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Proteção e fomento da vegetação no município de São Paulo: possibilidades, alcance e conflitos; Vegetation Protection and Fostering in the City of Sao Paulo: possibilities, breath and conflicts

Silva Filho, Carlos Alberto da
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 16/11/2005 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.7%
O município de São Paulo localiza-se em terrenos de uma bacia sedimentar de relevo colinoso, cercada por morros e serras do embasamento cristalino e drenada por 3.200km de cursos dágua. Sobre esses terrenos pouco férteis, a exceção das várzeas, desenvolvia-se uma vegetação diversa, formada por matas de terra firme1 e de galeria; brejos e campos naturais. Essa cobertura vegetal vem seguindo um processo contínuo de redução, de fragmentação e de alteração da sua composição florística. Figura cada vez mais como elemento periférico ou como enclave do tecido urbano, diminuindo a sua capacidade de auto-sustentação e de sustentação de fauna expressiva e diminuindo o contato diário das pessoas com elementos e processos naturais. Tal processo dá-se a despeito de um conjunto de normas legais federais, estaduais e municipais e de acordos internacionais, que buscam preservar porções significativas dessa vegetação e que criaram possibilidades para a inserção e a manutenção da vegetação no tecido urbano e, por conseqüência, para que mais natureza permeie esse tecido. Comparando-se estudos realizados de 1911 a 2002 observa-se uma simplificação da composição da vegetação e uma grande redução na sua extensão...

A proteção de direitos humanos através de instrumentos jurisdicionais de tutela coletiva: a defesa de direitos coletivos e difusos por meio da ação civil pública; The protection of human rights through judicial instruments

Coutinho, Marcelo Guimarães
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Goiás; Brasil; UFG; Programa de Pós-graduação em Direitos Humanos (PRPG); Pró-Reitoria de Pós-graduação (PRPG) Publicador: Universidade Federal de Goiás; Brasil; UFG; Programa de Pós-graduação em Direitos Humanos (PRPG); Pró-Reitoria de Pós-graduação (PRPG)
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.91%
This dissertation analyzes the judicial protection of collective and diffuse rights in Brazil. The contemporary social pluralism is seen as a set of perspectives from that derive the collective interests, marked by the multiplicity of subjects with identity demands, and as an expression, many times, of human rights categories. The repeated disregard of collective interests, massified in the context of the welfare state, led to the creation of legal instruments for collective protection. The research highlights the public civil action. The breadth of claims that may be conveyed by the public civil action makes possible the protection of goods and interests of more immediate utility for social groups and the community as a whole, compared to the traditional object of popular action. The public civil action is not seen as just a quirky Brazilian legal-procedural instrument, but as a space of representation of social interests in the current stage of democracy. In order to better understand the historical and cultural arrangements of structure formation of the Brazilian judicial protection of collective and diffuse rights, is traced a brief global overview of the development of instruments for the defense of these rights. The management of the public civil action supposed a transformative potential...

Import Protection, Business Cycles, and Exchange Rates : Evidence from the Great Recession

Bown, Chad P.; Crowley, Meredith A.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.73%
This research estimates the impact of macroeconomic fluctuations on import protection policies over 1988:Q1-2010:Q4 for the United States, European Union, and three other industrialized economies. First, estimates on a pre-Great Recession sample provide evidence of three key relationships for the US and EU. Increases in domestic unemployment rates and real appreciations in bilateral exchange rates led to substantial increases in antidumping and related forms of import protection. Furthermore, economies historically imposed these bilateral import restrictions on trading partners going through their own periods of weak economic growth. Second, estimates from the pre-Great Recession model predict a major trade policy response during 2008:Q4-2010:Q4, given the realized macroeconomic shocks. New US and EU trade barriers were projected to cover up to an additional 15 percentage points of nonoil imports, well above the baseline level of 2-3 percent of import coverage immediately preceding the crisis. Third, re-estimating the model on data from the Great Recession period illustrates why the realized trade policy response differed from model predictions based on historical data. While exchange rate movements played an important role in limiting new import protection...

