the socialisation of late-Tokugawa/Meiji Japan into the normative framework of European international society. Despite the recent arguments that the English School has pioneered an interpretivist approach in the study of international politics, their conceptualisation of the expansion of international society has paid scant regard to non-European perspectives. As a consequence international society is commonly portrayed as playing a progressive role in mitigating conflict and enhancing world order. I challenge the lopsided portrayal of how non-European states were 'civilised' into international society. I illustrate, in particular, that Japan's socialisation into international society did not lessen conflict. Rather, Japan's social understanding of how European states use international society led it to embark on an imperialist spree. Finally, I demonstrate that the English School can become a more powerful interpretivist approach by incorporating non-European perspectives.; no

Rentier shifts, legitimacy and the social sources of international financial hegemonies

Seabrooke, Leonard
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 322454 bytes; 349 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
EN_AU
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This paper provides an analysis of the domestic legitimation of 'financial reform nexuses' during two periods of English and US international financial hegemony. Following Max Weber's work on the state and finance, I argue that positive state intervention is required to legitimise a 'financial reform nexus' (the interrelation of credit, property, and tax politics) for people on below median income. I hypothesise that sufficient legitimation of a financial reform nexus provides the means to generate and sustain international financial hegemony, including the capacity to tailor the structure of the international financial order to suit the hegemon's interests. Conversely, if the hegemon is unable to sustain the legitimation of its domestic financial reform nexus-a choice that correlates with negative state intervention that supports a 'rentier shift'-its capacity to maintain international financial hegemony wanes. I draw from examples of the legitimation of financial reform nexuses in England (1900-15) and the US (1985-2000), linking domestic legitimation to consequent changes in the structure of the international financial order. Through this analysis of the social sources of English and US international financial hegemonies, I differentiate the English 'international rentier economy' from the US 'international creditor economy'. Finally...

Miami-Dade Health Department to Move to Florida International University , Model Clinic to Work with Medical, Public Health and Nursing Faculty

Florida International University Office of Media Relations
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
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Press Release from Florida International University 's Office of Media Relations on the Miami-Dade Health Department's agreement with Florida International University to relocate its department to Florida International University 's University Park campus.

IFC and Its Role in Globalization : Highlights from IFC's Participants Meeting, Washington, D.C., June 6-7, 2001

International Finance Corporation
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank and the International Finance Corporation Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank and the International Finance Corporation
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
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Globalization represents an opportunity to add local value to emerging markets. That opportunity is the underlying theme of this volume, which brings together in edited form the papers and comments presented on globalization at the International Finance Corporation (IFC) Annual Participants Meeting held in Washington D.C. on June 6-7, 2001. IFC sees itself at the very center of the globalization process. No other financial institution stands at the dividing line between the entire developed world and the entire developing world, between the public sector and the private sector, between economic, financial, and environmental realities on the one hand, and government policy objectives on the other. Because of its status, because it must deal with the issues surrounding globalization every day, and because it always operates through partnerships with other financial institutions, IFC is in a unique position to take the lead in grasping this opportunity.

Expatriates’ influence on knowledge sharing: an empirical study with International portuguese companies

Martins, Dora
Fonte: Academic Conferences & Publishing International Publicador: Academic Conferences & Publishing International
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em //2013 POR
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Despite the abundant literature in knowledge management, few empirical studies have explored knowledge management in connection with international assignees. This phenomenon has a special relevance in the Portuguese context, since (a) there are no empirical studies concerning this issue that involves international Portuguese companies; (b) the national business reality is incipient as far as internationalisation is concerned, and; (c) the organisational and national culture presents characteristics that are distinctive from the most highly studied contexts (e.g., Asia, USA, Scandinavian countries, Spain, France, The Netherlands, Germany, England and Russia). We examine the role of expatriates in transfer and knowledge sharing within the Portuguese companies with operations abroad. We focus specifically on expatriates’ role on knowledge sharing connected to international Portuguese companies and our findings take into account organizational representatives’ and expatriates’ perspectives. Using a comparative case study approach, we examine how three main dimensions influence the role of expatriates in knowledge sharing among headquarters and their subsidiaries (types of international assignment, reasons for using expatriation and international assignment characteristics). Data were collected using semi‐structured interviews to 30 Portuguese repatriates and 14 organizational representatives from seven Portuguese companies. The findings suggest that the reasons that lead Portuguese companies to expatriating employees are connected to: (1) business expansion needs; (2) control of international operations and; (3) transfer and knowledge sharing. Our study also shows that Portuguese companies use international assignments in order to positively respond to the increasingly decaying domestic market in the economic areas in which they operate. Evidence also reveals that expatriation is seen as a strategy to fulfill main organizational objectives through their expatriates (e.g....

The Social Power of Bodin's 'Sovereignty' and International Law

Beaulac, Stéphane
Fonte: Melbourne Journal of International Law Publicador: Melbourne Journal of International Law
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 291513 bytes; application/pdf
EN
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The word ‘sovereignty’ provides a forceful example of the social power of language as an organic instrument playing a leading role in the continuous and continuing process of creating and transforming human reality. The paper examines a pivotal episode in the history of the word ‘sovereignty’ — its formal introduction in the 16th century by Jean Bodin in his Six Livres de la Republique. It focuses on the social effects ‘sovereignty’ has had on the shared consciousness of humanity, including that of the international community. The proposed metalogical inquiry adopts a method that draws from the hermeneutic school of historical knowledge. The argument is that Bodin used ‘sovereignty’ for the purpose of attributing to the ruler (the French king) supreme power in the hierarchical organisational structure of society. This idea of a pyramid of authority is found in different elements of the discourse in Six Livres de la Republique, which is examined in the immediate context of Bodin’s personal background as well as the extended social, political and intellectual context of 16th century France. The conclusion shows that Bodin’s work was the first seminal step in the development of contemporary ideas of ‘internal sovereignty’ and ‘external sovereignty’. It is thus part of the history of the true power that the word at hand has exercised in framing the international state system and hence the international legal system.

The English School meets the Chicago School: the case for a grounded theory of international institutions

Wilson, Peter
Fonte: Wiley-Blackwell on behalf of the International Studies Association Publicador: Wiley-Blackwell on behalf of the International Studies Association
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /12/2012 EN; EN
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The concept of primary international institutions is a core idea of the English School and central to those scholars from Bull to Buzan who have sought to take it in a more sociological direction. Yet the English School has traditionally found it difficult to define and identify with consistency the institutions of international society. A group of scholars, here called the “new institutionalists,” have recently sought to address this problem by devising tighter definitions and applying them more rigorously. But different understandings and lists of institutions continue to proliferate. The source of the problem is the reliance on “stipulative” definitions, drawn from an increasingly abstract theoretical literature. The problem is compounded by the new institutionalists’ employment of social structural and other “outsider” methods of social research. This article argues that it is only possible to empirically ground institutions, a task on which all agree, by returning to the interpretive “insider” approach traditionally associated with the school—but employing it in a much more rigorous way. To this end it makes the case for a “grounded theory” of international institutions inspired by Chicago School sociology.