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Direitos de propriedade, estratégia e ambiente institucional; Property rights, strategy, and institutional environment

Monteiro, Guilherme Fowler de Avila
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 15/09/2010 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.23%
A presente tese investiga como o Ambiente Institucional influencia o modo de governança de direitos de propriedade e a estratégia das firmas. O estudo divide-se em duas partes. A primeira parte empreende uma investigação teórica que se constitui em três etapas. Primeiro, examina-se o modelo de direitos de propriedade de Barzel (1994, 1997, 2003). Segundo, analisa-se uma abordagem de estratégia competitiva baseada em direitos de propriedade (Property Rights Perspective; Foss e Foss, 2001). Especificamente, argumenta-se que tal abordagem representa uma extensão do modelo de Barzel e demonstra-se que os conceitos introduzidos na etapa anterior possibilitam uma formulação mais geral da Property Rights Perspective, conduzindo a uma definição de estratégia competitiva que concilia as noções de strategizing e economizing (Williamson, 1991). A terceira etapa, por fim, examina particularmente o estabelecimento de estratégias de proteção de direitos de propriedade. Um modelo heurístico baseado em Williamson (1996) é proposto e com base nele três formas básicas de proteção são definidas em função da qualidade do Ambiente Institucional: estratégia centrada no sistema legal, no estabelecimento de mecanismos privados e no abandono de atributos valiosos. A segunda parte da pesquisa busca evidências empíricas que suportem o modelo teórico. O estudo examina três casos de proteção de direitos de propriedade sobre a tecnologia transgênica em sementes de soja: EUA...

Caracterização do ambiente institucional e sua mudança no Brasil entre 1889 e 1945

Scherer, Catarina de Miranda
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.2%
Pelo menos até o primeiro governo Vargas, a dinâmica da economia brasileira era ditada pela produção primária para exportação, numa sucessão de produtos que culminou com a produção cafeeira. Esse quadro foi, porém, completamente alterado durante a década de 1930, quando se caracterizou um momento de inflexão econômica e institucional de grandes dimensões, que transformou a dinâmica de toda a economia. A solidificação da nova forma da economia só foi possível por ter sido acompanhada de uma alteração na estrutura institucional do país, tornando os sistemas financeiro, tributário e educacional, além das relações de trabalho, mais adequados a este novo panorama. Instituições são as regras do jogo em uma sociedade que moldam a interação entre os homens e, assim, fornecem estruturas estáveis para que as transações ocorram. Conhecer as características institucionais históricas de cada país pode trazer uma melhor compreensão de suas deficiências atuais e das alternativas viáveis de mudança para superá-las. O presente trabalho pretende caracterizar o ambiente institucional brasileiro do período entre 1889 e 1945, com base na Nova Economia Institucional, identificando, também, os efeitos destas instituições sobre o desempenho econômico e os processos de mudança institucional do período...

A formação do Mercosul como fator de alteração no ambiente institucional do agronegócio de pêssegos da região de Pelotas; The formation of Mercosul as a factor of alteration in the institutional environment of peaches agribusiness in Pelotas region

Zerbielli, Jerusa; Waquil, Paulo Dabdab
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.17%
O presente estudo tem como referencial teórico a Nova Economia Institucional, campo no qual as instituições importam e impactam sobre o comportamento dos agentes. Este estudo observou as dificuldades enfrentadas pelo agronegócio de pêssegos da região de Pelotas e procurou explicá-las através das mudanças no ambiente institucional no qual o agronegócio está inserido, através de instrumentos de pesquisa construídos para captar as características das transações e dos agentes, além da participação das instituições, o papel das organizações e as tecnologias utilizadas nesse agronegócio. Conclui-se, neste estudo, que a formação do Mercado Comum do Sul (Mercosul) e a abertura econômica dificultaram a situação do agronegócio de pêssegos de Pelotas, pois, em nível de bloco, não foram criadas instituições que favorecessem a atuação desse agronegócio em mercados globalizados.; The present study has as theoretical reference the New Institutional Economics, field on which the institutions import and impact over the agent’s behavior. This study observed the difficulties faced by the peach agribusiness in the region of Pelotas and searched to explain them through the changes in the institutional environment on which the agribusiness is inserted...