Designing Economic Instruments for the Environment in a Decentralized Fiscal System

Alm, James; Banzhaf, H. Spencer
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.75%
When external effects are important, markets will be inefficient, and economists have considered several broad classes of economic instruments to correct these inefficiencies. However, the standard economic analysis has tended to neglect important distinctions and interactions between the geographic scope of pollutants, the enforcement authority of various levels of government, and the fiscal responsibilities of the levels of government. For example, externalities generated in a particular local area may be confined to the local area or may spill over to other jurisdictions. Also, local governments may be well informed about how best to regulate or enforce pollution control within their jurisdiction, but they may not consider the effects of their actions on other jurisdictions. Finally, the existence of locally-generated waste emissions affects the appropriate assignment of both expenditure and tax responsibilities among levels of government. The standard analysis therefore focuses mainly upon an aggregate (or national) perspective...

Towards a Regional Strategy to Strengthen the Nurse Workforce of the English-speaking CARICOM : International Legal Instruments, Agreements and Obligations

Kurowski, Christoph; Carpio, Carmen; Vujicic, Marko; Gostin, Lawrence O.; Baytor, Tanya
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.84%
The supply of nurses in the English-Speaking Caribbean is insufficient to meet the demand with growing shortages fuelled by the health needs of a rapidly aging population and tremendous losses of human capital occurring at multiple points in the markets. In defining the scope of commitments of a regional legal agreement, English-Speaking Caribbean Community (ES CARICOM) states will have to ascertain whether states would commit to actions to strengthen the nurse workforce or the health workforce more broadly. While the challenges of strengthening the nurse workforce have been systematically assessed, information about other groups of health professionals remains patchy. In 2008, at the request of the Ministers of Health, the World Bank initiated a stream of work to strengthen the nurse workforce in the English-speaking Caribbean. The study estimated the stock of nurses in the ES CARICOM at approximately 7,800 in 2007 with growing shortages under existing policies at 3,400 in 2007 increasing to 10,700 nurses in 2025 due to the health needs of a rapidly aging population. There are two types of international legal instruments: legally binding instruments or treaties; and non-legally binding instruments.

Social Protection in Low Income Countries and Fragile Situations : Challenges and Future Directions

Andrews, Colin; Das, Maitreyi; Elder, John; Ovadiya, Mirey; Zampaglione, Giuseppe
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.76%
Demand for social protection is growing in low income countries and fragile situations. In recent years, the success of social protection (SP) interventions in middle income countries (MICs) like Brazil and Mexico, along with the series of food, fuel, and financial crises, has prompted policymakers in low income countries (LICs) and fragile situations (FSs) to examine the possibility of introducing such programs in their own countries. Flagship programs in countries as diverse as Ethiopia, India, Pakistan, and Rwanda have shown the adaptability of social protection interventions to the LIC context. Yet, despite growing levels of support for these initiatives, many challenges remain. In LICs and FSs, governments are confronted with a nexus of mutually reinforcing deficits that increase the need for SP programs and simultaneously reduce their ability to successfully respond. Governments face hard choices about the type, affordability, and sustainability of SP interventions. The paper reviews how these factors affect SP programs in these countries and identifies ways to address the deficits. It supports the establishment of resilient SP systems to address specific needs and vulnerabilities and to respond flexibly to both slow and sudden onset crises. To achieve this...

Infrastructure Regulation : A Review of International Instruments and Compliance Mechanisms

Alexandrov, Stanimir A.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.84%
The paper reviews first the most formal such instruments, such as bilateral and multilateral treaties, that include commitments regarding regulatory processes and/or outcomes. Next, it will consider less formal instruments, such as institutional guidelines and model rules, that promote principles for regulatory good practices. Finally, it will consider the different mechanisms available to promote compliance with these norms using both binding and non-binding devices. Two tables summarizing the assessments of these instruments and compliance mechanisms are appended at the conclusion of the report.Furthermore, this paper undertakes to review the international instruments that incorporate standards for domestic regulatory good practices or move toward creating international regulatory regimes, and the mechanisms that promote or secure compliance with those good practices and regimes.

Thailand - Country Development Partnership : Social Protection

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.74%
The Thailand Country Development Partnership for Social Protection (CDP-SP) is a collaborative program of policy development and technical assistance between the Ministry of Labor and Social Protection and the Bank and was launched in July 2001. CDP-SP operates in three key policy areas: labor markets; social insurance; and social assistance and safety nets. This report reviews the objectives and planning for the three year rolling program, as it was agreed at the launch in July 2001; and highlights the performance of CDP-SP in the first year through June 2002 in five reform areas: social assistance, employment services, unemployment insurance, occupational health and safety, data for social protection. The progress towards achievement of benchmarks is impressive and ahead of schedule in some respects. The formal launch of Year 2 of CDP-SP is anticipated to take place in October/November 2002. Year 2 will involve consolidation of reform into the key steps necessary to improve service performance, the application of technical and analytical insights gained in Year 1...

