Página 1 dos resultados de 337 itens digitais encontrados em 0.016 segundos

Flower-visiting insects of five tree species in a restored area of semideciduous seasonal forest

FRAGOSO, FP; VARANDA, EM
Fonte: Sociedade Entomológica do Brasil Publicador: Sociedade Entomológica do Brasil
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.96%
The reinstatement of biodiversity and ecological processes must be the major goal in restoration projects, which requires the establishment of biological interactions in addition to native plant population recovery. Therefore, we assessed the flower visitors of five tree species in a restored area of Semideciduous Seasonal Forest, in Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil. The specimens were collected using entomological net on flowers of Acacia polyphylla, Aegiphila sellowianna, Croton floribundus, Croton urucurana and Schinus terebinthifolius from October 2007 to September 2008. A total of 139 insect species belonging to five orders were collected. Hymenoptera was the most diverse order collected. From a total of 37 families, Vespidae (15 species), Cabronidae (12), Apidae (10), Halictidae (10), Syrphidae (12), Tachinidae (6) and Hesperidae (7) were the richest ones. Schinus terebinthifolius flowers presented the most abundant and diverse insect visitors (60), suggesting it is an important attractive species to the fauna in restoration programs. Our data suggest that mutualistic interactions between some of these plants and their flower-visiting insects may be in a reinstatement process, and will support the design and monitoring of future restoration efforts.

Efeito da fragmentação florestal no Estado de São Paulo na interação de Ficus eximia Schott e suas vespas associadas; Forest fragmentation effects on the interaction of Ficus eximia Schott and their associated wasps in the state of Sao Paulo

Teixeira, Ludmila Maria Rattis
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 17/02/2011 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.85%
Frente ao intenso processo de fragmentação florestal sofrido no Brasil, este trabalho avaliou o efeito da fragmentação de Florestas Estacionais Semideciduais no Estado de São Paulo sobre a interação Ficus eximia e vespas (polinizadoras e não-polinizadoras). A abordagem foi realizada em duas escalas, (1) Na paisagem, com comparações entre os dados encontrados nas regiões de Teodoro Sampaio (menos fragmentada); Gália (intermediária) e Ribeirão Preto (mais fragmentada); e (2) Na escala local, considerando as características da paisagem no entorno das plantas amostradas. As questões investigadas foram: (a) Existe limitação de pólen em paisagens muito degradadas? (b) A estrutura da comunidade de vespas varia de acordo com o nível de fragmentação e distúrbio dos hábitats? (c) Possíveis limitações de pólen ou parasitismo por vespas não-polinizadoras comprometem os componentes primários de fecundidade das figueiras nas paisagens mais fragmentadas? Para responder tais questões, coletamos figos na fase interfloral (após a entrada da polinizadora e antes da maturação das sementes e prole) e figos em fase próxima à emergência das vespas. Os resultados mostraram que não houve indícios de limitação de vespas polinizadoras em nenhuma das paisagens estudadas. As comunidades apresentaram padrão aninhado...

A fragmentação florestal e a interação entre formigas e diásporos carnosos na floresta Atlântica; Forest fragmentation and the interaction between ants and fleshy diaspores in the Atlantic forest

Ana Gabriela Delgado Bieber
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 10/02/2012 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.99%
Em florestas tropicais, formigas de folhiço são freqüentemente vistas em interação com diásporos vegetais (frutos e sementes). Em alguns casos, esta interação oportunista resulta em um mutualismo. Enquanto formigas se beneficiam ao alimentar-se de partes carnosas nutritivas (i.e., polpa, arilo), elas podem beneficiar a semente, por exemplo, ao aumentar sua chance de germinação ou ao dispersá-la para micro-sítios ricos em nutrientes. Portanto, para algumas espécies de plantas, a perda de interações formiga-diásporo pode implicar numa redução do recrutamento de novos indivíduos. Nesta tese, estudamos os padrões de interação entre formigas e diásporos em dois tipos contrastantes de florestas, representativos do que resta da Floresta Atlântica no Estado de São Paulo: florestas contínuas (CFs) e fragmentos de floresta com vegetação secundária (FFs) (quatro áreas cada). Durante este estudo, quatro abordagens complementares foram adotadas. Primeiramente, registramos as interações entre formigas e diásporos em cada uma das oito áreas durante um ano. As principais famílias de plantas assim como os principais gêneros de formigas registrados correspondem a grupos importantes já listados em estudos prévios realizados neste bioma. Apesar da abundância similar de diásporos considerados atrativos entre os dois tipos de floresta...

