Página 1 dos resultados de 742 itens digitais encontrados em 0.019 segundos

Institutional arrangements in the emerging biodiesel industry: Case studies from Minas Gerais-Brazil

Watanabe, Kassia; Bijman, Jos; Slingerland, Maja
Fonte: ELSEVIER SCI LTD; OXFORD Publicador: ELSEVIER SCI LTD; OXFORD
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.85%
Connecting (small) family farmers to the emerging biodiesel industry requires careful design of the institutional arrangements between the producers of oil crops and the processing companies. According to institutional economics theory, the design of effective and efficient arrangements depends on production and transaction characteristics, the institutional environment, and the organizational environment supporting the transaction between producers and the industry. This paper presents a comparative study on two cases in the feedstock-for-biodiesel industry in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The two case studies represent the production and transaction system of soybeans (Glycine max L Merrill) and castor beans (Ricinus communis L). Important elements of effective and efficient institutional arrangements are farmer collective action, availability of technical and financial support, and farmer experience with particular crops. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.; Netherlands Science Organization NWO-WOTRO; Netherlands Science Organization NWOWOTRO; Federal University of Vicosa; Federal University of Vicosa; BIOERG-SECTES; BIOERGSECTES; EMATER; EMATER; COOAPI; COOAPI

Poder na formação do arranjo institucional do sistema agroindustrial citrícola paulista; Power in the formation of institutional arrangement of citrus sector in São Paulo state

Ito, Nobuiuki Costa
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 10/02/2015 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.92%
O tema do poder economico nas relacoes verticais de uma cadeia de suprimento,frequentemente, apresenta-se como uma materia ambigua na teoria economica. Este tema que carrega tal ambiguidade e aspecto chave para analise e aplicacao da teoria economica em casos concretos do funcionamento da economia, em especial pelos orgaos de defesa economica ou antitruste. O caso do Sistema Agroindustrial (SAG) citricola paulista apresenta muitos destas ambiguidades analiticas e, tambem, foi caso julgado pelo Conselho Administrativo de Defesa Economica (CADE), em pelo menos dois momentos importantes na evolucao de sua organizacao economica. O poder economico foi topico central destes julgamentos e, por isso, a pergunta de pesquisa desta tese e: o poder economico afeta a formacao do arranjo organizacional do SAG citricola paulista? Utilizando fundamentos teoricos na Economia dos Custos de Transacao (ECT), tanto do ramo de governanca quanto do ramo de custos de mensuracao, a tese analisa a transacao de compra e venda de laranja entre produtor citricola e processador de suco, em termos de: (1) formacao de contratos, isto e, do processo de selecao de termos do contrato; e (2) decisao de integracao vertical parcial para tras tomada pelos processadores de suco...

Políticas públicas de defesa do consumidor e da concorrência : uma avaliação do processo de consolidação institucional do sistema brasileiro de defesa da concorrência; Public politics of defense of the consumer and the competition : an evaluation of the process of institutional consolidation of the brazilian system of free market defense

Matias-Pereira, José
Fonte: Universidade de Brasília Publicador: Universidade de Brasília
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.93%
Neste artigo, partimos do pressuposto que, numa economia de mercado como a brasileira, o governo necessita contar com dois importantes instrumentos - que interagem e se complementam -, para garantir o crescimento econômico: a legislação antitruste e a política de regulação econômica. Assim, temos como objetivo, apoiado na nova economia institucional (North, 1990), retratar em linhas gerais a política e o sistema brasileiro de defesa da concorrência (SBDC), bem como avaliar os efeitos das decisões do Conselho Administrativo de Defesa Econômica (CADE) - com ênfase nas decisões sobre os atos de concentração analisados pós-1994 -, para o fortalecimento institucional do referido sistema. Concluímos, ao final, que o sistema de defesa da concorrência - em que pese às evidências de que necessita ser aparelhado, em termos de recursos financeiros e humanos, que carece de uma maior celeridade na apreciação de determinados atos e que precisa aperfeiçoar os mecanismos de coordenação dos órgãos do sistema -, está se consolidando institucionalmente no Brasil. ____________________________________________________________________________________ ABSTRACT; In this article, we leave of the estimated one that, in a market economy as the Brazilian...

