Página 1 dos resultados de 39332 itens digitais encontrados em 0.024 segundos

Gestão da qualidade de vida nas organizações: o pilar humano da sustentabilidade em instituições de ensino superior da rede privada; Management of quality of life in organizations: the human pillar of sustainability in higher education institutions of the private network

Quel, Luiz Felipe
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 16/12/2010 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.47%
A responsabilidade das instituições de ensino superior da rede privada ultrapassa os limites de suas fronteiras e de seus objetivos operacionais. São organizações que geram impactos em dimensões econômicas, sociais e ambientais. Os ambientes de trabalho nas instituições de ensino superior representam muito bem a possibilidade de alavancar a energia necessária ao desenvolvimento sustentável na medida em que associe as pessoas como elementos estratégicos. O objetivo principal desta pesquisa é o de inserir a gestão da qualidade de vida nas organizações no contexto estratégico, destacando assim, o componente humano da sustentabilidade organizacional nas instituições de ensino superior da rede privada. Contribui para uma gestão estratégica que valoriza o resultado por intermédio das pessoas. Pode orientar o desenvolvimento de programas e projetos de qualidade de vida nas organizações de ensino superior da rede privada e fortalecer essas instituições como agentes integrados ao desenvolvimento sustentável global. Trata-se de uma pesquisa empírica, original, de caráter explicativo e de natureza quantitativa, apoiada por pesquisa de campo, estruturada na forma de questionários e disponibilizada em ambiente virtual...

Systematic analysis of funding awarded to institutions in the United Kingdom for infectious disease research, 1997–2010

Head, Michael G; Fitchett, Joseph R; Moore, David AJ; Atun, Rifat
Fonte: SAGE Publications Publicador: SAGE Publications
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.47%
Summary Objectives: This study aimed to assess the research investments made to UK institutions for all infectious disease research and identify the direction of spend by institution. Design: Systematic analysis. Databases and websites were systematically searched for information on relevant studies funded for the period 1997–2010. Setting: UK institutions carrying out infectious disease research. Participants: None. Main outcome measures Twenty academic institutions receiving greatest sum investments across infection are included here, also NHS sites, Sanger Institute, Health Protection Agency and the Medical Research Council. We measured total funding, median award size, disease areas and position of research along the R&D value chain. Results: Included institutions accounted for £2.1 billion across 5003 studies. Imperial College and University of Oxford received the most investment. Imperial College led the most studies. The Liverpool and London Schools of Tropical Medicine had highest median award size, whereas the NHS sites combined had many smaller studies. Sum NHS funding appears to be declining over time, whilst university income is relatively stable. Several institutions concentrate almost exclusively on pre-clinical research. In some areas...

How Do Local-Level Legal Institutions Promote Development?

Gauri, Varun
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.45%
This paper develops a framework and some hypotheses regarding the impact of local-level, informal legal institutions on three economic outcomes: aggregate growth, inequality, and human capabilities. It presents a set of stylized differences between formal and informal legal justice systems, identifies the pathways through which formal systems promote economic outcomes, reflects on what the stylized differences mean for the potential impact of informal legal institutions on economic outcomes, and looks at extant case studies to examine the plausibility of the arguments presented. The paper concludes that local-level, informal legal institutions can support social substitutes for the enforcement of contracts, although these substitutes tend to be limited in range and scale; they are flexible and could conceivably be adapted to serve the interests of the poor and marginalized if supportive organizational and social resources could be brought to support the legal claims of the disempowered; and they are more likely to support personal integrity rights than the positive liberties that are also constitutive of development as freedom.

Capacity Building in Africa : The Role of International Financial Institutions

Nsouli, Saleh M.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.5%
The note looks at the interrelation of three essential components to economic development: capacity building - the development of skills and institutions; good governance; and, economic reform, the two other components which cannot be implemented without well-functioning institutions. It further reviews the rationale and evidence of institutional capacity building, because it provides the framework within which people, and firms participate in the economy. Most importantly, the different specific objectives of international financial institutions are examined, first in their support to investments, e.g., infrastructure and capacity building within an adjustment program; second, in the achievement of economic and social policy; and, third, in encouraging economic development, and business practices, through training, and collaborative efforts. The note specifically reviews the support provided by the International Monetary Fund, which includes capacity building towards enhancing economic expertise, through technical assistance...