Trade Policy Instruments over Time

Bown, Chad P.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.92%
This paper surveys political-economic research on the variety of instruments that governments use to conduct international trade policy. It presents key insights on the relationships between instruments such as tariffs, quotas, voluntary export restraints, and other nontariff barriers, as well as the ebb and flow of the national use of temporary trade barriers such as antidumping, countervailing duties, and safeguards. The survey examines trends in use of these trade policy instruments over recent history; and it reviews the major theoretical and empirical explanations behind, and interrelationships between, their uses. Finally, the paper highlights potential institutional impacts of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and subsequent World Trade Organization (WTO) on choice of policy instruments, as well as how multilateral, unilateral, and preferential tariff liberalization may introduce political-economic shocks and affect incentives over time for how governments rely on different instruments.

Togo : Towards a National Social Protection Policy and Strategy

van Domelen, Julie
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.76%
Although Togo has had limited social protection programs, the economic shock and natural disasters starting in 2008 brought the need for better mechanisms of social protection to the fore. The Government response has focused on measures to address the immediate needs of the affected populations, while building the analytical base for developing a national social protection policy. This report forms part of the overall analytical work prepared to support the formation of a national social protection policy. It finds that the most common safety net programs are in-kind transfers with limited coverage. It proposes basic elements for the Government to take into consideration in developing a national social protection policy and strategy and identifies next steps in finalizing the preparation of such a policy and strategy.

Fiscal Disaster Risk Assessment Options for Consideration

World Bank Group; Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Relatório
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.52%
Pakistan is vulnerable to a number of adverse natural events and has experienced a wide range of disasters over the past 40 years, including floods, earthquakes, droughts, cyclones, and tsunamis. The World Bank is supporting the Government of Pakistan (GoP) in building capacity in the area of disaster risk management (DRM) in order to build resilience from both humanitarian and fiscal shocks associated with natural disasters. The World Bank is providing technical assistance to the GoP for the development of a national disaster risk financing strategy. This non-lending technical assistance aims to: (i) assess the fiscal exposure of the GoP to natural disasters; (ii) present options for the development of a national strategy to improve financial response capacity for natural disasters; and (iii) promote property catastrophe risk insurance for both public and private dwellings. Disaster risk financing and insurance (DRFI) is one of the five pillars in the proactive and strategic framework for DRM promoted by the World Bank. The World Bank has been promoting a proactive and strategic framework for DRM based on five pillars: (i) risk identification; (ii) risk reduction; (iii) preparedness; (iv) financial protection; and (v) resilient recovery. Chapter one is introduction. Chapter two presents an overview of the budget processes for the financing of natural disaster losses during each of the three post-disaster phases. Chapter three provides a preliminary financial disaster risk assessment for Pakistan...

Towards a global data protection framework in the field of law enforcement : an EU perspective

BLASI CASAGRAN, Cristina
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf; digital
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.95%
This thesis seeks to examine the existing EU frameworks for data-sharing for law enforcement purposes, both within the EU and between the EU and third countries, the data protection challenges to which these give rise, and the possible responses to those challenges at both EU and global levels. The analysis follows a bottom-up approach, starting with an examination of the EU internal data-sharing instruments. After that, it studies the data transfers conducted under the scope of an international agreement; and finally, it concludes by discussing the current international initiatives for creating universal data protection standards. As for the EU data-sharing instruments, this thesis demonstrates that these systems present shortcomings with regard to their implementation and usage. Moreover, each instrument has its own provisions on data protection and, despite the adoption of a Framework Decision in 2008, this has not brought about a convergence of data protection rules in the JHA field. A similar multiplicity of instruments is also found when the EU transfers data to third countries for the purpose of preventing and combating crimes. This is evident from examining the existing data-sharing agreements between the EU and the US. Each agreement has a section on data protection and data security rules...