The economic consequences of Portuguese State’s movement towards business sector; As consequências económicas da empresarialização do Estado português

Fonseca, João Carlos Nunes Reis Campos
Fonte: Universidade de Aveiro Publicador: Universidade de Aveiro
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.85%
Over the last 36 years, the relationship with the Portuguese state-owned enterprises registered several dynamics: nationalizations, privatizations and corporatization of public services. However, until now the State Business Sector from a national accounts perspective was never analyzed. Based on data collected and compiled for the first time at Statistics Portugal, this PhD thesis aims to test, analyzing in eight dimensions, whether the weight of the State Business Sector increased and if it contributed positively to the Portuguese economy, from 2006 to 2010. In addition to this analysis, an overview of the economic theory of state intervention in the economy, the paradigm changes of public policy in the international context, the evolution of the Portuguese State Business Sector since 1974, accompanied with a business and national accounting perspective between 2006 and 2010, are also presented. The results allow us to conclude that, in general, the weight of the State Business Sector in the Portuguese economy increased and had a tendency of a positive contribution to its economic growth. The State Business Sector also contributed positively to the nominal labour productivity (although with a decreasing trend of contribution to growth over the period under review) and the profitability of the non-financial corporations sector (although impairing the overall ratio of this sector). Nonetheless...

Intersubjective Meaning and Collective Action in ‘Fragile’ Societies : Theory, Evidence and Policy Implications

Gauri, Varun; Woolcock, Michael; Desai, Deval
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.05%
The capacity to act collectively is not just a matter of groups sharing interests, incentives and values (or being sufficiently small), as standard economic theory predicts, but a prior and shared understanding of the constituent elements of problem(s) and possible solutions. From this standpoint, the failure to act collectively can stem at least in part from relevant groups failing to ascribe a common intersubjective meaning to situations, processes and events. Though this is a general phenomenon, it is particularly salient in countries characterized by societal fragility and endemic conflict. We develop a conceptual account of intersubjective meanings, explain its relevance to development practice and research, and examine its implications for development work related to building the rule of law and managing common pool resources.

Trade and Economic Growth : Evidence on the Role of Complementarities for CAFTA-DR Countries

Calderón, César; Poggioa, Virginia
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.84%
This paper examines the effects of trade on growth among Central America-Dominican Republic Free Trade Agreement countries. To accomplish this task, the authors collected a panel data set of 136 countries over 1960-2010, and estimated cross-country growth regressions using an econometric methodology that accounts for unobserved effects and the likely endogeneity of the growth determinants. Following recent empirical efforts, they tested whether the impact of trade openness on growth may be more effective after surpassing a "minimum threshold" in specific areas closely related to economic development. The analysis finds not only that there is a robust causal link from trade to growth, but also that the growth benefits from trade are larger in countries with higher levels of education and innovation, deeper financial markets, a stronger institutional framework, more developed infrastructure networks, a high level of integration with world capital markets, and less stringent economic regulations. On average...

Strengthening Rural Local Institutional Capacities for Sustainable Livelihoods and Equitable Development

Uphoff, Norman; Buck, Louise
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46%
In considering the contribution that Rural Local Institutions (RLIs) can make to Sustainable Livelihoods (SLs), authors bring together two important concerns that emerged among development practitioners in the 1980s and 1990s, respectively. RLIs are important for addressing and mitigating factors of insecurity and instability, dealing in particular with various aspects of vulnerability. RLIs can also support participation (voice), conflict mitigation (peace), and external linkage (market expansion). Generally they produce a variety of public goods at local levels even if focused on narrower objectives. Households and communities are multiply linked, or potentially linked, having many economic, social, information and other connections with distant kin, enterprises and diverse institutions within the country and often internationally. This paper focused on institutions that in fact have some organizational structure, seeking to make them more amenable to introduction and improvement. These are institutions that can have leadership and purposeful direction. Those of which this cannot be said are certainly of similar importance; however, they function very differently.

Electricity Sector Reform in Developing Countries : A Survey of Empirical Evidence on Determinants and Performance

Jamasb, Tooraj; Mota, Raffaella; Newbery, David; Pollitt, Michael
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.88%
Driven by ideology, economic reasoning, and early success stories, vast amounts of financial resources and effort have been spent on reforming infrastructure industries in developing countries. It is therefore important to examine whether evidence supports the logic of reforms. The authors review the empirical evidence on electricity reform in developing countries. They find that country institutions and sector governance play an important role in the success and failure of reform. And reforms also appear to have increased operating efficiency and expanded access to urban customers. However, the reforms have to a lesser degree passed on efficiency gains to customers, tackled distributional effects, and improved rural access. Moreover, some of the literature is not methodologically robust and on par with general development economics literature. Further, findings on some issues are limited and inconclusive, while other important areas are yet to be addressed. Until we know more, implementation of reforms will be more based on ideology and economic theory rather than solid economic evidence.

