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Propriedade intelectual na cadeia de flores e plantas ornamentais: uma análise da legislação brasileira de proteção de cultivares; Intellectual property rights in the flower

Sá, Camila Dias de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 07/10/2010 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.44%
O mercado de flores e plantas ornamentais segue tendências internacionais de moda e decoração e por isso precisa estar em constante inovação. No Brasil, a inovação em plantas foi influenciada pela Lei de Proteção de Cultivares (LPC) que trata do reconhecimento da propriedade intelectual sobre novas variedades vegetais. A lei brasileira contemplou a prática de uso próprio que tem origem na tradição dos agricultores em guardar grãos de uma safra para serem utilizados como sementes na safra seguinte, com o intuito de garantir a segurança alimentar e a viabilidade econômica dos pequenos produtores. No entanto, a floricultura apresenta uma dinâmica diferente das culturas alimentícias, em que não existe a preocupação com a segurança alimentar. Alega-se que em decorrência da maneira como o dispositivo de uso próprio está estabelecido na lei, ele não assegura a proteção eficaz das espécies de plantas propagadas vegetativamente como é o caso da maioria das flores de corte. Este trabalho analisa o impacto da LPC na cadeia de flores de corte brasileira no sentido de contribuir para o entendimento das relações entre o ambiente institucional no qual esta cadeia se insere e o desenvolvimento da mesma. Tal análise baseia-se na abordagem teórica da Nova Economia Institucional...

Contribuições ao estudo do direito internacional da propriedade intelectual na era Pós-Organização Mundial do Comércio: fronteiras da proteção, composição do equilíbrio e expansão do domínio público; Contributions to the study of international law of intellectual property in post-world trade organization era: frontiers of protection, balance reshape and expansion of public domain

Polido, Fabrício Bertini Pasquot
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 02/07/2010 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.56%
Após 15 anos de sua adoção pelos Membros da Organização Mundial do Comércio, o Acordo sobre os Aspectos da Propriedade Intelectual Relacionados ao Comércio (TRIPS) ainda permanece como um dos pilares das modernas instituições do sistema internacional da propriedade intelectual e merece contínua análise de seus efeitos sobre países em desenvolvimento. Nesse sentido, tendências expansionistas e níveis mais elevados de proteção dos direitos de propriedade intelectual, nas distintas esferas do multilareralismo, bilateralismo e regionalismo, são, no entanto, confrontadas com as necessidades reais dos países em desenvolvimento, que ainda devem explorar as flexibilidades existentes no Direito Internacional da Propriedade Intelectual. Isso parece ser evidente após a fase de transição do Acordo TRIPS. A implementação de obrigações relacionadas à proteção substantiva e procedimentos de aplicação efetiva da proteção (observância) dá lugar para controvérsias resultantes das demandas pelo acesso aos bens do conhecimento - bens da tecnologia e informação na ordem internacional. O presente trabalho oferece contribuição para o estudo do Direito Internacional da Propriedade Intelectual na Era Pós-OMC e propõe uma análise e reavaliação de seus elementos...

Promoção do acesso e inovação em saúde: alternativas ao modelo baseado na proteção à proriedade intelectual em discussão na Organização Mundial de Saúde; Promoting access and innovation in health: alternatives to the model based on intellectual property protection within the World Health Organization

Vieira, Marcela Cristina Fogaça
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 23/02/2015 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.19%
O modelo de promoção da inovação em saúde predominante na atualidade é baseado na proteção da propriedade intelectual por meio da concessão de patentes. A patente permite ao seu titular explorar o objeto protegido com exclusividade por um determinado período de tempo, no qual seria obtido o retorno do investimento feito na pesquisa e desenvolvimento do produto. A obtenção de retorno do custo da P&D pela comercialização do produto final, potencializada pelo monopólio conferido pela patente, faz com o que o detentor da tecnologia estabeleça preço de venda elevado. O sistema de patentes potencializa, assim, a maximização de lucros das empresas farmacêuticas, ampliando seu interesse no desenvolvimento de produtos rentáveis e na mercantilização da saúde. Foram identificadas e sistematizadas evidências que demonstram que a aplicação do sistema de patente na área da saúde tem gerado problemas de inovação, ao direcionar recursos de P&D voltados para a produção de produtos rentáveis e não voltados a atender necessidades de saúde; e de acesso, uma vez que o preço elevado excluí milhões de pessoas do consumo do produto. Ficou demonstrada a necessidade de busca de medidas para superação desses problemas. Identificou-se medidas existentes dentro do sistema de patentes que poderiam ser utilizadas para minimizar os problemas identificados em curto e médio prazo...