Togo : Towards a National Social Protection Policy and Strategy

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Social Protection Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.77%
Over the last several years, the Government of Togo has made important advances in the area of social protection. Although Togo has had limited social insurance and social assistance programs, the economic shock and natural disasters starting in 2008 brought the need for better mechanisms of social protection to the fore. The Government response has focused on measures to address the needs of the affected populations, while building the analytical base for developing a national social protection policy and strategy. For example, several important social protection programs were launched in the last few years, including the National Institute for Health Insurance, a labor intensive public works program for rural areas, a school lunch program, and a pilot for cash transfer program targeting vulnerable children. The Government has also promoted access to basic services by the poor by eliminating school fees and fees for cesarean sections. As part of developing the analytical base for a national social protection policy and strategy...

Environmental Protection and Optimal Taxation

Eskeland, Gunnar S.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.84%
Struck by the fact that economists did not have a plausible model for why emissions standards, and mandated technologies, play a dominant role in pollution control, the author sought answers to two questions: 1) Should one stimulate emissions reductions by firms, and households, rich and poor, in the same way? 2) How should one combine instruments that make activities cleaner, with instruments that shift the economy toward less-polluting activities? Using clean air as an example of a pure public good, he shows the role of emissions taxes, or such surrogate instruments, as emissions standards, and presumptive Pigouvian taxes. To illustrate the combination of demand management, and technical controls, he computes a marginal cost curve for emissions reductions in the form of cleaner cars, and fuels. And he estimates a demand model for cars, and driving. The result: under the assumption that revenue, and re-distributive transfers bear no premia, the cost of reducing pollution in Mexico City increases forty four percent if an emissions standards program is used...

Helping South Asia Cope with Natural Disasters : The Role of Social Protection

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.91%
Addressing the social protection needs of households during emergencies is a major development issue. Without social protection measures, such as cash transfers for basic needs or workfare programs, many households faced with large economic and natural shocks might deplete their human and physical capital, reducing their ability to participate in economic development. Social protection measures (cash transfers, in particular) are therefore assuming a growing role in the World Bank to help the poor cope with the aftermath of a disaster. In South Asia, all three recent major emergency-related operations in South Asia (Sri Lanka, Maldives, and Pakistan) included cash transfers components. This discussion paper, an input to the South Asia region's social protection and hazard risk management strategies, describes the cash transfer instruments supported by the Bank in South Asia, evaluates their design and implementation, and suggests improvements to increase their effectiveness. Based on available evidence...

Mexico - Income Generation and Social Protection for the Poor : Volume 3. An Overview of Social Protection

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Health Sector Review; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.76%
This report provides a strategic overview of Mexico's federal social protection system, comprised of both social insurance and social assistance programs. It assesses its performance to date regarding income risk management for vulnerable groups, and identifies options for stepping up that performance. In doing so it responds to an increasing consensus in Mexico regarding the need for a major social protection policy reform, even if the direction of those reforms is still in flux. The report is designed to provide a first stage diagnostic of major issues facing the social protection system, as an input to ongoing discussion and debate in Mexico, and as a platform for further technical work on the specifics of reform. The report focuses on the role of federal government in the design and implementation of social protection policies, while recognizing that sub-national governments are playing an important role in the provision of these services. In doing so, it draws upon the first phase of the Mexico Programmatic Poverty Work, as well as the urban, rural and vulnerability studies conducted in parallel with this analysis. The report is organized into four chapters. Chapter 1 presents a brief review of social protection concepts, and establishes a framework for determining the optimal role for government in the provision of social protection (risk management) tools...

Sukuk Markets : A Proposed Approach for Development

Kusuma, Ketut Ariadi; Caputo Silva, Anderson
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.84%
The issuance of sukuk, as an instrument in Islamic finance, has been growing in recent years. Many policy makers and businesses are looking at the sukuk markets as sources of long-term financing. The paper identifies key issues impeding further development of sukuk markets globally, namely, standardization of structures and practices, investor protection concerns relating to insolvency and governance regimes, and market liquidity. The paper also offers approaches in developing domestic sukuk markets and in accessing the international market. The authors suggest that, in developing domestic sukuk markets, policy makers use a framework similar to that of the development of conventional bond markets, that is, by establishing (1) well-functioning money markets, (2) efficient primary markets and securities-offering regimes, (3) a robust and diversified investor base, (4) a market infrastructure that facilitates trading, price transparency, and efficient clearing and settlement of transactions, (5) derivatives market and hedging tools to support risk management by issuers and investors...