Effect of nitrogen on Passiflora suberosa L. (Passifloraceae) and consequences for larval performance and oviposition in Heliconius erato phyllis (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae)

Kerpel,Solange M.; Soprano,Eliséo; Moreira,Gilson R.P.
Fonte: Sociedade Entomológica do Brasil Publicador: Sociedade Entomológica do Brasil
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2006 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.97%
The present study examines the influence of nitrogen on growth rates, morphological and nutritional characteristics of Passiflora suberosa L., and the corresponding consequences for Heliconius erato phyllis (Fabricius) growth and oviposition. The treatments consisted of different nitrogen doses (0, 150 and 300 mg L-1) applied to the soil. Newly emerged larvae were individually reared in the laboratory (25 ± 1ºC) on branches of P. suberosa obtained from plants grown under the three nitrogen levels, and field collected females were submitted to oviposition choice tests. P. suberosa growth rates, leaf area and internode length increased significantly when grown with nitrogen enriched soil. P. suberosa presented significantly greater leaf toughness when grown without nitrogen addition. Leaves of this species also presented lower water content and toughness. Nitrogen addition increased the concentration of nitrogen and potassium on plant leaf tissues. The greater nitrogen concentration on plants did not affect H. erato phyllis larval survival, but led to a reduction in larval development time and increased adult size. Females significantly preferred to lay eggs in plants cultivated in nitrogen enriched soil. This choice was positively correlated with larval performance...

New host-plant records for neotropical agromyzids (Diptera: Agromyzidae) from Asteraceae flower heads

Braun,Marina R.; Almeida-Neto,Mário; Loyola,Rafael D.; Prado,Angelo P.; Lewinsohn,Thomas M.
Fonte: Sociedade Entomológica do Brasil Publicador: Sociedade Entomológica do Brasil
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/02/2008 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.79%
Agromyzidae is a large and cosmopolitan fly family with approximately 2,500 known species. Here we present 22 new records of agromyzid-host plant associations. Plants were sampled from 2002 to 2005 in São Paulo state, Brazil. A total of eight agromyzid species were reared from 18 Asteraceae host species. The genus Melanagromyza Hendel was the commonest. This is the first detailed study reporting associations between non-leafmining Agromyzidae and their host plants in Brazil.

Herbivore handling of a Plant’s trichome: the case of Heliconius charithonia (L.) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) and Passiflora lobata (Killip) Hutch. (Passifloraceae)

Cardoso,Márcio Z.
Fonte: Sociedade Entomológica do Brasil Publicador: Sociedade Entomológica do Brasil
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2008 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.93%
Trichomes reduce herbivore attack on plants by physically and/or chemically inhibiting movement or other activities. Despite evidence that herbivores are negatively affected by trichomes there also reports of insect counter-adaptations that circumvent the plant’s defense. This paper reports on a study that investigated the likely mechanisms employed by larvae of the nymphalid butterfly, Heliconius charithonia (L.), that allow it to feed on a host that is presumably protected by hooked trichomes (Passiflora lobata (Killip) Hutch). Evidence were gathered using data from direct observations of larval movement and behavior, faeces analysis, scanning electron microscopy of plant surface and experimental analysis of larval movement on plants with and without trichomes (manually removed). The latter involved a comparison with a non specialist congener, Heliconius pachinus Salvin. Observations showed that H. charithonia larvae are capable of freeing themselves from entrapment on trichome tips by physical force. Moreover, wandering larvae lay silk mats on the trichomes and remove their tips by biting. In fact, trichome tips were found in the faeces. Experimental removal of trichomes aided in the movement of the non specialist but had no noticeable effect on the specialist larvae. These results support the suggestion that trichomes are capable of deterring a non specialist herbivore (H. pachinus). The precise mechanisms that allow the success of H. charithonia are not known...