Proteção de ativos na industria de software : estrategias e tendencias de propriedade intelectual; Asset protection in the software industry : intellectual property strategies and trends

Ana Maria Alves Carneiro da Silva
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 28/08/2007 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.44%
A tese trata da apropriação dos resultados das inovações geradas na indústria de software e da proteção dos ativos tecnológicos por parte de suas empresas, no contexto do aumento da importância do conhecimento na geração de riqueza, à medida que a economia tem se desmaterializado, e do aumento da importância da propriedade intelectual na apropriação dos retornos do esforço inovativo. O software representa um dos ícones da Economia do Conhecimento, tanto devido à sua participação direta na composição da riqueza nas nações como por sua pervasividade e transversalidade que dinamiza as outras indústrias Para isso, analisa-se a co-evolução da indústria de software e do processo de regulação da proteção da propriedade intelectual em torno de três regimes tecnológicos relevantes na indústria de software, cada qual formado por um peso diferente entre hardware, software e serviços: grandes computadores (mainframes), computador pessoal e serviços na web. Para uma indústria tão heterogênea, certamente não é possível apenas uma solução única em termos de instrumentos para proteção dos direitos de propriedade intelectual, sejam formais ou informais. Dada a evolução histórica da indústria de software...

Modularity and Intellectual Property Protection

Baldwin, Carliss Young; Henkel, Joachim
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Research Paper or Report
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Modularity is a means of partitioning technical knowledge about a product or process. When state-sanctioned intellectual property (IP) rights are ineffective or costly to enforce, modularity can be used to hide information and thus protect IP. We investigate the impact of modularity on IP protection by formally modeling the threat of expropriation by agents. The principal has three options to address this threat: trust, licensing, and paying agents to stay loyal. We show how the principal can influence the value of these options by modularizing the system and by hiring clans of agents, thus exploiting relationships among them. Extensions address screening and signaling in hiring, the effects of an imperfect legal system, and social norms of fairness. We illustrate our arguments with examples from practice.

Intellectual Property Protection For Plant Derived Vaccine Technology: Here They Come Are We Ready or Not ?

DURELL, Karen Lynne
Fonte: Centre de recherche en droit public (CRDP) Publicador: Centre de recherche en droit public (CRDP)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.42%
Il existe une nouvelle catégorie de technologie, les vaccins dérivés de plantes («VDPs»), qui englobe des produits qui ont un grand potentiel pour l’amélioration de la santé à l’échelle globale. Bien qu’ils ne soient pas encore disponibles pour le public, le développement des VDPs a progressé de façon telle qu’ils devraient être prêts à être mis en marché et distribués sous peu. Ainsi, c’est le moment idéal pour lancer un débat sur la meilleure façon de protéger cette nouvelle catégorie de technologie. Vu leur nature, les VDPs ne se qualifient pas parfaitement pour aucune forme de protection de propriété intellectuelle. En effet, un VDP est à la fois une variété de plante, une biotechnologie, un médicament et un produit qui vise spécifiquement les besoins de pays en voie de développement. Chacune de ces caractéristiques soulève ses propres problématiques en ce qui a trait à la propriété intellectuelle. C’est pourquoi il appert difficile d’identifier la forme de protection la plus adéquate et appropriée pour les VDPs. Cet article traite de la nature d’un VDP, des différentes catégories dans lesquelles il pourrait être classé, des différents types de systèmes de protection de propriété intellectuelle auxquels il pourrait être éligible ainsi que des problèmes qui pourraient être soulevés par tous ces éléments. Ces discussions visent à mettre l’accent sur le fait que nous avons affaire à une toute nouvelle catégorie d’innovation technologique. L’auteure est donc d’avis qu’une approche proactive est nécessaire pour discuter d’un système de protection de propriété intellectuelle en relation avec les VDPs. En ce moment...