Introduction to Property Theory : The Fundamental Theorems

Ellerman, David
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.02%
The market system consists of a price mechanism, built on the foundation of a system of property, and contract. In many developing, and transition economies, the market system functions poorly. In many cases, if not most, the malfunctioning is not simply in the price system (for example, anti-competitive activities), but in the underlying property system (such as contracts being breached, and externalities in the sense of transfers not covered by contracts). Economic theory tends to take the functioning of the system of property, and contract for granted, and focuses on the operation of the price mechanism. Property theory focuses on the underlying system of property, and contract. In this paper, the author inaugurates the mathematical treatment of property theory. In contrast with earlier work in "law and economics", and the "new institutional economics", this approach uses principles drawn from jurisprudence, and does not attempt to reduce "law" to "economics" in the sense of efficiency considerations...

Do Middle Classes Bring Institutional Reforms?

Loayza, Norman; Rigolini, Jamele; Llorente, Gonzalo
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.03%
The paper examines the link between poverty, the middle class and institutional outcomes using a new cross-country panel dataset on the distribution of income and expenditure. It uses an econometric methodology to gauge whether a larger middle class has a causal effect on policy and institutional outcomes in three areas: social policy in health and education, market-oriented economic structure and quality of governance. The analysis find that when the middle class becomes larger (measured as the proportion of people earning more than US$10 a day), social policy on health and education becomes more progressive, and the quality of governance (democratic participation and official corruption) also improves. This trend does not occur at the expense of economic freedom, as a larger middle class also leads to more market-oriented economic policy on trade and finance. These beneficial effects of a larger middle class appear to be more robust than the impact of lower poverty, lower inequality or higher gross domestic product per capita. That may be linked to the evolution of the middle class: they are more enlightened...

Trading Away from Conflict : Using Trade to Increase Resilience in Fragile States

Cali, Massimiliano
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.88%
While economic growth in developing countries over the last ten years has lifted more people out of poverty than in any previous time, more than one billion people still live in countries affected by violent conflict. Conflict weakens governance, undermines economic development and threatens both national and regional stability. Trade shocks, in particular, can have widely varying impacts on conflict. This report sets out to empirically test these linkages between trade shocks and conflict via cross-country and intra-country analysis. On the basis of the analysis, it offers trade-related policy directions to reduce this risk in fragile economies. The results provide convincing evidence that trade and trade policy have a large impact on the risk and intensity of conflict. This report is composed of three main chapters. Chapter 1 develops a conceptual framework mapping the different channels through which trade may affect conflict and political stability. The framework is based on simple economic theory and the available empirical evidence on the impact of trade related changes on conflict and stability. It then tests this framework empirically through the analysis of cross-country data and through case studies of Nigeria and the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. The hope is that these types of intra-country analyses could be replicated in other countries...

Burkina Faso - Promoting Growth, Competitiveness and Diversification : Country Economic Memorandum, Volume 2. Sources of Growth - Key Sectors for Tomorrow; Burkina Faso : Promouvoir la croissance, la competitivite et la diversification : memorandum economique sur le pays

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Country Economic Memorandum; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.99%
The main conclusion of Country Economic Memorandum is that the previous model of extensive growth has now exhausted its potential and must be renewed. Given the existing population dynamics, low environmental tolerance due to its Sahelian climate and competition forces imposed due to its open economy, Burkina Faso is heavily investing in growth based on increased productivity to overcome its low level of initial human capital, capacity constraints and regulation. To help define the new model of development of Burkina Faso, the Country Economic Memorandum is exploring growth based on productivity both at macro-, meso-economic or sectoral, micro and institutional levels only. It also assesses the sustainability of growth in the human, demographic, financial, fiscal and physical infrastructure. Wherever possible, it evaluates the performance of previous development programs and provides diagnostics on problems. It analyzes the current situation in terms of challenges and opportunities. Several major constraints on growth have been identified and the Memorandum offers practical ways to reduce or mitigate them. These constraints are: i. The frequency of exogenous shocks on agriculture in Burkina Faso...