Insect galls of the xeric vegetation of Ilha do Cabo Frio (Arraial do Cabo, RJ, Brazil)

Maia,Valeria Cid; Souza,Marcelo da Costa
Fonte: Instituto Virtual da Biodiversidade | BIOTA - FAPESP Publicador: Instituto Virtual da Biodiversidade | BIOTA - FAPESP
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.07%
The xeric vegetation of Ilha do Cabo Frio (Arraial do Cabo, RJ) was investigated for insect galls, in May, June and August of 2012, totalizing 24 hours of field work. Forty-five morphotypes of insect galls were found on 29 species of host plant (25 genera and 18 families). Asteraceae and Myrtaceae were the most galled plant families. Leaves were the most galled plant organ, with ca. 62% of the total, followed by stems (ca. 22%). Globoid and fusiform galls were the most frequent with about 29% and 24%, respectively. The majority was glabrous (ca. 91%), and one-chambered (ca. 84%). Gallers of 30 morphotypes were determined. They belong to Diptera (Cecidomyiidae), and Lepidoptera. The former was the most frequent. Larvae of Muscomorpha (Diptera) (probably inquilines) were found in a single gall morphotype; parasitoids (Hymenoptera) in seven (ca. 15% of the total), and predators (pseudoscorpion) in a single one. As there is no previous data of insect galls of Ilha do Cabo Frio, all records presented here are new. The geographic distribution of nine species of gall midges (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) is widened. For the first time, eleven plant species are recorded as host of galling insects, and 24 gall morphotypes are described.

Insect galls of Sao Tome das Letras (MG, Brazil)

Maia,Valeria Cid
Fonte: Instituto Virtual da Biodiversidade | BIOTA - FAPESP Publicador: Instituto Virtual da Biodiversidade | BIOTA - FAPESP
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.05%
Six localities of São Tomé das Letras (MG, Brazil) were investigated from September, 2011 to June, 2012. The local vegetation was examined in search of insect galls. A total of 152 morphotypes of insect galls were found on 94 plant species (74 genera and 37 families). Fabaceae, Melastomataceae, Myrtaceae, and Asteraceae were the plant families with the greatest richness of galls, with 20, 18, 17, and 12 gall morphotypes, respectively. The super host genera were Copaifera L. (Fabaceae), Myrcia DC. ex. Guill. (Myrtaceae), and Miconia Ruiz & Pav. (Melastomataceae), with 10, 10 and 09 gall morphotypes, respectively. The super host species was Copaifera cf.langsdorfii Desf. (Fabaceae), with 10 gall morphotypes. Galls were found on leaves, stems, buds, and aerial roots. Leaves were the most galled plant organ, followed by stems, and buds. The inducers belong to Diptera, Lepidoptera, Hemiptera, Thysanoptera, Coleoptera, and Hymenoptera, being Cecidomyiidae (Diptera) the most frequent and diversified gallers. The associated fauna included parasitoids (Hymenoptera), inquilines (Lepidoptera and Thysanoptera), successors (Formicidae, Hymenoptera), and predators (pseudoscorpion), obtained from 18, 02, 02, and 01 gall morphotype, respectively. Ten galling species are recorded for the first time in São Tomé das Letras (MG). The present study indicates São Tomé das Letras (MG) as an area of great richness of insect galls.