Território e ambiente institutional: O arranjo produtivo local (APL) bordados de Ibitinga-SP

Florian, Fabiana; De Lorenzo, Helena Carvalho
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 25-53
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.14%
This study shows the importance of the institutional environment in which the local productive arrangements are entered. It shows that the specifics of each case are historical knowledge fundamental to the studies of APLs. It also shows that in areas of traditional sectors with intensive use of labor, low innovative capacity and low barriers to entry, relations that historically will be developing between firms, workers and market can be considered strong constraints of the trajectory of success or failure. The case study is a set of companies producing textiles and confecciones (products of bed, table and bath) located in the municipality of Ibitinga-SP, of great importance in the region, the high generation of employment and income. It is the study of a particular case in the context of studies on local productive arrangements (APLs), because it serves to highlight the importance of the institutional environment as a prerequisite to overcome the difficulties and consolidation of APLs.

Influencing mechanisms of institutional changes on the organizational culture of SOEs in China : the case of Dongfang Turbine Co., Ltd

Yong, Yang
Fonte: Instituto Universitário de Lisboa Publicador: Instituto Universitário de Lisboa
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2012 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.25%
Thesis submitted as partial requirement for the conferral of Doctor of Management / JEL: M14; This thesis takes Dongfang Turbine Co., Ltd. (abbreviated as DTC) as a typical case of Chinese state-owned enterprises (abbreviated as SOEs). Case study is used as the research method, combining qualitative and quantitative analysis. Data was collected from different sources including public reports, newspapers, journals, a questionnaire survey and in-depth interviews so as to explore how the mechanisms of the institutional environment and change influence organizational culture. Through deep analysis, four stages of institutional change of SOEs, as well as the relevant basic characteristics of institutional environment, organizational culture and management style in each period have been identified. It was also found that the different institutional environments always required corresponding management styles fitting the specific characteristics of that period of time, and that the organizational culture enhanced the formation of this kind of management style through the core values historically formed across those periods of time. As the main theoretical contribution, a theoretical model was set up to analyse the connections among institutional environment...

A Tale of Two Provinces: The Institutional Environment and Foreign Ownership in China

Huang, Yasheng; Di, Wenhua
Fonte: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: 382633 bytes; application/pdf
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.27%
In this paper, we use a unique dataset covering joint ventures in two provinces of China, Jiangsu and Zhejiang, to test the effect of the institutional environment for domestic private firms on ownership structures of FDI projects. Unlike many studies on this subject, we approach the issue from the perspective of local firms seeking FDI rather than from the perspective of foreign firms seeking to invest in China. Applying the prevailing bargaining framework in studies on ownership structures of FDI projects, we find that a more liberal institutional environment for domestic private firms is associated with less foreign ownership of the joint ventures operating there. Several mechanisms can contribute to this outcome. One is that a more liberal institutional environment may enhance the bargaining power of those domestic firms negotiating with foreign firms to form alliances (the capability effect). The other mechanism is that a more liberal institutional environment may reduce some of the auxiliary benefits associated with FDI - such as greater property rights granted to foreign investors - and thereby attenuate incentive to form alliances with foreign firms (the incentive effect).

Community Driven Development and Accountable Local Governance : Some Lessons from the Philippines

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.23%
This study evaluates the connections between community-driven development (CDD) and decentralized local governance, and the need to identify strategies for operational integration. It aims to deepen the understanding of how the institutional environment for local governance interacts with CDD project operations. It gives special emphasis on the issue of accountability, analyzing how CDD operations perform in terms of strengthening the capacity of citizens and civil society to hold local authorities and public service providers accountable, and the capacity of the local government to be held accountable. The study utilizes a two-pronged approach. First, it assesses the institutional environment for accountability in local governance. Second, it examines the operations of two major World Bank-assisted CDD projects in two municipal case study sites. Given that CDD projects both shape and are shaped by local governance contexts in which they are embedded, the study investigates how CDD operations in the Philippines are affected by and are helping reform local governance conditions. It is from the analysis of this interface between CDD operations and local governance conditions that the study aims to generate policy and operational recommendations to enhance integration between CDD and local governance approaches. The analysis of the institutional environment for accountability in local governance often found an enabling policy and legal framework in principle...