Intellectual Property Rights, Human Capital and the Incidence of R&D Expenditures

Bravo-Ortega, Claudio; Lederman, Daniel
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Numerous studies predict that developing countries with low human capital may not benefit from the strengthening of intellectual property rights. The authors extend an influential theoretical framework to highlight the role of intellectual property rights in the process of innovation and structural change. The resulting theory is consistent with a stylized fact that appears in the data, namely that countries with poor intellectual-property protection may accumulate human capital without a corresponding increase in research and development investment as a share of national income. The model predicts that without minimum intellectual-property protection, additional education may result in more imitation rather than innovation. The preponderance of the econometric evidence presented in this paper suggests that interactions between human capital and intellectual property rights determine global patterns of research and development effort, and intellectual property rights tend to raise the effect of education on the incidence of research and development.

Intellectual Property Rights and the TRIPS Agreement : An Overview of Ethical Problems and Some Proposed Solutions

Sonderholm, Jorn
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights negotiated in 1986 under the auspices of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, the institutional predecessor of the World Trade Organization, incorporated substantial and uniform protections of intellectual property rights into the international trade system. A large body of contemporary academic literature suggests that intellectual property rights on socially valuable goods such as essential medicines give rise to a number of ethical problems. This review paper seeks to give an overview of these problems. Moreover, it offers an outline and discussion of a number of proposals as to how these problems might be alleviated. The paper is primarily descriptive in character. This means that although a personal perspective is sometimes offered, the primary ambition of the paper is not to argue for, and defend, a particular solution to the issues discussed. The aim is rather to highlight, explain and put into perspective a number of important arguments in the debate on the ethical nature of intellectual property rights so that policy-makers and other stakeholders are relatively well-equipped to make up their own mind on the issue.

Improving Access to HIV/AIDS Medicines in Africa : Trade-related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights Flexibilities

Osewe, Patrick L.; Nkrumah, Yvonne K.; Sackey, Emmanuel K.
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
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The study begins with an overview of the Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) agreement and its flexibilities, delineating the legal requirements of the TRIPS agreement regarding their use. It then examines the challenges entailed in the beneficial interpretation and implementation of the TRIPS agreement at both the national and regional levels under the auspices of African Regional Intellectual Property Organization (ARIPO) and African Intellectual Property Organization (OAPI). The next section reviews the domestic antiretroviral (ARV) production experiences of Zimbabwe, Kenya, South Africa, and Ghana with an eye for evaluating the option of sustainable local production. The study is based on existing literature and on interaction with various key players and resource persons in government institutions, the private sector, and civil society groups, especially nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) at the national level. Information was gathered from officials of the regional patent institutions, OAPI and ARIPO, along with official documents of these institutions. International organizations involved in HIV/AIDS work in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) also provided input. The study was conducted under considerable time and logistical constraints...

The Composition of Foreign Direct Investment and Protection of Intellectual Property Rights : Evidence from Transition Economies

Smarzynska, Beata K.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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While existing literature has examined the impact of intellectual property protection on the volume of foreign direct investment (FDI), little is known about its effect on the composition of FDI inflows. The author addresses this question empirically, using a unique firm-level data set from Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. She finds that weak protection deters foreign investors in technology-intensive sectors that rely heavily on intellectual property rights. The results also indicate that a weak intellectual property regime encourages investors to undertake projects focusing on distribution rather than local production. The latter effect is present in all sectors, not just those relying heavily on intellectual property protection.

Do Stronger Intellectual Property Rights Increase International Technology Transfer? Empirical Evidence from U.S. Firm-Level Panel Data

Branstetter, Lee G.; Fisman, Raymond; Foley, C. Fritz
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.23%
One of the alleged benefits of the recent global movement to strengthen intellectual property rights (IPRs) is that such reforms accelerate transfers of technology between countries. The paper examines how technology transfer among U.S. multinational firms changes in response to a series of IPR reforms undertaken by 12 countries over the 1982-99 period. The analysis of detailed firm-level data reveal that royalty payments for intangibles transferred to affiliates increase at the time of reforms, as do affiliate research and development (R&D) expenditures and total levels of foreign patent applications. Increases in royalty payments and R&D expenditures are more than 20 percent larger among affiliates of parent companies that use U.S. patents more extensively prior to reform and therefore are expected to value IPR reform most.