Methods for Studying Rural Institutions, Networks, and Capacity in the Developing World : Mobilizing Rural Institutions

Agrawal, Arun; McSweeney, Catherine; Perrin, Nicolas
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.54%
This note outlines two methods developed by the Mobilizing Rural Institutions study to assess and compare the governance capacities of local institutions and their network relationships in any local context. Local institutions and their institutional networks play a fundamental role in shaping governance and livelihoods outcomes in rural areas, particularly for more marginal and disadvantaged populations. A review of local institutions in nearly 50 cases in 5 countries found that network relationships and linkages among local and external institutions were a key element in promoting governance and livelihoods, as well as more equitable allocation of benefits. Yet despite the consensus that local institutions and their links with other institutions are important in development and conservation efforts, we lack tools to assess and compare networks of local institutions, the strength of their links, and how these contribute to livelihoods outcomes. This note identifies two such tools to help identify leverage points through which new policies can be introduced to maximal effect...

Local Institutions and Climate Change Adaptation

Agrawal, Arun; McSweeney, Catherine; Perrin, Nicolas
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.54%
This note examines the relationships between climate-related vulnerabilities, adaptation practices, institutions, and external interventions to show the role and importance of local institutions in climate change. It proposes an analytical framework to classify adaptation practices based on their relationship to different forms of environmental risks. It examines past adaptation responses to climate change, their impacts on the livelihoods of the rural poor, and the role of institutions in facilitating external support for adaptation. The discussion uses evidence from two sets of cases - those in the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) coping strategies database, and in the National Adaptation Programs of Action (NAPAs) - to comparatively assess the role of local rural institutions in facilitating adaptation. Focusing on three types of institutions - public, private, and civic, a review of case studies indicates that local institutions play a crucial role in shaping adaptation to climate change: they connect households to local resources and collective action; determine flows of external support to different social groups...

A Framework for Regulating Microfinance Institutions : The Experience in Ghana and the Philippines

Gallardo, Joselito
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.49%
An earlier Policy Research Working Paper (Hennie van Greuning, Joselito Gallardo, and Bikki Randhawa, "A Framework for Regulating Microfinance Institutions," WPS 2061, February 1999) presented a regulatory framework that identifies thresholds in financial intermediation activities that trigger a requirement for a microfinance institution to satisfy external or mandatory guidelines-a tiered approach to regulation and prudential supervision. The model focuses on risk-taking activities of microfinance institutions that must be managed and prudentially regulated. The author reports on the results of the field testing and assessment of the tiered approach, focusing on the experience of Ghana and the Philippines. The two countries both have a wide range of informal, semi-formal, and formal institutions providing financial services to the poor, but differ in how they regulate financial intermediation activities by microfinance providers. In his assessment and a comparative analysis, the author focuses on key issues in the regulatory and supervisory environment for microfinance-and in the legal system and judicial processes-being addressed by government authorities and microfinance stakeholders in both countries. He gives particular attention to the thresholds at which intermediation activities become subject to prudential regulation and regulatory standards for capitalization and capital adequacy...

Unbundling Institutions for External Finance

Knack, Steve; Xu, Lixin Colin
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.52%
The empirical literature on institutions and development has been challenged on grounds of reverse causality, measurement error in institutional indicators, and heterogeneity. This paper uses firm-level data across countries to confront these challenges. Instead of analyzing ultimate outcomes, such as income levels where institutional quality is likely endogenous, the focus is on firm-level external finance. Moreover, institutions are “unbundled” to explore how various types of institutions affect external finance differently. The paper documents that micro firms have significantly less access to external finance than small and medium firms. General financial development and contracting institutions that facilitate transactions between private parties exert little effect, on average, on firms’ access to external finance. In contrast, property rights institutions that constrain political and economic elites exhibit stronger positive association with access to external finance. The analysis finds evidence of attenuation bias associated with error in measuring institutions. For leveling the playing field between elite and non-elite firms (as proxied by firm size) in their access to external finance...

