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Determining the season of death from the family composition of insects infesting carrion

MORETTI, Thiago de Carvalho; BONATO, Vinicius; GODOY, Wesley Augusto Conde
Fonte: CZECH ACAD SCI, INST ENTOMOLOGY Publicador: CZECH ACAD SCI, INST ENTOMOLOGY
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.66%
Determining the season of death by means of the composition of the families of insects infesting carrion is rarely attempted in forensic studies and has never been statistically modelled. For this reason, a baseline-category logit model is proposed for predicting the season of death as a function of whether the area where the carcass was exposed is sunlit or shaded and of the relative abundance of particular families of carrion insects (Calliphoridae, Fanniidae, Sarcophagidae, and Formicidae). The field study was conducted using rodent carcasses (20-252 g) in an urban forest in southeastern Brazil. Four carcasses (2 in a sunlit and 2 in a shaded area) were placed simultaneously at the study site, twice during each season from August 2003 through June 2004. The feasibility of the model, measured in terms of overall accuracy, is 64 +/- 14%. It is likely the proposed model will assist forensic teams in predicting the season of death in tropical ecosystems, without the need of identifying the species of specimens or the remains of carrion insects.; FAPESP (The State of Sao Paulo Research Foundation)[06/60504-9]; CNPq (The National Council for Scientific and Technological Development)

Evaluating the use of predatory insects as bioindicators of metals contamination due to sugarcane cultivation in neotropical streams

CORBI, Juliano Jose; FROEHLICH, Claudio Gilberto; TRIVINHO-STRIXINO, Susana; SANTOS, Ademir dos
Fonte: SPRINGER Publicador: SPRINGER
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.66%
Streams located in areas of sugarcane cultivation receive high concentrations of metal ions from soils of the adjacent areas causing accumulation of metals in the aquatic sediment. This impact results in environmental problems and leads to bioaccumulation of metal ions in aquatic organisms. In the present study, metal concentrations in different predatory insects were studied in streams near sugarcane cultivation and compared to reference sites. Possible utilisation of predatory insects as bioindicators of metal contamination due to sugarcane cultivation from 13 neotropical streams was evaluated. Ion concentrations of Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Zn, Fe, and Mn in adult Belostomatidae (Hemiptera) and in larvae of Libellulidae (Odonata) were analysed. Nine streams are located in areas with sugarcane cultivation, without riparian vegetation (classified as impacted area) and four streams were located in forested areas (reference sites). Metal concentrations in insects were higher near sugarcane cultivations than in control sites. Cluster analysis, complemented by an ANOSIM test, clearly showed that these insect groups are good potential bioindicators of metal contamination in streams located in areas with sugarcane cultivation and can be used in monitoring programmes. We also conclude that Libellulidae appeared to accumulate higher concentrations of metals than Belostomatidae.; FAPESP (Fundacao de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de Sao Paulo)[06/61400-2]

EVALUATION OF IN VITRO AND IN VIVO EFFECTS OF SEMIPURIFIED PROTEINASE INHIBITORS FROM THEOBROMA SEEDS ON MIDGUT PROTEASE ACTIVITY OF LEPIDOPTERAN PEST INSECTS