Shaping Future GATS Rules for Trade in Services

Mattoo, Aaditya
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.79%
The new round of negotiations has begun with a mechanical sense of "since we said we would, therefore we must," says the author. To make the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) more effective ay liberalization, the author suggests improving the agreement's rules, countries' specific commitments, and the negotiating methodology: 1) Wasteful regulations, and entry restrictions pervade trade in services. Unlike the GATT, the GATS has created no hierarchy of instruments of protection. It may be possible to create a legal presumption in favor of instruments (such as fiscal measures) that provide protection more efficiently. 2) Many countries have taken advantage of the GATS to create a more secure trading environment, by making legally binding commitments to market access. The credibility of reform would increase with wider commitments to maintain current levels of openness, or to increase access in the future. 3) Multilateral rules on domestic regulations can help promote, and consolidate domestic regulatory reform...

Os grilhões do patrimônio: reflexões sobre as práticas do Iphan relacionadas aos quilombos; The shackles of heritage: reflections on the IPHAN's practices related to quilombolas communities

Vaz, Beatriz Accioly
Fonte: Centro de Preservação Cultural. Pró-Reitoria de Cultura e Extensão - USP. Publicador: Centro de Preservação Cultural. Pró-Reitoria de Cultura e Extensão - USP.
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; ; Avaliado pelos pares Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 23/12/2013 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.75%
A partir da mudança de perspectivas incorporada no texto da Constituição Federal de 1988, o Instituto do Patrimônio Histórico e Artístico Nacional (Iphan), responsável pela proteção e salvaguarda do patrimônio cultural no Brasil, precisou responder às demandas surgidas pelo reconhecimento dos bens referenciais da matriz afrodescendente, dentre os quais aqueles relativos às comunidades quilombolas. Assim, o tombamento e, a partir do ano 2000, o registro, instrumentos da política de patrimônio nacional de uso privativo do Iphan, passaram a ser acionados como forma de reconhecimento, proteção e salvaguarda desses bens. Dentro desse universo, o presente artigo propõe uma reflexão sobre como o patrimônio cultural quilombola vem sendo tratado nesse campo, buscando identificar os conflitos e as possibilidades existentes no reconhecimento de direitos coletivos dessas comunidades através das políticas patrimoniais. Através dessa reflexão, as formas de incorporação do patrimônio “não consagrado” pelo Iphan e a separação do campo do patrimônio cultural em duas áreas distintas – material e imaterial - são problematizadas.; From the change of perspective embodied in the Constitution of 1988, the Institute of Historical and Artistic Heritage (Iphan)...

Directrices para la protección del conocimiento: un caso de estudio en una universidad del Estado de Paraná; Guidelines for protection of knowledge: a case study in a university of Parana State; Diretrizes para proteção do conhecimento: um estudo de caso em uma universidade do Estado do Paraná

Gonçalves, Adriana Aguillera; Universidade Tecnológica Federal do Paraná - UTFPR; Tomaél, Maria Inês; Universidade Estadual de Londrina - UEL
Fonte: Mestrado Interdisciplinar em Ciência, Gestão e Tecnologia da Informação - UFPR Publicador: Mestrado Interdisciplinar em Ciência, Gestão e Tecnologia da Informação - UFPR
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Artículo evaluado por pares; investigación cualitativa; ; qualitative research; Avaliado pelos pares; Estudo qualitativo Formato: text/html; application/zip; application/pdf
Publicado em 14/09/2015 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Introducción: La innovación derivada del conocimiento científico es posible cuando este está protegido por los instrumentos de propiedad intelectual, tales como la patente. El acto de patentear el conocimiento garantiza los derechos de los actores contra la apropiación indebida, permite el intercambio seguro, y contribuye al desarrollo tecnológico. Por lo tanto, es esencial disponer de directrices con el fin de orientar la protección de los conocimientos hacia a la innovación. Estas instrucciones deben incluir aspectos relacionados con la confidencialidad, los derechos y la participación financiera de los implicados en este proceso. Dentro de este ámbito, este estudio tiene como objetivo determinar las directrices que regulan la protección de los conocimientos en una universidad en el Estado de Paraná, lo que favorecería la aparición de innovaciones en el ámbito académico. Método: Una investigación documental se llevó a cabo en la primera etapa que permitió el análisis de las normas jurídicas que contienen los protocolos para la protección de los conocimientos en la Universidad. En la segunda etapa, se reunieron consideraciones de las actuales normas legales para la protección de los conocimientos a través de entrevistas con investigadores y gerentes de una Agencia de Innovación...