Albania : Public Expenditure and Institutional Review, Volume 2. Main Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.2%
This report presents an in-depth evaluation of the budgetary planning process in Albania and the institutional arrangements required for better management of public expenditures. The report does not provide a detailed analysis of expenditures or an assessment of investment projects and their outcomes in each sector. Such a shift in emphasis is appropriate given the currently weak institutional capacities in Albania and the need to enforce accountability in the public sector.The report is arranged as follows: Chapter 1 deals with the macroeconomic frmaework and policies needed to maintain fiscal sustainability and improve fiscal discipline. Chapter 2 discusses revenue and expenditure patterns, presents measures that would enhance revenue performance and analyzes the allocation of expenditures. This chapter is designed to highlight the key expenditure priorities that should be more fully addressed as Albania moves forward with the medium-term expenditure framework process (MTEF). The bulk of the report--Chapters 3...

Measuring Governance, Corruption, and State Capture : How Firms and Bureaucrats Shape the Business Environment in Transition Economies

Hellman, Joel S.; Jones, Geraint; Kaufmann, Daniel; Schankerman, Mark
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.23%
As a symptom of fundamental institutional weaknesses, corruption needs to be viewed within a broader governance framework. It thrives where the state is unable to reign over its bureaucracy, to protect property and contractual rights, or to provide institutions that support the rule off law. Furthermore, governance failures at the national level cannot be isolated from the interface between the corporate and state sectors, in particular from the heretofore under-emphasized influence that firms may exert on the state. Under certain conditions, corporate strategies may exacerbate mis-governance at the national level. An in-depth empirical assessment of the links between corporate behavior and national governance can thus provide particular insights. The 1999 Business Environment and Enterprise Performance Survey (BEEPS) - the transition economies component of the ongoing World Business Environment Survey - assesses in detail the various dimensions of governance from the perspective of about 3,000 firms in 20 countries. After introducing the survey framework and measurement approach...

Institutional Environment and Public Officials' Performance in Guyana

Gokcekus, Omer; Manning, Nick; Mukherjee, Ranjana; Nallari, Raj
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.28%
The report presents the findings of a survey of public officials in Guyana, whose views were sought in a wide range of civil service issues - from personnel management, to rewards, and disciplinary actions, and, from budget environment to corruption. Answers were used to test some prior assertions about the public sector in the country, and, it is the respondents' belief that public sector jobs are attractive, though public employees are not fully prepared for their jobs through education, and training, nor is recruitment always based on merit. However, officials find policies consistent, but implement policies even if in disagreement with policy directions. Furthermore, decision-making is characterized by poor communication, and low employee participation. Nonetheless, officials surveyed showed insight about which reforms might enhance organizational performance, and, based on data analysis, quantification of how public officials assess the organizations' institutional environment, and performance was possible. Survey data demonstrated how widely varied the institutional environments of such organizations are...

Seizing the Global Opportunity : Investment Climate Assessment and Reform Strategy for Cambodia

World Bank Group
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Investment Climate Assessment (ICA); Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.2%
This report has been accepted as a key input to Cambodia's private sector development strategy following extensive consultations with the Royal Government of Cambodia, its development partners, and the private sector. It was prepared to help these stakeholders identify and prioritize policy reforms to achieve three related objectives: to enable the private sector to lead growth, to help diversify the economy, and to increase the role of the private sector in public service delivery. The report takes as its starting point Cambodia's pro- poor trade strategy, which recognizes that as a small country, exports are critical to expanding job opportunities. However, Cambodia's policymakers are aware that the export opportunities cannot be captured if firms face an uncompetitive domestic business environment. The report employs an investment climate survey of 800 urban, rural, and informal firms to identify how the policy and institutional environment impacts individual firms, and benchmarks the responses of Cambodian firms with those in China...

Are Natural Resources Cursed? An Investigation of the Dynamic Effects of Resource Dependence on Institutional Quality

De Rosa, Donato; Iootty, Mariana
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.32%
This paper examines whether natural resource dependence has a negative influence on various indicators of institutional quality when controlling for the potential effects of other geographic, economic and cultural initial conditions. Analysis of a panel of countries from 1996 to 2010 indicates that a high degree of resource dependence, measured as the share of mineral fuel exports in a country's total exports, is associated with worse government effectiveness, as well as with reduced levels of competition across the economy. Furthermore, estimation of long-run elasticities suggests that government effectiveness and the intensity of domestic competition decrease over time as the dependence on natural resources increases. An illustration of the Russian case shows that the negative effects accumulate in the long run, leading to a worse deterioration of government effectiveness in Russia than in Canada, a country with a comparable resource endowment but far better overall institutional quality. This result is corroborated by a significant negative correlation found between regional resource dependence and an indicator of regulatory capture in Russian regions...