Maffei Sartini Paulillo, Luis Cesar; Sebbenn, Alexandre Magno; Vitral de Carvalho Derbyshire, Maria Tereza; Goes-Neto, Aristoteles; de Paula Brotto, Marco Aurelio; Figueira, Antonio
Fonte: WILEY-BLACKWELL; HOBOKEN Publicador: WILEY-BLACKWELL; HOBOKEN
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
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We have characterized in vitro and in vivo effects of trypsin inhibitors from Theobroma seeds on the activity of trypsin- and chymotrypsin-like proteins from Lepidopteran pest insects. The action of semipurified trypsin inhibitors from Theobroma was evaluated by the inhibition of bovine trypsin and chymotrypsin activities determined by the hydrolysis of N-Benzoyl-DL-Arginine-p-Nitroanilide (BAPA) and N-Succinyl-Ala-Ala-Pho-Phe p-Nitroanilide (S-(Ala)2ProPhe-pNA). Proteinase inhibitor activities from Theobroma cacao and T. obovatum seeds were the most effective in inhibiting trypsin-like proteins, whereas those from T. obovatum and T. sylvestre were the most efficient against chymotrypsin-like proteins. All larvae midgut extracts showed trypsin-like proteolytic activities, and the putative trypsin inhibitors from Theobroma seeds significantly inhibited purified bovine trypsin. With respect to the influence of Theobroma trypsin inhibitors on intact insects, the inclusion of T. cacao extracts in artificial diets of velvet bean caterpillars (Anticarsia gemmatalis) and sugarcane borer (Diatraea saccharalis) produced a significant increase in the percentage of adult deformation, which is directly related to both the survival rate of the insects and oviposition.; Foundation for Research Support of the State of Sao Paulo (FAPESP); Foundation for Research Support of the State of Sao Paulo (FAPESP); Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana (UEFS); Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana (UEFS); Conselho Nacional de Pesquisa-Brazil (CNPq) [314505/2009-6]; Conselho Nacional de PesquisaBrazil (CNPq); NIHNIAMS; NIH-NIAMS [1RC2AR058963-01]; Missouri Life Sciences Research Board; Missouri Life Sciences Research Board

Phytomonas e outros Tripanossomatídeos em insetos no Estado de Rondônia - Amazônia Ocidental. ; Phytomonas and others Trypanosomatids of insects in Rondonia State, Occidental Amazon.

Godoi, Mara Maria Izar de Maio
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 15/03/2001 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.58%
Tripanossomatídeos particularmente os do gênero Phytomonas, podem infectar, frutos, látex, seiva, floema e flores de muitas famílias de vegetais, e foram detectados em insetos fitófagos de seus possíveis vetores em várias regiões do Velho e Novo Continente. Em contraste com a enorme variedade da flora e da fauna entomológica da Amazônia Brasileira, poucas espécies têm sido descritas albergando tripanossomatídeos. Os tripanossomatídeos pertencentes a estes gêneros podem apresentar formas evolutivas típicas que permitem a sua identificação morfológica. No entanto as formas promastigota, existentes tanto no ciclo evolutivo dos gêneros Herpetomonas, Leptomonas e Phytomonas, não permitem a identificação morfológica, sendo necessário parâmetros adicionais para a diferenciação entre os gêneros. A dificuldade do cultivo “in vitro”, impede a correta avaliação da presença destes parasitas em insetos e plantas, impossibilitando uma avaliação do universo dos tripanossomatídeos. No presente trabalho foram realizadas 37 coletas de hemípteros adultos, no estado de Rondônia, nas duas estações climáticas regional durante o período de 1998 a 1999. Foram coletados 244 hemípteros pertencentes a 17 espécies diferentes as quais 13 se revelaram portadoras de tripanossomatídeos. Das amostras positivas foram feitos esfregaços em lâminas e corados com Giemsa para posterior análise morfológica e morfométrica. Numa segunda etapa fizemos aplicação do PCR (reação em cadeia da Polimerase) em DNA recuperado de esfregaços em lâminas para pesquisa de tripanossomatídeos de insetos e plantas seguido de hibridação com sonda SL3’ específica para pesquisa do gênero Phytomonas...

Classificação de séries temporais por similaridade e extração de atributos com aplicação na identificação automática de insetos; Classification of time series similarity and feature extraction with application to automatic identification of insects

Silva, Diego Furtado
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 27/02/2014 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.66%
Um dos grandes desafios em mineração de dados é a integração de dados temporais ao seu processo. Existe um grande número de aplicações emergentes que envolvem dados temporais, incluindo a identificação de transações fraudulentas em cartões de crédito e ligações telefônicas, a detecção de intrusão em sistemas computacionais, a predição de estruturas secundárias de proteínas, a análise de dados provenientes de sensores, entre muitas outras. Neste trabalho, tem-se interesse na classificação de séries temporais que representam sinais de áudio. Como aplicação principal, tem-se interesse em classificar sinais de insetos coletados por um sensor óptico, que deve ser capaz de contar e classificar os insetos de maneira automática. Apesar de serem coletados opticamente, os sinais capturados se assemelham a sinais de áudio. O objetivo desta pesquisa é comparar métodos de classificação por similaridade e por extração de atributos que possam ser utilizados no contexto da classificação de insetos. Para isso, foram empregados os principais métodos de classificação de sinais de áudio, que têm sido propostos para problemas como reconhecimento de instrumentos musicais, fala e espécies animais. Neste trabalho...