Are Natural Resources Cursed? An Investigation of the Dynamic Effects of Resource Dependence on Institutional Quality

De Rosa, Donato; Iootty, Mariana
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.09%
This paper examines whether natural resource dependence has a negative influence on various indicators of institutional quality when controlling for the potential effects of other geographic, economic and cultural initial conditions. Analysis of a panel of countries from 1996 to 2010 indicates that a high degree of resource dependence, measured as the share of mineral fuel exports in a country's total exports, is associated with worse government effectiveness, as well as with reduced levels of competition across the economy. Furthermore, estimation of long-run elasticities suggests that government effectiveness and the intensity of domestic competition decrease over time as the dependence on natural resources increases. An illustration of the Russian case shows that the negative effects accumulate in the long run, leading to a worse deterioration of government effectiveness in Russia than in Canada, a country with a comparable resource endowment but far better overall institutional quality. This result is corroborated by a significant negative correlation found between regional resource dependence and an indicator of regulatory capture in Russian regions...

What Makes Banks Special? A Study of Banking, Finance, and Economic Development

Bossone, Biagio
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.98%
Over the past decades, finance theory has contributed significantly to understanding banks and identifying what qualifies them to be special financial intermediaries. Historically, banks have had a comparative advantage in certain functions - such as providing liquidity and payment services and supplying credit and information - which competition, technological change, and institutional development have increasingly eroded. And the spread of e-money could deal a blow to conventional banking, generating entirely new ways of doing finance. After integrating his examination of money, production, and investment, the author argues that banks remain special in that they lend claims on their own debt and the public accepts the debt claims as money. His study shows the banks and nonbank financial intermediaries perform complementary functions essential to the economy. Risk reduction policies in payment systems, banking asset allocation, and the deposit market affect the economy's tradeoff between risk and efficiency and the cost of generating resources to finance production. As possibilities for global communications expand...

The Internal Geography of Trade : Lagging Regions and Global Markets

Farole, Thomas
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.1%
Economic theory, including endogenous growth, the role of institutions, and, most importantly, the New Economic Geography (NEG), have made significant progress in explaining the emergence of core-periphery patterns behind this divergence. They point to the critical role of agglomeration, which confers benefits to metropolitan cores that have the advantages of large markets, deep labor pools, links to international markets, and clusters of diverse suppliers and institutions. Regions relatively near the metropolitan core are likely to benefit from spillovers and congestion-related dispersion. Regions further outside the core however, are not only less able to take advantage of spillovers, but also more likely to be far removed from key infrastructural, institutional, and interpersonal links to regional and international markets. As a result, they face significant challenges to becoming competitive locations to host economic activity. Thus the geographical pattern of core and peripheral regions is increasingly manifest in an economic pattern of 'leading' and 'lagging' regions

Social entrepreneurship and institutional context: a quantitative analysis doctoral thesis

Ferri Jiménez, Elisabeth
Fonte: [Barcelona] : Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Publicador: [Barcelona] : Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona,
Tipo: Tesis i dissertacions electròniques; info:eu-repo/semantics/doctoralThesis; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2015 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.89%
En los últimos años, el emprendimiento social se ha convertido en un elemento clave para el progreso y desarrollo de las sociedades. Teniendo en cuenta esta importancia, gobiernos e investigadores han mostrado especial interés en la comprensión de los principales fenómenos que rodean al emprendimiento social. El principal objetivo de la presente tesis doctoral es la de analizar la influencia de las instituciones en la actividad emprendedora social, utilizando como marco teórico la Economía Institucional. De este modo, la presente investigación pretende dar respuesta a los siguientes objetivos específicos (OS): Explorar las principales tendencia en la literatura sobre emprendimiento social (tanto desde una perspectiva teórica como metodológica) haciendo énfasis en el contexto institucional (OS1); determinado la influencia del contexto institucional (formal e informal) en la actividad emprendedora social (OS2); y analizando el rol del contexto institucional en dos tipologías de emprendimiento social (según el perfil de la persona fundadora – mujer/hombre- y según el objetivo de desarrollo empresarial – social/comercial-) (OS3). La metodología utilizada es cuantitativa y fundamentalmente basada en las siguientes bases de datos: Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) y World Value Survey (WVS). La presente investigación ofrece evidencias del papel que toman los factores instituciones que influencian la actividad emprendedora social en España...