Albania : Public Expenditure and Institutional Review, Volume 1. Executive Summary

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Public Expenditure Review; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.21%
This report presents an in-depth evaluation of the budgetary planning process in Albania and the institutional arrangements required for better management of public expenditures. The report does not provide a detailed analysis of expenditures or an assessment of investment projects and their outcomes in each sector. Such a shift in emphasis is appropriate given the currently weak institutional capacities in Albania and the need to enforce accountability in the public sector.The report is arranged as follows: Chapter 1 deals with the macroeconomic frmaework and policies needed to maintain fiscal sustainability and improve fiscal discipline. Chapter 2 discusses revenue and expenditure patterns, presents measures that would enhance revenue performance and analyzes the allocation of expenditures. This chapter is designed to highlight the key expenditure priorities that should be more fully addressed as Albania moves forward with the medium-term expenditure framework process (MTEF). The bulk of the report--Chapters 3...

Public Officials and Their Institutional Environment : An Analytical Model for Assessing the Impact of Institutional Change on Public Sector Performance

Manning, Nick; Mukherjee, Ranjana; Gokcekus, Omer
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.3%
To perform well, public officials must be confident enough about the future, to be able to see a relationship between their efforts, and an eventual outcome. Their expectations are shaped by their institutional environment. If the rules are not credible, or are unlikely to be enforced, of if they expect policies to be contradicted, or resources to flow unpredictably, results will be uncertain, so there is little point in working purposefully. The authors present an analytical framework, used to design a series of surveys of public officials' views of their institutional environment, and to analyze the information generated in fifteen countries. They describe how survey results help map public sector's strengths, and weaknesses, and offer an approach to identifying potential payoffs from reforms. The framework emphasizes how heterogeneous incentives, and institutional arrangements are within he public sector. It emphasizes how important it is for policymakers to base decisions on information (not generalizations) that suggests what is most likely to work...

Reforming Water Supply in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire : Mild Reform in a Turbulent Environment

Ménard, Claude; Clarke, George
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research; Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.26%
Compared with other urban water systems in West Africa, the water supply system in Abidjan performs very well. Documenting the recent history of that system, the authors try to answer three questions: What motivated reform in a system that was already performing well? How and why did the reform affect sector performance, and what additional changes might improve performance further? And what explains the relatively strong performance of Abidjan's water system? Is the success attributable primarily to an efficient contractual arrangement or more generally to Cote d'Ivoire's institutional environment? In a region plagued by political instability, Ivorian political institutions were remarkably stable for close to 40 years. In part, the success of the Ivorian model is the result of these institutions' stability and credibility. The single-party system in place at the time of reform might suggest that there were few restraints in place to prevent the government from behaving opportunistically. But several features of the institutional environment protected against such opportunism. Because of this, and because reform was based on a system already performing well, the contractual arrangement with a private operator proved exceptionally capable of adjusting even in the face of dramatic changes in the external environment. Institutional environments are not as favorable in other countries in the region...

Bulgaria - Resourcing the Judiciary for Performance and Accountability : A Judicial Public Expenditure and Institutional Review

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Legal and Judicial Sector Assessment; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.14%
This report examines why, given the increasing resources allocated to the judiciary, there seem to have been only modest improvements in judicial performance. It lifts the veil on the conflicting opinions on the reasons for slow progress on performance and efficiency by analyzing the institutional environment within which the judiciary functions and the key incentives propelling the policy stances and actions of major institutional actors. A supply-demand approach is then used to review the challenges behind improving judicial performance, focusing on resource allocation and management issues on the supply side and on case inflow on the demand side. This perspective enables consideration of both supply and demand issues impacting judicial performance and offers an opportunity to suggest actions and policy responses that could enable policy makers to manage demand more effectively while strengthening access to justice. Overall, therefore, improving judicial performance now requires a shift from increasing the overall level of resources to approaches that do not increase the burden on the central budget. The key challenge now confronting Bulgaria's judiciary is to build on the reforms so far by developing...