Determining the season of death from the family composition of insects infesting carrion

Moretti, Thiago de Carvalho; Bonato, Vinicius; Conde Godoy, Wesley Augusto
Fonte: Czech Acad Sci, Inst Entomology Publicador: Czech Acad Sci, Inst Entomology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 211-218
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.66%
Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq); Processo FAPESP: 06/60504-9; Determining the season of death by means of the composition of the families of insects infesting carrion is rarely attempted in forensic studies and has never been statistically modelled. For this reason, a baseline-category logit model is proposed for predicting the season of death as a function of whether the area where the carcass was exposed is sunlit or shaded and of the relative abundance of particular families of carrion insects (Calliphoridae, Fanniidae, Sarcophagidae, and Formicidae). The field study was conducted using rodent carcasses (20-252 g) in an urban forest in southeastern Brazil. Four carcasses (2 in a sunlit and 2 in a shaded area) were placed simultaneously at the study site, twice during each season from August 2003 through June 2004. The feasibility of the model, measured in terms of overall accuracy, is 64 +/- 14%. It is likely the proposed model will assist forensic teams in predicting the season of death in tropical ecosystems, without the need of identifying the species of specimens or the remains of carrion insects.

Potential Attractiveness of Olive Beneficial Insects to Flowering Weeds

Belo, Anabela D. F.; Bennett, Richard; Ganhão, Elsa; Rei, Fernando; Torres, Laura
Fonte: European Weed Research Society Publicador: European Weed Research Society
Tipo: Aula
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Nowadays, there is a growing concern about keeping olive groves in a good sanitary health with a decreasing input of pesticides. Increasing beneficial insect fauna is a novel, non-intrusive way to achieve this objective. To increase beneficial insect fauna, non-prey food availability must be enhanced, and that purpose can be attained by manipulating olive groves inter-rows natural weed vegetation. Amongst weeds naturally occurring in South Portugal olive grove inter-rows, 20 were chosen provided that they are nectar producers. Flowering period time and duration were additional choice criteria, ensuring that insects can feed on, at least, one flowering species at any time. In order to establish which weeds are more suitable to this purpose, their nectar production and accessibility for two natural olive beneficial insects - the parasitoid Psyttalia concolor and the pest predator Anthocoris nemoralis - were evaluated. Evaluation of floral morphology included measurements of the length of corolla tube (the distance between corolla insertion and the beginning of corolla lobes), length of whole corolla, major and minor width of corolla tube and diameter of corolla limb; all measurements were repeated on 30 corollas per species. Nectar production...

Species of Bursaphelenchus Fuchs, 1937 (Nematoda: Parasitaphelenchidae) and other nematode genera associated with insects from Pinus pinaster in Portugal

Penas, Ana Catarina; Bravo, Maria Antónia; Naves, Pedro; Bonifácio, Luís; Sousa, Edmundo; Mota, Manuel
Fonte: Association of Applied Biologists Publicador: Association of Applied Biologists
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.76%
Insects associated with maritime pine, Pinus pinaster, in Portugal were collected and screened for the presence of Bursaphelenchus species. Nematodes were identified using Internal Transcribed Spacers-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (ITS-RFLP) analysis of dauer juveniles and morphological identification of adults that developed from dauer juveniles on fungal cultures or on cultures in pine wood segments at 26 C. Several associations are described: Bursaphelenchus teratospicularis and Bursaphelenchus sexdentati are associated with Orthotomicus erosus; Bursaphelenchus tusciae, B. sexdentati and/or Bursaphelenchus pinophilus with Hylurgus ligniperda and Bursaphelenchus hellenicus with Tomicus piniperda, Ips sexdentatus and H. ligniperda. An unidentified Bursaphelenchus species is vectored by Hylobius sp. The previously reported association of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus with Monochamus galloprovincialis was confirmed. The association of Bursaphelenchus leoni with Pityogenes sp. is not definitively established and needs further studies for clarification. Other nematode genera besides Bursaphelenchus were found to be associated with the insects sampled, including two different species of Ektaphelenchus, Parasitorhabditis sp., Parasitaphelenchus sp....