Insect galls of Itamonte (Minas Gerais, Brazil): characterization and occurrence

Maia,Valéria Cid
Fonte: Instituto Virtual da Biodiversidade | BIOTA - FAPESP Publicador: Instituto Virtual da Biodiversidade | BIOTA - FAPESP
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/03/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.08%
Three sites of Itamonte (Minas Gerais) were investigated for insect galls from September, 2011 to July, 2012, seasonally. One-hundred and one morphotypes of insect galls were recorded on 63 species of host plant (45 genera and 23 families). Melastomataceae was the most galled plant family, followed by Asteraceae and Myrtaceae. Galls were recorded on leaves, stems, buds, and aerial roots. Leaves were the most galled plant organ. The gall morphotypes were characterized according to their shape, color, pubescence, and number of internal chambers. Globose and fusiform galls were the most frequent. The majority was glabrous and one-chambered. The gallers comprised three insect orders: Diptera (Cecidomyiidae and Tephritidae), Hemiptera, and Lepidoptera. Cecidomyiidae were the most frequent galling taxa. Parasitoids (Hymenoptera) were obtained from six morphotypes (ca. 6% of the total). The results are compared to those of other Brazilian insect gall inventories. As there is no previous gall inventory in Itamonte, all records presented here are new.

Induced response against herbivory by chemical information transfer between plants

Campos,Wellington G.; Faria,Ana P.; Oliveira,Maria Goreti A.; Santos,Hérica L.
Fonte: Brazilian Journal of Plant Physiology Publicador: Brazilian Journal of Plant Physiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2008 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.82%
Plants respond to herbivores and pathogens attack with increased emission of volatile organic compounds. These molecules act as indirect defences when attracting natural enemies of herbivores and thus benefit the plant. It remains controversial whether undamaged plants capture chemicals released by damaged neighbouring plants and respond to them by increasing their defensive barriers against an imminent attack. In spite of public appeal and of this being the 25th year of the Talking Trees Hypothesis, only recently have the most sceptical scientists been convinced. The induced response to herbivory by interplant information transfer has been found in two plant-herbivore systems. However, the universality of the phenomenon and its ecological and evolutionary relevance remain unclear. The integration of Molecular Biology, Biochemistry, Physiology, and Ecology begin to shed light on the mechanisms of the signal transfer. This integrative approach has developed new and more sensitive tools for identification of complex volatile mixtures and for understanding the process of biosynthesis, emission, transportation and reception of signals.

Padrões de forrageamento e biomassa vegetal consumida por Atta laevigata (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) em uma área do cerrado brasileiro; Foraging patterns and plant biomass consumed by Atta laevigata (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in area of Brazilian Cerrado

Costa, Alan Nilo da
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Uberlândia Publicador: Universidade Federal de Uberlândia
Tipo: Dissertação
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.98%
As formigas cortadeiras de folhas do gênero Atta (Formicidae: Attini) são consideradas herbívoros altamente generalistas, sendo frequentemente referidas como os herbívoros prevalentes na região neotropical. Contudo, a maioria dos estudos com as formigas cortadeiras foram realizados nas florestas tropicais. No Cerrado existe somente limitado conhecimento sobre os padrões de forrageio destas formigas. Neste estudo determinei a diversidade de plantas atacadas por Atta laevigata, os padrões de seleção das plantas atacadas, além do total de biomassa vegetal consumida por colônias de Atta spp. As colônias de A. laevigata apresentaram um comportamento generalista, atacando 102 espécies de plantas, utilizando entre 73 – 89% das espécies de plantas disponíveis na área de forrageamento. Houve clara distinção entre a composição de espécies de plantas atacadas e a composição de espécies disponíveis na comunidade de plantas no entorno dos ninhos. Eu estimei que as saúvas consomem 17,7% das folhas produzidas por árvores, arbustos e cipós no cerrado. Isto é aproximadamente de duas a três vezes maior do que o dano causado por todos os outros insetos herbívoros combinados no Cerrado. Ademais, esta estimativa de herbivoria por saúvas é mais alta do que aquelas calculadas para florestas tropicais (variando entre 1...