Governance and Australian financial institutions

Davis, Kevin
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 114091 bytes; 352 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
EN_AU
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.47%
This paper examines issues of corporate governance arising from the activities of financial institutions and markets. It is argued that governance problems are particularly severe in financial institutions vis-a-vis firms in other industries, and particularly important for society given the central role of financial institutions and markets in the financing and corporate governance activities of the economy. Processes of financial reform and financial system design have, it is argued, generally paid inadequate attention to governance considerations. The paper: examines some of the public policy issues related to governance of financial institutions; discusses some of the problems evident in governance within financial institutions; and considers emerging issues and trends in the governance role of financial institutions in the broader economy. ‘Structural changes in financial markets have led to the emergence of new financial instruments, increased integration of markets, stronger competition and new or radically changed financial institutions. These developments are having an important impact on the functioning of financial governance channels, although not all consequences are well understood.’ OECD (1997); no

The Role of Institutions in Cosmopolitan Justice

MIKLOS, Andras
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: 171846 bytes; application/pdf; digital
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.5%
This paper focuses on a distinction between two kinds of theories about the role of institutions in cosmopolitan justice. Some philosophers claim that principles of egalitarian justice apply to institutional schemes only, and do not apply to the actions of individuals. Others think that principles of egalitarian justice apply also to the actions of individuals. I aim to clarify this debate with a view on cosmopolitan justice by examining whether institutions can make a non-instrumental difference to what people ought to do with regard to distributive justice. I begin by outlining two positions concerning the significance of institutions in cosmopolitan justice. The first position argues that institutions enable a more effective discharging of individual preinstitutional duties, however both institutions and individual conduct are to be evaluated with the same fundamental principles. The second position aims to establish the special significance of institutions in global justice by regarding them as possible channels of collective harm. In contrast to these two strategies, I provide an argument for regarding institutions as making a non-instrumental difference to what people ought to do with regard to cosmopolitan justice. The argument purports to establish that some fundamental cosmopolitan principles of justice do not apply to individual conduct directly. It emphasizes the constitutive role of global institutions in distributive justice on the basis of the conditional character of moral duties and of the systematic nature of institutional schemes. The thesis is justified by reference to the capacity of institutions to solve coordination problems and conflicts raised by the fact of disagreement...

The Political Economy of Distress in East Asian Financial Institutions

Bongini, Paola; Claessens, Constantijn A.; Ferri, Giovanni
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Working Paper; Publications & Research; Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.56%
Politics and regulatory capture can play an important role in financial institutions distress. East Asia's financial crisis featured many distressed and closed financial intermediaries in an environment with many links between government, politicians, supervisors, and financial institutions. This makes the East Asian financial crisis a good event for studying how such connections affect the resolution of financial institutions distress. The authors investigate distress and closure decisions for 186 banks and 97 non-bank financial institutions in Indonesia, the Republic of Korea, Malaysia, the Philippines, and Thailand. They find that after July 1997, 42 percent of the institutions experienced distress (were closed, merged, or re-capitalized, or had their operations temporarily suspended). By July 1999, 13 percent of all institutions in existence in July 1997 had been closed. Using financial data for 1996, the authors find that: 1) Traditional CAMEL-type variables - returns on assets, loan growth, and the ratio of loan loss reserves to capital...

Can Reforming Global Institutions Help Developing Countries Share More in the Benefits from Globalization?

Solimano, Andres
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.5%
Globalization could significantly expand trade, international investment, and technological advances, but the gains from global integration have been unevenly distributed across and within nations. Greater global interdependence has also brought greater macroeconomic volatility, resulting in several serious financial crises in the second half of the 1990s. The global matrix of Bretton Woods and United Nations institutions that developed starting in the 1940s, formed under a different balance of power, in a world of fixed exchange rates and limited capital mobility. Since the 1960s regional financial institutions have emerged because of the greater autonomy of different regions and the greater financial needs of development. The author reviews different proposals for reform of the international financial institutions and changes in the roles of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank. He highlights the implications for developing countries of (1) Policy conditionality. (2) The countercyclical role of multilaterals' lending. (3) Greater lending to middle-income than to low-income developing countries. (3) Access to liquidity at times of crisis. (4) Mechanisms for giving low-income countries a greater voice in IMF and World Bank decisionmaking. The author streses the overlapping responsibilities of the Bretton Woods and regional financial institutions and the need to reassess the allocation of responsibilities and to develop better coordination mechanisms between these institutions. Those designing institutional reform must consider the corporate capabilities of each type of institution. The corporate cultures of global and regional institutions differ. So does the kind of knowledge they generate and disseminate...