Evidence for a stress hypothesis: hemiparasitism effect on the colonization of Alchornea castaneaefolia A. Juss.uphorbiaceae) by Galling Insects

SCHWARTZ,Gustavo; HANAZAKI,Natalia; SILVA,Marivana B.; IZZO,Thiago J.; BEJAR,María E. P.; MESQUITA,Mariana R.; FERNANDES,G. Wilson
Fonte: Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia Publicador: Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2003 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.66%
Stressed plants are generally more attacked by galling insects. In this study we investigated the relationship between population abundance and species richness of galling insects on the tree Alchornea castaneaefolia A. JUSS. (Euphorbiaceae), submited to stress induced by the hemiparasite Psittacanthus sp. (Loranthaceae) in the Amazon, Brazil. Branches of A. castaneaefolia attacked by the hemiparasite were more heavily infested by galling insects than non-attacked branches. The field observations partially corroborate the hypothesis that there would be an optimal level of host-plant stress for galling insect establishment.

Isolation, pathogenicity and disinfection of Staphylococcus aureus carried by insects in two public hospitals of Vitória da Conquista, Bahia, Brazil

Oliveira,Pollianna S.; Souza,Simone G.; Campos,Guilherme B.; Silva,Danilo C.C. da; Sousa,Daniel S.; Araújo,Suerda P.F.; Ferreira,Laiziane P.; Santos,Verena M.; Amorim,Aline T.; Santos,Angelita M.O.G.; Timenetsky,Jorge; Cruz,Mariluze P.; Yatsuda,Regiane;
Fonte: Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases Publicador: Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Currently, hospital infection is a serious public health problem, and several factors may influence the occurrence of these infections, including the presence of insects, which are carriers of multidrug-resistant bacterial species. The aim of this study was to isolate staphylococci carried by insects in two public hospitals of Vitoria da Conquista, Bahia and to identify the resistance profile, pathogenicity and efficacy of disinfection of the premises. A total of 91 insects were collected in 21 strategic points of these hospitals, and 32 isolated strains ofStaphylococcus aureus were isolated. Based on antibiogram and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration results, 95% of these strains were susceptible to oxacillin. These strains were also evaluated for the presence of resistance genes encoding resistance to oxacillin/methicillin by polymerase chain reaction, but the sample was negative for this gene. Pathogenicity tests were performed in vitro biofilm formation induced by glucose, where it was found that eight (27.58%) strains were classified as biofilm producers and 21 (72.4%) as stronger producers. In addition, we performed PCR for their virulence genes: Sea (enterotoxin A), SEB (B), Sec (C), PVL (Panton-Valentine Leukocidin), ClfA (clumping factor A) and Spa (protein A). Of these...

An evolutionary perspective on germ cell specification genes in insects

Ewen-Campen, Benjamin Scott
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Thesis or Dissertation
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
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This dissertation investigates the embryonic specification of a specific group of cells: the germ cells. Germ cells, which give rise to sperm and egg, are the only cells in sexually-reproducing animals that directly contribute hereditary information to the next generation. Germ cells are therefore a universal cell type across animals, and represent a profound novelty that likely arose near the base of the animal phylogeny. Yet despite their conserved, essential function in all animals, there is surprising diversity in the mechanisms that specify these cells during embryonic development. In this dissertation, I address the diversity of germ cell specification mechanisms in insects. I focus on two species, the milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus (Hemiptera) and the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus (Orthoptera), which both branch basally to the Holometabola (those insects which undergo metamorphosis, including the well-studied fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster), and thus provide important phylogenetic breadth to our understanding of germ cell specification across insects. Using functional genetic approaches, I show that germ cell specification in both Oncopeltus and Gryllus differs fundamentally from germ cell specification in Drosophila. Specifically...