A Sui Generis Regime for Traditional Knoweldge: the Cultural Divide in Intellectual Property Law

Osei Tutu, Janewa
Fonte: SelectedWorks Publicador: SelectedWorks
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.46%
Traditional knowledge can be protected, to some extent, under various intellectual property laws. However, for the most part, there is no effective international legal protection for this subject matter. This has led to proposals for a sui generis right for traditional knowledge. The precise contours of the right are yet to be determined, but a sui generis right could include perpetual protection. It could also result in protection for historical communal works and for knowledge that may be useful but that is not inventive according to the standards of intellectual property law. Developing countries have been more supportive of international protection for traditional knowledge than developed countries. At the same time, developing countries have been critical of the impact of intellectual property rights on various social issues such as access to medicines and educational materials. In light of developing country concerns about the negative effects of strong global intellectual property rights, this paper uses a development focused instrumentalist approach to assess the implications of a sui generis traditional knowledge right. It concludes that some of the measures sought may not achieve the desired outcome. Although intellectual property can play a role in protecting traditional knowledge...

Value Divergence In Global Intellectual Property Law

Osei Tutu, Janewa
Fonte: SelectedWorks Publicador: SelectedWorks
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.35%
It is a challenge for the United States to adequately protect the interests of its intellectual property industries. It is particularly difficult to effectively achieve this objective when the interests of the United States are not in line with the social, cultural, and economic goals of other nations. Yet, as a major exporter of intellectual property protected goods, the United States has an interest in negotiating effective international intellectual property agreements that are perceived to be legitimate by the state signatories and their constituents. Focusing on value divergence, this Article contributes to the growing body of literature on developing a robust but flexible global intellectual property system. The Article argues that the trade-based approach to global intellectual property law undermines the apparent gains made in international intellectual property protection because it promotes a utilitarian economic view of intellectual property law while minimizing other values. Trade-based intellectual property also reduces the need for intellectual property interests to align, and therefore fails to achieve mutually beneficial agreement on substantive intellectual property law and policy.

The Critical Role of Timing in Managing Intellectual Property

Lemper, Timothy A.
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.42%
In today’s environment, timing is a critical part of business strategy. Nowhere is this truer than in managing intellectual property in an increasing global marketplace. The creation and protection of intellectual property assets often depends on taking just the right legal action at just the right time, every time, over time. The consequences of failing to do so can be disastrous, but may only be felt at a later time or in other markets. The difficulty for business people lies in the fact that the time-sensitive aspects of intellectual property cannot be managed effectively by relying on intuition or resolving to see a lawyer when the need arises. This article provides a basic primer on the critical role of timing in identifying, creating, and protecting intellectual property assets. It discusses the most common types of intellectual property—patents, copyrights, trademarks, and trade secrets—and compares the role of timing in the creation and protection of each type of asset. Most importantly, it summarizes the key issues of timing in the creation and protection of intellectual property.

O conflito Estados Unidos - Brasil sobre a organização do regime internacional de propriedade intelectual no século XXI : da `Agenda de Patentes' à `Agenda do desenvolvimento'; The conflict between United States and Brazil on the organization of the international intellectual property regime in the XXI century : from the `Patent Agenda' to the `Development Agenda'

Henrique Zeferino de Menezes
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 21/03/2013 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.37%
Nessa tese analisamos o conflito entre Estados Unidos e Brasil sobre a organização do regime internacional de propriedade intelectual no século XXI. Um conflito político que tem uma interface com as discussões teóricas acerca do papel dos direitos de propriedade intelectual no desenvolvimento econômico. Esse conflito se dá pela contraposição, por um lado, entre a demanda norte-americana por um sistema internacional de proteção aos intangíveis mais amplo, forte, homogeneizado, harmonizado e efetivo; e, por outro, a demanda brasileira que pretende resguardar liberdades e flexibilidades, ainda remanescentes no regime internacional de proteção, aos Estados para a adoção de políticas de desenvolvimento industrial e tecnológico. São exatamente essas flexibilidades, liberdades que se tornariam inconsistentes com um sistema de proteção à propriedade intelectual espelhado nas demandas norte-americanas. Especificamente, analisamos o desenrolar desse conflito na Organização Mundial de Propriedade Intelectual (OMPI), que encampou os debates levados por esses dois países e suas agendas específicas - a Agenda de Patentes norte-americana e a Agenda do Desenvolvimento brasileira. Assim, a tese parte da problematização teórica sobre a funcionalidade dos direitos de propriedade intelectual no estímulo ao desenvolvimento econômico e avança sobre as negociações sobre a matéria...