Female entrepreneurship in Catalonia an institutional approach/

Noguera, Maria
Fonte: Bellaterra : Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Departament d'Economia de l'Empresa, Publicador: Bellaterra : Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Departament d'Economia de l'Empresa,
Tipo: Tesis i dissertacions electròniques; info:eu-repo/semantics/doctoralThesis Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2013 ENG; ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.93%
Descripció del recurs: el 10 juliol 2013; En los últimos años, las mujeres están siendo reconocidas como un factor importante en la creación de nuevas empresas y en la promoción de desarrollo económico. Aunque, a pesar de los esfuerzos realizados desde diferentes ámbitos, las cifras de emprendimiento femenino siguen siendo menores a la de sus homólogos masculinos. El principal objetivo de esta investigación es analizar la influencia de los factores del entorno en la actividad emprendedora femenina en Cataluña (España). Para conseguir este fin, se usa la Teoría Económica Institucional (North, 1990 and 2005) como marco conceptual. Explícitamente, este artículo: 1) explora, identifica y analiza cualitativamente los factores del entorno (instituciones formales e informales) que influyen en la actividad emprendedora femenina en Cataluña, 2) explora y lleva a cabo un análisis cualitativo de los factores socio-culturales (instituciones informales) que influyen en el emprendimiento femenino en Cataluña; 3) analiza cuantitativamente los factores del entorno (instituciones formales e informales) que influyen en la actividad emprendedora femenina en España en el año 2010, 4) analiza cuantitativamente los factores socio-culturales (instituciones informales) que influyen en la actividad emprendedora femenina en los años 2009 y 2010; y 5) analiza cuantitativamente los factores del entorno (instituciones formales e informales) que influyen en el emprendimiento femenino en España a nivel regional en el período 2003-2010. Las metodologías usadas para dar cumplimiento a los objetivos incluyen tanto una metodología cualitativa que nos ha de permitir explorar y obtener información que...

Institutional approach and enterprise creation: support systems in the case of cities in rural and peripheral areas of Portugal

Silva, M. J.; Trigo, V.; Antunes, R.
Fonte: Editura ASE Publicador: Editura ASE
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2011 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.96%
WOS:000286525100019 (Nº de Acesso Web of Science); The research aims to identify and analyse the formal institutional factors in the environment that constrain the creation of industrial enterprises in small city in rural and peripheral areas of Portugal, namely Covilha County. It has as reference sources several approaches about enterprise creation and institutional economic theory due to their adequacy to the study of the factors that influence enterprise creation by encompassing institutions, services, programs and support measures. With this analysis we try to evaluate the extent to which entrepreneurs know about and employ the available institutional programs/services. Investigation hypotheses are formulated and subject them to empiric tests. The results, from the offer point of view of the services/programs, show that, duplication of resources and efforts on the part of institutions in the region often occurs making coordination more difficult and alienating the demand (entrepreneurs). From the view point of the demand, we noticed that entrepreneurs may have a broad awareness of the institutions, but this does not imply that they use their programs and services. Therefore recommendations are made having in view a better coordination among the different institutions involved so that the programs they offer can be more effective in the future.

Economic geography and international inequality

Redding, Stephen; Venables, Anthony J.
Fonte: Centre for Economic Performance, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Centre for Economic Performance, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /05/2001 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.76%
This paper estimates a structural model of economic geography using cross-country data on per capita income, bilateral trade, and the relative price of manufacturing goods. More than 70% of the variation in per capita income can be explained by the geography of access to markets and to sources of supply of intermediate inputs. These results are robust to the inclusion of other geographical, social, and institutional characteristics. The estimated coefficients are consistent with plausible values for the structural parameters of the model. We find quantitatively important effects of distance, access to the coast, and openness on levels of per capita income.

Institutional forces and divestment performance of South African conglomerates: Case study evidence

King,David; Coldwell,David; Joosub,Tasneem; McClelland,David
Fonte: South African Journal of Economic and Management Sciences Publicador: South African Journal of Economic and Management Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.86%
The history of South Africa serves as a natural experiment in how a changing institutional environment impacts corporate structure. Based on institutional theory, we anticipate higher performance through emulating successful strategies or through restructuring consistent with mimetic isomorphism. Conversely, coercive isomorphism results from restructuring driven by regulation, and we anticipate that they are associated with lower performance. To examine these relationships, we consider divestment by South African firms over two periods, using mixed methods. We find tentative support for our predictions, and we outline implications for policymakers, as well as for management research and practice.