Efeito de distúrbio causado pelo despejo de efluente orgânico sobre a comunidade de insetos aquáticos; Effect of disturbance caused by dumping of organic waste in the community of aquatic insects

ARAÚJO, Cecília Santiago do Carmo
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Goiás; BR; UFG; Mestrado em Ecologia e Evolução; Ciências Biológicas - Biologia Publicador: Universidade Federal de Goiás; BR; UFG; Mestrado em Ecologia e Evolução; Ciências Biológicas - Biologia
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.66%
Among several environmental impacts caused by human activities, the release of domestic and industrial effluents has been major disturbances that cause degradation of water quality in natural systems by altering their physical, chemical and biological features. For this reason, the aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of discharging organic waste from five Sewage Treatment Plants (STP) on abundance, richness and composition of aquatic insect fauna present in streams receiving sewage, in addition to test the hypotheses that i) disturbance caused by the discharge of effluents from STP alters the abundance of some groups of aquatic insects in the site downstream when compared to the upstream of site and ii) the taxonomic composition of the downstream impact of STPs is modified by the presence of resistant taxa.Thus, the sampling of aquatic insects and measures of some limnological variable was carried out during the drought of 2010, with the Surber sampler, 100m upstream and 100m downstream from the effluent discharge. Chironomidae and EPT larvaes (Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera) were identified to genus. To test the hypothesis, a paired t test was performed with logarithmic data of total abundance, a paired t test with the richness of taxa identified at family and genus level. To evaluate the composition of the taxa sampled in two parts in relation to environmental variables were carried out two CCA separately...

Insects associated with syconia of Ficus citrifolia (Moraceae) in central Brazil

Costa, Priscila Canesqui da; Graciolli, Gustavo
Fonte: Revista Brasileira de Entomologia Publicador: Revista Brasileira de Entomologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.72%
Insetos associados aos sicônios de Ficus citrifolia no Brasil Central. Figueiras apresentam uma diversificada interação com diferentes grupos de organismos. Sua inflorescência, ou sicônio, possui características que formam um microambiente onde ocorrem as interações entre figueiras e invertebrados. Este trabalho teve como objetivo identificar a fauna de insetos associados à sicônios de Ficus citrifolia, além de descrever quantitativamente o padrão de distribuição dos insetos nos sicônios, em área urbana no Centro-Oeste brasileiro. Os sicônios estavam infestados por 12 espécies de insetos. Nossos resultados mostraram que insetos encontrados em Ficus citrifolia apresentaram um padrão de ocorrência que depende da composição de espécies dentro de cada sicônio.; ABSTRACT - Insects associated with syconia of Ficus citrifolia in central Brazil. Fig trees present a diverse interaction with different groups of organisms. The inflorescence, or syconium, has characteristics that form a microenvironment in which interactions occur between fig trees and invertebrates. This study aimed to identify the insect fauna associated with the figs of Ficus citrifolia and to quantitatively describe the distribution pattern of the insects in the syconium...

Oxidation of plant allelochemicals by phytophagous sucking insects / by Debrah F. Lorraine.

Lorraine, Debrah F.
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 76281 bytes; application/pdf
Publicado em //1995 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Phytophagous sucking insects, aphids in particular, are common pests of plants. These insects secrete salivary enzymes into their food material. One plant defence mechanism is the induction and/or accumulation of deterrent phytochemicals. In the present study, a model enzyme system was chosen to mimic the oxidative activity of insect saliva. Isolation and sructural identification of the products of plant allelochemicals was achieved for several substrates. Insects were also exposed to individual plant chemicals in feeding "choice" tests. Preliminary examinations suggest that plants containing increased levels of phenolic allelochemicals show correlated increases in resistance to attack by aphids.; Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Adelaide, Dept. of Crop Protection, 1996; Addendum in pocket.; Biblography: leaves 162-173.; v, 177, [5] leaves : ill. ; 30 cm.; Title page, contents and abstract only. The complete thesis in print form is available from the University Library.

The use of dyes to mark populations of beneficial insects in the field

Schellhorn, N.; Siekmann, G.; Paull, C.; Furness, G.; Baker, G.
Fonte: Taylor & Francis Ltd Publicador: Taylor & Francis Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2004 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.79%
Dyes and dusts have been used to mark insects internally and externally for decades, the majority of examples coming from laboratory-reared pest species used in mark-release-recapture studies. Using dyes or dusts to mark populations of pests and beneficial insects simultaneously in the field has received less attention. We evaluated a water-soluble fluorescent dye and a resin-based fluorescent pigment sprayed on crops to mark beneficial and pest insects, and monitored the dispersal of marked insects. Our results show that resin-based dyes provide an effective mark on several species of insects among several orders. The resin-based dye is also relatively inexpensive, non-toxic, UV-stable and water resistant, unlike a water-soluble dye. Using the resin-based dye in a broccoli production system, we were able to monitor simultaneously the movement of field populations of the parasitoids, Diadegma semiclausum (Helleacuten) (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae), and Apanteles ippeus (Nixon) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and the adult stage of the host, diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae). Resin-based dye applied on a crop is an effective way to mark and monitor the dispersal of populations of beneficial and pest insects in relation to agricultural practices...