Can Institutions Resolve Ethnic Conflict?

Easterly, William
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.54%
High-quality institutions -- reflected in such factors as rule of law, bureaucratic quality, freedom from government expropriation, and freedom from government repudiation of contracts -- mitigate the adverse economic effects of ethnic fractionalization identified by Easterly and Levine (1997) and others. Ethnic diversity has a more adverse effect on economic policy and growth when a government's institutions are poor. But poor institutions have an even more adverse effect on growth and policy when ethnic diversity is high. In countries where the institutions are good enough, however, ethnic diversity does not lessen growth or worsen economic policies. Good institutions also reduce the risk of wars and genocides that might otherwise result from ethnic fractionalization. However, these forms of violence are not the channel through which ethnic fragmentation and its interaction with institutions affect economic growth. Ethnically diverse nations that want to endure in peace and prosperity must build good institutions.

Strengthening the Governance and Performance of State-Owned Financial Institutions

Scott, David H.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.49%
Corporate governance arrangements define the responsibilities, authorities and accountabilities of owners, boards of directors, and executive managers of a company. Good corporate governance is as important for state financial institutions as for private sector companies. Many of the problems that commonly afflict state financial institutions can be associated with, if not attributed directly to, weaknesses in corporate governance. This note draws on guidelines recently published by the OECD and the Basel Committee for Banking Supervision to compile a comprehensive corporate governance evaluation framework relevant to state-owned commercial and development finance institutions. It highlights aspects of this framework that are considered to be of particular importance to state financial institutions by citing innovative practices in a number of countries. Finally, it presents a detailed case study of the governance arrangements in place at the Development Bank of Southern Africa.

Can Local Institutions Reduce Poverty? Rural Decentralization in Burkina Faso

Donnelly-Roark, Paula; Ouedraogo, Karim; Ye, Xiao
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.5%
The authors present evidence that in Burkina Faso, certain high-performing local institutions contribute to equitable economic development. They link reduced levels of poverty, and inequality to a high degree of internal village organization. The structure of these high-performing local organizations means they can exist in a number of African countries, because they depend more on internal participation, rather than on nay one country's cultural assets. The authors find that: 1) Service-asset management groups (SAMs) - one of three local institutions identified in the study - have helped to significantly reduce inequality in participating households. SAMs are a fusion of long-standing development committees, and indigenous management councils that collectively manage community assets, such as water. SAMs have combined the productivity goals of growth, with the values of equity, and solidarity. 2) Current development approaches use growth as an initiator, assuming that surpluses will be used to benefit the poor. SAMs...

State Financial Institutions : Mandates, Governance, and Beyond

Rudolph, Heinz P.
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.47%
There is no doubt that on average the performance of state financial institutions around the world has been below the lowest expectations. Lack of governance, management skills, regulation, and transparency, and misguided incentives have contributed to discredit these institutions for supporting the development of local financial markets. However, the pro-active role that some state financial institutions have played in the recent crisis in allocating credit to sectors cyclically not attractive for commercial banks has brought back the question of whether some state ownership in the banking system would be preferable. This paper analyzes the experience of four state financial institutions that have performed relatively well in the past: Canada's Business Development Bank, Chile's BancoEstado, South Africa's Development Bank of Southern Africa, and Finland's Finnvera plc. The author finds that these institutions have different checks and balances to mitigate eventual mismanagement of resources. The author also finds that little progress has been made in measuring the policy performance of these institutions.