Intellectual property rights related to the genetically modified glyphosate tolerant soybeans in Brazil

Rodrigues,Roberta L; Lage,Celso L. S; Vasconcellos,Alexandre G
Fonte: Academia Brasileira de Ciências Publicador: Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.35%
The present work analyzes the different modalities of protection of the intellectual creations in the biotechnology agricultural field. Regarding the Brazilian legislations related to the theme (the Industrial Property Law - no. 9. 279/96 and the Plant Variety Protection Law - no. 9. 456/97), and based in the international treaties signed by Brazil, the present work points to the inclusions of each of them, as well as to their interfaces using as reference the case study of glyphosate tolerant genetically modified soybean. For this case study, Monsanto's pipelines patents were searched and used to analyze the limits of patent protection in respect to others related to the Intellectual Property (IP) laws. Thus, it was possible to elucidate the complex scenario of the Intellectual Property of the glyphosate tolerant soybeans, since for the farmer it is hard to correlate the royalties payment with the IP enterprise's rights

Committee Jurisdiction and Internet Intellectual Property Protection

deFigueiredo, John
Fonte: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Formato: 322483 bytes; application/pdf
EN_US
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This paper examines the impact of increasingly common congressional committee jurisdictional turf wars on policy outcomes. It develops a theoretical model that shows how legislators balance the benefits of expanded committee jurisdiction against preferred policy outcomes, yielding predictions that are different from the traditional committee-dominance theories. The theory predicts that a) senior members, and members who are in safe districts are most likely to challenge another committee's jurisdiction; b) policy proposals may be initiated off the proposer's ideal point in order to obtain jurisdiction over an issue; c) in many cases, policy outcomes will be more moderate with jurisdictional fights than they would be without these turf wars. The paper tests the implications of the theory examining proposed Internet intellectual property protection legislation to reform electronic database law in the 106th Congress.; E-Business Center at MIT

Corporate "Human Rights" to Intellectual Property Protection

Osei Tutu, J. Janewa
Fonte: SelectedWorks Publicador: SelectedWorks
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Relevância na Pesquisa
86.51%
The global intellectual property system protects the interests of intellectual property owners, sometimes to the detriment of competing interests like public health or access to knowledge. Some scholars have proposed a human rights framework for intellectual property as a way to inject balance into the current system. However, the assertion that human rights will bring balance is often coupled with the assumption that corporations are, by definition, excluded from human rights-based intellectual property claims. Yet, corporations have used, and are likely to continue to use, human rights law to ground their intellectual property claims. Since multinational corporations were a major driving force behind increased global intellectual property standards, a human rights framework for intellectual property must contemplate the likelihood that corporations will attempt to co-opt a human rights model in order to bolster their intellectual property claims. Moreover, framing intellectual property interests from a human rights perspective can affect our conceptions of intellectual property and our analysis of the relationship between intellectual property rights and other interests. This Article contends that there is value in using human rights law to limit excessive intellectual property protection. However...

An Alternative Framework for the Global Regulation of Intellectual Property Rights

Drahos, Peter
Fonte: Mandelbaum Publishing Publicador: Mandelbaum Publishing
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The paper begins by advancing reasons for why freedom of design over property rights matters to countries. It shows that the international regime for intellectual property protection is increasingly circumscribing the freedom of developing countries to set efficient standards of protection for their economies. The bulk of the paper is devoted to elaborating a proposal for a new framework of intellectual property protection. This framework takes the form of a treaty on access to knowledge that is linked to human rights and that is driven by nodally constituted standard-setting committees that operate on the basis of evidence-based analysis.

Intellectual Property Rights: A Comparative Perspective on Asia, the EU, and North America

McHardy Rei,David
Fonte: UNAM, Centro de Investigaciones sobre América del Norte Publicador: UNAM, Centro de Investigaciones sobre América del Norte
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2012 EN
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This article explores some of the key differences in conditions, procedures, and interests among major trading blocs and selected countries within them. Its primary focus is on the challenges faced by an intellectual property (IP) regime, especially related to IP protection. In the Asian context, consideration is given to the status and challenge of IP protection in Indonesia, and, for contrast, Japan, with its singular history of IP acquisition. Hong Kong, a Special Administrative Region of China, is considered separately as is part of the People’s Republic of China. Then the EU and the United States are addressed. In addition, the divergence of interests between net technology-consuming economies (NTCES) and net technology-producing economies (NTPES) are considered.