Xylophage Insekten und andere Verursacher von Schäden an verbautem Araukarien- und Laubbaumholz. Fallstudien an historischen Häusern in Rio Grande do Sul, Brasilien; Xylophagous insects and other causes of damage in wood constructions made of Araucaria and deciduous trees. Case studies on historical buildings in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

Schulze-Hofer, Maria Cristina
Fonte: Universidade de Tubinga Publicador: Universidade de Tubinga
Tipo: Dissertação
DE_DE
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.79%
Im südlichsten brasilianischen Bundesland Rio Grande do Sul sind aus den Zeiten der Kolonisierung noch zahlreiche Häuser vorhanden, die mit Holz als wesentlichem Baumaterial errichtet wurden. Viele dieser historischen Bauten besitzen Denkmalwert, sind aber heute in einem kritischen Zustand, der eine baldige Restaurierung erfordert. Hierüber waren bislang keine konkreten Informationen verfügbar. Auch über die Ursachen der Holzschäden war kaum etwas bekannt. Schließlich war auch noch nie untersucht worden, welche Hölzer in welchem Umfang und wofür beim Bau verwendet wurden. In zwei jeweils mehrmonatigen Kampagnen wurden Feldstudien zur Bestandserhebung durchgeführt. Hierfür wählte ich vier Regionen aus. Sie gehören biogeographisch zum Biom der Mata Atlântica und weisen jeweils eine spezifische Vegetation auf. In 36 Gemeinden habe ich über 300 Häuser inspiziert, 200 wurden genauer untersucht, bei 100 habe ich eine Zustands-Diagnose durchgeführt. Davon wurden 13 besonders interessante Gebäude vermessen und zeichnerisch dokumentiert. Die meisten Häuser der europäischen Einwanderer entstanden ab 1825 im Zuge der vom brasilianischen Kaiserhaus initiierten imigração alemã in Fachwerk, Holzrahmenbau und Skelettbau mit Verschalungen sowie Blockbau. Regional wurden jeweils verfügbare Hölzer verwendet. Alle Befunde habe ich in über 5.000 digitalen Photos dokumentiert. Außerdem habe ich Holzproben und Holzschädlinge gesammelt...

UV Radiation as an Attractor for Insects

Barghini, Alessandro; Souza de Medeiros, Bruno Augusto
Fonte: ILLUMINAT ENG SOC NORTH AMER; NEW YORK Publicador: ILLUMINAT ENG SOC NORTH AMER; NEW YORK
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.82%
Light pollution due to exterior lighting is a rising concern. While glare, light trespass and general light pollution have been well described, there are few reported studies on the impact of light pollution on insects. By studying insect behavior in relation to artificial lighting, we suggest that control of the UV component of artificial lighting can significantly reduce its attractiveness, offering a strong ability to control the impact on insects. Traditionally, the attractiveness of a lamp to insects is calculated using the luminous efficiency spectrum of insect rhodopsin. This has enabled the development of lamps that emit radiation with wavelengths that are less visible to insects (that is, yellow lamps). We tested the assumption that the degree of visibility of a lamp to insects can predict its attractiveness by means of experimental collections. We found that the expected lamp's visibility is indeed related to the extent to which it attracts insects. However, the number of insects attracted to a lamp is disproportionally affected by the emission of ultraviolet radiation. UV triggers the behavior of approaching lights more or less independently of the amount of UV radiation emitted. Thus, even small amounts of UV should be controlled in order to develop bug-free lamps.