Salivary proteins of plant-feeding hemipteroids-implication in phytophagy

Sharma, A.; Khan, A.N.; Subrahmanyam, S.; Raman, A.; Taylor, G.S.; Fletcher, M.J.
Fonte: Cambridge University Press Publicador: Cambridge University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.88%
Many hemipteroids are major pests and vectors of microbial pathogens, infecting crops. Saliva of the hemipteroids is critical in enabling them to be voracious feeders on plants, including the economically important ones. A plethora of hemipteroid salivary enzymes is known to inflict stress in plants, either by degrading the plant tissue or by affecting their normal metabolism. Hemipteroids utilize one of the following three strategies of feeding behaviour: salivary sheath feeding, osmotic-pump feeding and cell-rupture feeding. The last strategy also includes several different tactics such as lacerate-and-flush, lacerate-and-sip and macerate-and-flush. Understanding hemipteroid feeding mechanisms is critical, since feeding behaviour directs salivary composition. Saliva of the Heteroptera that are specialized as fruit and seed feeders, includes cell-degrading enzymes, auchenorrhynchan salivary composition also predominantly consists of cell-degrading enzymes such as amylase and protease, whereas that of the Sternorhyncha includes a variety of allelochemical-detoxifying enzymes. Little is known about the salivary composition of the Thysanoptera. Cell-degrading proteins such as amylase, pectinase, cellulase and pectinesterase enable stylet entry into the plant tissue. In contrast...

Insetos visitantes florais em áreas de cerradão e cerrado sensu stricto no estado de São Paulo; Flower-visiting insects in Cerradao and Cerrado areas stricto sensus in Sao Paulo State

D'Avila, Márcia
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 20/04/2006 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.01%
Com o objetivo de conhecer a composição dos insetos e das plantas visitadas nas áreas de cerradão e cerrado sensu stricto, da Estação Experimental de Itirapina, SP, foram realizadas amostragens sistemáticas dos insetos nas plantas, no período de março de 2003 a fevereiro de 2004. Do total de insetos coletados nas flores, 63,3% e 63,8% são da ordem Hymenoptera, 17,1% e 2,5% da ordem Lepidoptera, 16% e 19,5% da ordem Coleoptera e 3,6% e 12,8% da ordem Diptera, respectivamente, para as áreas de cerradão e cerrado sensu stricto, e 1,4% para Hemiptera-Heteroptera no cerrado sensu stricto. A maioria dos insetos coletados, visitando e/ou forrageando, nas duas áreas, foi no período da manhã, exceto os dípteros que preferiram o período da tarde. Na área de cerradão as espécies dominantes de Hymenoptera foram: Exomalopsis (Exomalopsis) sp. e Trigona spinipes; de Lepidoptera foram: Aeria olena e Ithomia agnosia; de Coleoptera foram: Nycterodina sp. e Spintherophyta sp.. Já na área de cerrado sensu stricto os hymenópteros dominantes foram: Apis mellifera, Exomalopsis cf. analis, Tetrapedia rugulosa, Trigona spinipes e Pepsis sp., para Coleoptera foram: Spintherophyta sp., Compsus sp. e Epitragus similis; para Diptera foram: Eristalis sp. e Ornidia obesa. A família Apidae foi a mais rica em espécies e abundância...

Estudo em um fitofago especialista, Tomoplagia reticulata (Diptera:Tephritidae), e sua planta hospedeira, Eremanthus glomerulatus (Asteraceae); A study in an specialist phytophagous, Tomoplagia reticulata (Diptera:Tephritidae), and its host plant, Eremanthus glomerulatus (Asteraceae)

Aluana Gonçalves de Abreu
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 09/02/2009 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.07%
Tomoplagia reticulata (Diptera: Tephritidae) é um fitófago especialista em Eremanthus glomerulatus (Asteraceae). Os adultos ovipõem nas inflorescências da planta hospedeira, onde as larvas se desenvolvem. O histórico de coletas de T. reticulata mostra uma grande variação na quantidade de insetos infestando cada indivíduo de E. glomerulatus. A fim de verificar se a variação no número de herbívoros nas populações do hospedeiro é associada a alguma característica química e/ou genética deste, comparamos as variabilidades genética e química entre indivíduos de E. glomerulatus com diferentes níveis de infestação por T. reticulata (cap. 1). Eremanthus glomerulatus tem baixa variabilidade genética, provavelmente associada à distribuição restrita desta espécie. Apesar da distribuição fragmentada, há pouca estruturação entre as populações desta planta, explicada pelo maior fluxo gênico entre ambientes fragmentados em espécies anemocóricas. As características genéticas e químicas de E. glomerulatus não explicam a variação no nível de herbivoria das populações do hospedeiro. No capítulo 2, testamos a hipótese de que fitófagos especialistas apresentam maior diferenciação genética e menor diversidade do que generalistas...