On "Good" Politicians and "Bad" Policies : Social Cohesion, Institutions, and Growth

Ritzen, Jo; Easterly, William; Woolcock, Michael
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.47%
Social cohesion - that is, the inclusiveness of a country's communities - is essential for generating the trust needed to implement reforms. Citizens have to trust that the short-term losses that inevitably arise from reform, will be more than offset by long-term gains. However, in countries divided along class and ethnic lines, and with weak institutions, even the boldest, most civic-minded and well-informed politician (or interest group) will face severe constraints in bringing about policy reform. The authors hypothesize that key development outcomes (particularly economic growth) are most likely to be associated with countries that are both socially cohesive and governed by effective public institutions. They test this hypothesis for the sample of countries with available data. The authors develop a conceptual framework based on the idea of social cohesion, then review the evidence on which it is based. While several earlier studies have shown that differences in growth rates among developing countries are a result of weak rule of law...

Au coeur des institutions d'immigration : dispositifs, gestion et contrôle migratoire au Canada

Haince, Marie-Claude
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
FR
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.5%
Cette étude propose une analyse critique du système d’immigration canadien à partir d’un examen détaillé du processus de sélection des immigrants de la catégorie « travailleurs qualifiés ». Il s’agit d’interroger le rapport des sociétés canadienne et québécoise à l’immigration en se focalisant sur la manière dont l’État opère à travers la gestion de l’exclusion/inclusion des immigrants et de saisir ce qui est en jeu lors du processus d’immigration en cernant les effets qui s’actualisent sur ceux qui sont impliqués dans ce processus. Spécifiquement, il s’agit de voir comment diverses représentations de l’immigrant se sont cristallisées dans le temps, influant sur les représentations actuelles. Il ne s’agit pas tant d’en interroger les conditions d’émergence que de voir quels effets elles produisent. Il importe également d’identifier les différentes stratégies et pratiques à l’œuvre dans le processus d’immigration. Partant d’un cas singulier, il est possible de dégager des dynamiques plus larges tout en rendant manifestes les liens entre des tendances globales en matière d’immigration (marchandisation et sécurisation) et leurs articulations à une politique nationale. Cette recherche s’articule autour de trois approches – une anthropologie des institutions...

The farm and the garden: community supported agriculture programs and public horticulture institutions

Edelson, Shari
Fonte: University of Delaware Publicador: University of Delaware
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.5%
Lyons, Robert E.; Community supported agriculture, or CSA, is one of several newlyemerging models of sustainable agriculture, which attempts to provide an alternative to conventional large-scale agricultural practice by linking independent, small-scale farmers to individual consumers. In recent years, CSA has become a topic of interest within the public horticulture community, and many public gardens have considered integrating CSA-related programming within operations. The purpose of this research was to assess the extent to which public horticulture institutions have engaged with community supported agriculture, to identify the institutional benefits and challenges presented by such programming, and to develop recommendations for public horticulture institutions wishing to implement CSA projects. This study utilized a concurrent embedded mixed-methods design for data collection, and included three electronic questionnaires distributed to public horticulture institutions, four case studies of institutions currently implementing CSA programs, and additional interviews with topic experts in the field of sustainable agriculture. Survey data revealed that over 25% of respondent institutions have considered CSA implementation; however...

Evaluating web technology : the use and measurement of web initiatives in public horticulture institutions

Aubree, Pack
Fonte: University of Delaware Publicador: University of Delaware
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.47%
Lyons, Robert; Websites provide an additional channel of communication between an organization and external audiences. Understanding how audiences are curating their own experience, and how to make content work accordingly, is best monitored by continual evaluation of online practices; both of the institution internally and the external user audience. For-profit website values are typically determined by some form of e-commerce, but most non-profit institutions must include an investigation of mission-based return on investment (ROI), because they exist for more than just maintaining a revenue stream. The objectives of this thesis were to 1) investigate the premise that evaluation is a necessary element of a successful website, 2) research the current status of web technologies within public horticulture institutions so as to provide a record of peer activity for benchmarking opportunities, and 3) provide a framework from which diverse institutions could build an evaluation strategy, inorder to determine the value of their websites and make informed improvements. This study included both quantitative and qualitative methodology. A survey was implemented to identify current web initiativesand existing web evaluation practices; case studies were conducted that appliedsurvey questions on a more detailed level with three institutions. Results indicated that formal...