Insetos visitantes florais em áreas de cerradão e cerrado sensu stricto no estado de São Paulo; Flower-visiting insects in Cerradao and Cerrado areas stricto sensus in Sao Paulo State

D'Avila, Márcia
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 20/04/2006 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.76%
Com o objetivo de conhecer a composição dos insetos e das plantas visitadas nas áreas de cerradão e cerrado sensu stricto, da Estação Experimental de Itirapina, SP, foram realizadas amostragens sistemáticas dos insetos nas plantas, no período de março de 2003 a fevereiro de 2004. Do total de insetos coletados nas flores, 63,3% e 63,8% são da ordem Hymenoptera, 17,1% e 2,5% da ordem Lepidoptera, 16% e 19,5% da ordem Coleoptera e 3,6% e 12,8% da ordem Diptera, respectivamente, para as áreas de cerradão e cerrado sensu stricto, e 1,4% para Hemiptera-Heteroptera no cerrado sensu stricto. A maioria dos insetos coletados, visitando e/ou forrageando, nas duas áreas, foi no período da manhã, exceto os dípteros que preferiram o período da tarde. Na área de cerradão as espécies dominantes de Hymenoptera foram: Exomalopsis (Exomalopsis) sp. e Trigona spinipes; de Lepidoptera foram: Aeria olena e Ithomia agnosia; de Coleoptera foram: Nycterodina sp. e Spintherophyta sp.. Já na área de cerrado sensu stricto os hymenópteros dominantes foram: Apis mellifera, Exomalopsis cf. analis, Tetrapedia rugulosa, Trigona spinipes e Pepsis sp., para Coleoptera foram: Spintherophyta sp., Compsus sp. e Epitragus similis; para Diptera foram: Eristalis sp. e Ornidia obesa. A família Apidae foi a mais rica em espécies e abundância...

Floral resources used by insects in a grassland community in Southern Brazil

Pinheiro,Mardiore; Abrão,Bianca Espindola de; Harter-Marques,Birgit; Miotto,Silvia Teresinha Sfoggia
Fonte: Sociedade Botânica de São Paulo Publicador: Sociedade Botânica de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/2008 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.76%
The goal of the present study was to identify plant species used as food source, the floral resources utilized, and the insects that visit flowers in a grassland community in southern Brazil. The study was carried out in an area of one hectare, located in a grassland formation in the Parque Estadual de Itapuã, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The flowering pattern was seasonal, and richness and abundance of insects was higher during the period of high resource availability. Flowers of 106 species of angiosperms (73 genera and 34 families) were used as source of floral resources for 219 species (2,767 specimens) of insects. A total of 91.5% of plant species were visited by bees, 53.8% by flies, 34.9% by wasps, 22.6% by butterflies, and 12.3% by beetles. Nectar was the main resource consumed by the visitors (41.1%). Asteraceae was the richest (38 spp.) and most visited family, with 63.1% of the species and 49.5% of all specimens of recorded insects. Bees were the most representative insects (33.2% spp., 65% indiv.), followed by flies (26.9% spp., 16.5% indiv.), wasps, butterflies and beetles. 40 plant species were considered important resources for the floral visitors' community, due to high number of, both, species and individuals recorded in their flowers. The family Asteraceae as a species set was the main floral resource used by insect visitors through the year and has great importance for the maintenance of populations of many species of bees...

Sampling necrophagous and predatory insects using different lures in a Mexican pine forest

Sánchez-Rojas,Gerardo; Castellanos,Ignacio; Márquez-Vázquez,Amelia
Fonte: Instituto de Biología Publicador: Instituto de Biología
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.66%
Sampling with a single bait as a lure is a commonly used practice in studies of necrophilous insect communities. Here, we determined if there were differences in necrophilous insect species richness and abundance when attracted to 4 types of carrion: squid, bird, lizard, and mouse. A comparison between necrophagous and predatory insects was also made to detect whether they differ in their abundance, depending on the bait used. Thirteen species of Silphidae, Staphylinidae (Coleoptera), Calliphoridae, and Sarcophagidae (Diptera) were collected in the baited traps; no single bait was able to attract all species. The abundances of 5 species varied significantly depending on the type of bait used. Predatory insects were less abundant than necrophagous insects in lizard and mouse baits. These results show that an evaluation of the structure of a necrophilous insect community can depend on the bait used for sampling.