Corruption, Business Environment, and Small Business Fixed Investment in India

Honorati, Maddalena; Mengistae, Taye
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.15%
This paper estimates a structural dynamic business investment equation and an error correction model of fixed assets growth on a sample of predominantly small and mid-size manufacturers in India. The results suggest that excessive labor regulation, power shortages, and problems of access to finance are all significant factors in industrial growth in the country. The estimated effects of labor regulation, power shortages and access to finance on the rate of business investment all vary by states' levels of industrial development and. Perhaps more importantly, they also depend on a fourth institutional factor, namely, corruption. The rate of fixed investment is significantly lower where power shortages are more severe and labor regulation is stronger over the full sample, but each of these impacts is also greater for businesses self-reportedly affected by corruption. Although access to finance does not seem to influence the rate of investment for most firms, there is evidence that investment decisions are constrained by cash flow in enterprises that are unaffected by corruption or power shortages. There are nuances to this story as we take into account regional specificity...

Institutional Environment Assessment in Sao Tome and Principe; Evaluation institutionnelle de l'environnement au Sao Tome et Principe

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.08%
The Institutional Environment Assessment (IEA) carried out in Sao Tome e Principe in October-November 1996, sought to assist the government in identifying the root causes of the country's poor economic performance and in formulating strategies to address them. It was a self-diagnostic exercise based on the active participation of local stakeholders so as to foster ownership of the follow-up reforms. It entailed comprehensive data collection and analysis through field reviews (by three working groups focusing on technical, administrative, and structural problems respectively); desk reviews of relevant consultant reports and economic and sector work; and a survey of governance and indigenous institutions impacting on economic management. A 4-day assessment workshop was held to synthesize, analyze and prioritize the information gathered, and to map out future strategy. Follow-up workshops are being held to formulate an implementation plan and apportion responsibilities between implementing agencies. Lessons learned: the IEA is an appropriate instrument for identifying the major institutional causes of economic underperformance; and the involvement of all the key stakeholders was a positive and strategic move. In many cases...

The Philippines : Toward a Better Investment Climate for Growth and Productivity

World Bank Group
Fonte: Manila Publicador: Manila
Tipo: Publications & Research; Publications & Research :: Working Paper
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.29%
This working paper concerns the growth of investment climate in the Philippines. There are several resounding ideas in areas both positive and negative. The growth potential in the Philippines is considerable. The country has significant natural resources; a large pool of managerial and entrepreneurial talent; and widespread proficiency in English. The Government's Medium Term Development Plan (MTDP), 2005-2010 sets ambitious growth and employment targets. Recognizing the opportunity at hand, the MTDP sets much higher growth targets than recent outcomes. The government aims to raise GDP growth from 6.1 percent in 2004 to 8 percent by 2010; increase investments from 19 percent of GDP to 26 percent; create two million jobs annually by 2010 and reduce the incidence of poverty from 26 percent to 19 percent. Meeting the ambitious growth targets will mean addressing key vulnerabilities that has made the Philippines less attractive to investors. From a long-term perspective, the Philippine growth and social development record could have been better. Reforms have delivered only modest growth. Low institutional quality and poor fiscal conditions lie behind reforms...

Foreign entry strategies: strategic adaptation to various facets of the institutional environment

Ferreira, Manuel Portugal; Li, Dan; Jang, Yong Suk
Fonte: Instituto Politécnico de Leiria. globADVANTAGE - Center of Research in International Business & Strategy Publicador: Instituto Politécnico de Leiria. globADVANTAGE - Center of Research in International Business & Strategy
Tipo: Outros
Publicado em /09/2007 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.09%
In this paper we develop a comprehensive model of MNEs' foreign entry strategies and theorize how and how much the entry strategy is likely to be determined in the interface between internal and external pressures for both conformity and legitimacy. We develop an adaptation argument, in contrast to a selection rationale, through which we enhance our understanding of the various facets of the institutional environment and the constraints international managers encounter in their internationalization strategies.; Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia - Portugal (grant SFRH/BD/880/2000)