A Novel Type of Nutritional Ant–Plant Interaction: Ant Partners of Carnivorous Pitcher Plants Prevent Nutrient Export by Dipteran Pitcher Infauna

Scharmann, Mathias; Thornham, Daniel G.; Grafe, T. Ulmar; Federle, Walter
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 22/05/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.1%
Many plants combat herbivore and pathogen attack indirectly by attracting predators of their herbivores. Here we describe a novel type of insect–plant interaction where a carnivorous plant uses such an indirect defence to prevent nutrient loss to kleptoparasites. The ant Camponotus schmitzi is an obligate inhabitant of the carnivorous pitcher plant Nepenthes bicalcarata in Borneo. It has recently been suggested that this ant–plant interaction is a nutritional mutualism, but the detailed mechanisms and the origin of the ant-derived nutrient supply have remained unexplained. We confirm that N. bicalcarata host plant leaves naturally have an elevated 15N/14N stable isotope abundance ratio (δ15N) when colonised by C. schmitzi. This indicates that a higher proportion of the plants’ nitrogen is insect-derived when C. schmitzi ants are present (ca. 100%, vs. 77% in uncolonised plants) and that more nitrogen is available to them. We demonstrated direct flux of nutrients from the ants to the host plant in a 15N pulse-chase experiment. As C. schmitzi ants only feed on nectar and pitcher contents of their host, the elevated foliar δ15N cannot be explained by classic ant-feeding (myrmecotrophy) but must originate from a higher efficiency of the pitcher traps. We discovered that C. schmitzi ants not only increase the pitchers' capture efficiency by keeping the pitchers’ trapping surfaces clean...

Insect-plant interactions: new pathways to a better comprehension of ecological communities in Neotropical savannas

Del-Claro,Kleber; Torezan-Silingardi,Helena M
Fonte: Sociedade Entomológica do Brasil Publicador: Sociedade Entomológica do Brasil
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2009 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.03%
The causal mechanisms shaping and structuring ecological communities are among the most important themes in ecology. The study of insect-plant interactions in trophic nets is pointed out as basic to improve our knowledge on this issue. The cerrado tropical savanna, although extremely diverse, distributed in more than 20% of the Brazilian territory and filled up with rich examples of multitrophic interactions, is underexplored in terms of biodiversity interaction. Here, this ecosystem is suggested as valuable to the study of insect-plant interactions whose understanding can throw a new light at the ecological communities' theory. Three distinct systems: extrafloral nectary plants or trophobiont herbivores and the associated ant fauna; floral herbivores-predators-pollinators; and plants-forest engineers and associated fauna, will serve as examples to illustrate promising new pathways in cerrado. The aim of this brief text is to instigate young researchers, mainly entomologists, to initiate more elaborated field work, including experimental manipulations in multitrophic systems, to explore in an interactive way the structure that maintain preserved viable communities in the Neotropical savanna.

Effect of Host Plant on the Fecundity of Spittlebug Deois flavopicta Stal (Homoptera: Cercopidae): Implications on Population Dynamics

SUJJI,E.R.; PIRES,C.S.S.; FONTES,E.M.G.; GARCIA,M.A.
Fonte: Sociedade Entomológica do Brasil Publicador: Sociedade Entomológica do Brasil
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2001 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.01%
The spittlebug Deois flavopicta Stal (Hom.: Cercopidae) occurs naturally on native grasses in Central Brazil in low population densities. After the introduction of African grasses, mainly of the genus Brachiaria, for cattle raising, D. flavopicta began to produce population outbreaks and became a pest. Two studies were conducted, aiming to estimate the effects of a native and an exotic host plant on the fecundity of this insect. Females of D. flavopicta maintained during the adult stage on Brachiaria ruziziensis produced more eggs and lived longer than those maintained on Axonopus marginatus (a native grass widely distributed in Brazil), independently of the host plant on which the nymphs were reared. Due to the severe damage produced by adult D. flavopicta on the host plant, the effect of insect density on its own reproductive capacity was evaluated in oviposition cages containing plants of B. ruziziensis, standardized in height and stem number. Densities of one, two, three, four and six couples with virgin females were evaluated. Population densities of three couples, equivalent to 150 adults/m², or higher decreased insect's fecundity. These results contributed to the understanding of the mechanisms that determine low levels of spittlebug populations in the native grasses and promote population outbreaks in introduced ones.

Evolution of larval food plant associations in Delias Hübner butterflies (Lepidoptera: Pieridae)

Braby, Michael
Fonte: Entomological Society of Japan Publicador: Entomological Society of Japan
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.79%
A review of larval food plants of the genus Delias is presented. Larvae specialize primarily on aerial-stem and root hemiparasites (" mistletoes") in the order Santalales. Although butterfly food plant associations have been recorded for only a small prop

Insect folivore damage in Nothofagus Blume trees of central Chile and its association with bottom-up plant community attributes

Altmann,Scott H
Fonte: Ecología austral Publicador: Ecología austral
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.03%
The study of insect folivore damage in South American Nothofagus spp. is important for monitoring the health of these trees and for basic research, although empirical information is scarce. Previous evidence on N. macrocarpa (A.DC.) F.M. Vásquez and R.A. Rodr, and N. glauca (Phil.) Krasser trees of central Chile suggested that insect folivore damage in these species can be intense and here I explored damage levels of the two species and their relationship with bottom-up community attributes such as plant architecture, light availability and host age. Foliage samples were collected at fi ve fi eld sites at the end of the 2007-2008 productive season in trees of N. macrocarpa and N. glauca and damage was measured based on lamina removal (complete absence of lamina) and lamina necrosis, and then analzyed statistically in terms of lamina removal and folivore damage (lamina removal and necrosis). Data for N. macrocarpa were divided into two groups based on fi eld site elevation (high and low) whereas data for N. glauca corresponded strictly to low elevation sites. N. macrocarpa of lower elevation sites (low) had greater lamina removal and folivore damage than N. glauca and greater folivore damage than in individuals of N. macrocarpa (high). N. macrocarpa (low) associated with a lower aerial vegetative cover (and presumably more exposed to sun light) had greater lamina removal than individuals associated with a greater aerial vegetative cover (and presumably less exposed to sun light). Nothofagus glauca foliage with greater sun exposure showed greater lamina removal than that corresponding to lower sun exposure...

Synchronism between Aspidosperma macrocarpon Apocynaceae resources allocation and the establishment of the gall inducer Pseudophacopteron sp. Hemiptera: Psylloidea

Castro¹,Ariane C; Oliveira,Denis C; F. P. Moreira,Ana Silvia; Isaias,Rosy M.S
Fonte: Revista de Biología Tropical Publicador: Revista de Biología Tropical
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.97%
The joint interpretation of phenology and nutritional metabolism provides important data on plant tissues reactivity and the period of gall induction. A population of Aspidosperma macrocarpon Apocynaceae with leaf galls induced by a Pseudophacopteron sp. Psylloidea was studied in Goiás state, Brazil. Assuming the morphological similarity between host leaves and intralaminar galls, a gradient from non-galled leaves towards galls should be generated, establishing a morpho-physiological continuum. The phenology, infestation of galls, and the carbohydrate and nitrogen contents were monthly evaluated in 10-20 individuals, from September 2009 to September 2010. Our objective was to analyze the nutritional status and the establishment of a physiological continuum between the galls and the non-galled leaves of A. macrocarpon. The period of leaf flushing coincided with the highest levels of nitrogen allocated to the new leaves, and to the lowest levels of carbohydrates. The nutrients were previously consumed by the growing leaves, by the time of gall induction. The levels of carbohydrates were higher in galls than in non-galled leaves in time-based analyses, which indicateed their potential sink functionality. The leaves were infested in October...