Página 1 dos resultados de 689 itens digitais encontrados em 0.006 segundos

Modelo de difusão da inovação para instituto de pesquisa no Brasil; Innovation diffusion model for public research institute in Brazil

Ades, Cely
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 26/06/2013 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.45%
A proposta de criação de um modelo de difusão da inovação para institutos de pesquisa públicos no Brasil sugere que o inter-relacionamento de instituições de pesquisa e empresas pode ocorrer de maneira diferente da que vem sendo observada na prática. Os NITs são questionados como modelo único para gerir a política de inovação dos institutos de pesquisa para promover a transferência de tecnologia e interação com empresas. Com o objetivo de alavancar o desenvolvimento científico, por meio do aumento da quantidade gerada de produtos e serviços inovadores e do fluxo de conhecimento produzido e transferido para a sociedade, sugere-se que a estratégia de difusão da inovação para institutos de pesquisa pode ocorrer com maior eficiência da que ocorre atualmente. A compatibilização entre a produção, oferta e demanda do conhecimento científico por parte de institutos de pesquisa públicos no Brasil e empresas se dá pela multiplicidade de opções estratégias, como sugerida pela abordagem sistêmica, e com portfólio de modelos de negócios associados. Uma estrutura multicanais de distribuição pode contribuir com a eficiência da difusão da inovação por incorporar funções antes desenvolvidas por componentes da estrutura de canais nem sempre ágeis e/ou com competências específicas para gerir a inter-relação com empresas. Foi utilizada a grounded theory como metodologia que...

A co-evolução entre os sistemas setoriais de inovação e a gestão da inovação tecnológica nas organizações : os casos de energia e mineração no Brasil; Co-evolution of sectoral innovation systems and innovation technology management in organizations : the cases of energy and mining in Brazil

Mariana Savedra Pfitzner
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 25/08/2014 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.22%
Esta tese analisa os Sistemas Setoriais de Inovação (SSIs) de energia e mineração brasileiros, comparando-os com os de outros três países (Canadá, Alemanha e Austrália) e mostra evidências de que os SSIs e seu respectivo modelo de gestão da inovação co-evoluem e são coerentes em seus níveis de desenvolvimento. Os SSIs são pautados pelas relações mercadológicas e não-mercadológicas entre seus atores, isto é, empresas, governos e Instituições de Ciência e Tecnologia (ICTs). A avaliação dos SSIs de energia e mineração aqui proposta está fundamentada em três eixos, que representam o macroambiente (externo à empresa), assim como no conjunto de estruturas (fatores determinantes), processos e ferramentas de gestão da inovação, pertencentes ao microambiente empresarial. Quanto ao macroambiente, o Eixo 1 constitui-se da dinâmica produtiva e de C,T&I do Brasil e demais países, derivada da análise das cadeias produtivas e da construção de indicadores setoriais de esforço e desempenho, os quais ajudam a caracterizar a densidade dos SSIs brasileiros vis-à-vis o Canadá, a Alemanha e a Austrália. O Eixo 2 descreve os grupos de atores comuns a todos os países e avalia seu protagonismo, presença, influência e dependência nos respectivos SSIs. O Eixo 3 analisa marcos e diplomas legais favoráveis à difusão da inovação. Por seu turno...

Diffusion a validation process : learning from patient innovators

Fidélis, Tomás
Fonte: Universidade Católica Portuguesa Publicador: Universidade Católica Portuguesa
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em 16/09/2013 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.4%
Randomized, controlled clinical trials, although important for ensuring safety and efficacy, are criticized for being an inadequate validation process for certain medical innovation modalities and conditions. The main limitations and causes for critique are high costs, long duration, low patient recruitment, design rigidity and ethical issues. At the same time, there is growing evidence that patients and their family members innovate in treatments, therapies, and medical devices. These patient innovators are increasingly recognized as an important source of innovation. Although there is a fairly complex structure developed to formally validate healthcare products, little is known about the paths patient innovators take to validate their solutions before involving health regulators. In this context, we attempt to answer the following research questions: What are the patterns of the validation processes undertaken by patient innovators for their innovations? How can current practices of patient innovation validation be improved from its comparison with observational studies and clinical trials? To address these questions, we study cases of patient innovators who attempted to share their innovations with other patients. More specifically...

Towards a taxonomy of innovation systems

Godinho, Manuel Mira; Mendonça, Sandro F.; Pereira, Tiago Santos
Fonte: ISEG – Departamento de Economia Publicador: ISEG – Departamento de Economia
Tipo: Outros
Publicado em //2005 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.17%
The concept of National Innovation System (NIS) has been recently applied in the context of developing nations even tough it was originally developed in relation to the more developed economies (Japan, Scandinavian countries, US etc.). This raises the methodological problem of knowing whether what was learnt in the study of more advanced NISs is relevant for all sorts of economies regardless the maturity of their actual innovation systems. With this question in mind an exploratory exercise is implemented. First a technique for mapping different NIS is put forward and next based on such mapping a taxonomy of NISs is proposed. The technique although simple in the steps it requires shows analytical potential. The cartography it generates allows one to compare directly different countries, by visualizing in bi-dimensional space the graphic pattern of the relevant dimensions of their respective NISs. This technique is applied to 69 countries (87.4% of the world population) and a set of 29 indicators is used to examine these NISs along eight major dimensions. With the resulting data, and with the help of cluster analysis, a taxonomy of innovation systems is proposed. That taxonomy which contains 6 major types of NISs indicates that what differentiates most the individual systems is their performance in three critical dimensions: innovation...

Barreiras na Difusão de Inovação Biofarmacêutica

Capão, Pedro Tiago Madeira Esteves Canteiro
Fonte: Instituto Superior de Economia e Gestão Publicador: Instituto Superior de Economia e Gestão
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em /08/2010 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.37%
Mestrado em Economia e Gestão de Ciência Tecnologia e Inovação; A biotecnologia farmacêutica tem provocado algumas desilusões quanto aos resultados produzidos nos últimos anos. As primeiras descobertas, nomeadamente de técnicas como o ADN recombinante, faziam prever uma revolução na saúde das populações mas o que se regista hoje é uma biotecnologia ainda dominada pela tecnologia química anterior, representando apenas 10% do mercado farmacêutico e sem conseguir atingir as patologias com maior prevalência. As principais causas do atraso do sucesso da biotecnologia farmacêutica podem estar em diversas fases do percurso do medicamento, desde a investigação de novos alvos terapêuticos e novos princípios activos até à difusão dos novos medicamentos no mercado. Este estudo foca o processo de difusão de inovações biofarmacêuticas em Portugal e as barreiras que possam existir no acesso óptimo dos doentes a estas terapêuticas. Para isso recorreu-se a uma recolha de dados primários através de inquérito a um painel de peritos de diversas áreas de especialidade directamente relacionadas com produtos farmacêuticos biotecnológicos. As questões incidiram sobre seis temas de possíveis barreiras na difusão de inovações biofarmacêuticas: oferta...

Optimizing Technology Development and Adoption in Medical Imaging Using the Principles of Innovation Diffusion, Part II: Practical Applications

Reiner, Bruce I.
Fonte: Springer-Verlag Publicador: Springer-Verlag
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.26%
Successful adoption of new technology development can be accentuated by learning and applying the scientific principles of innovation diffusion. This is of particular importance to areas within the medical imaging practice which have lagged in innovation; perhaps, the most notable of which is reporting which has remained relatively stagnant for over a century. While the theoretical advantages of structured reporting have been well documented throughout the medical imaging community, adoption to date has been tepid and largely relegated to the academic and breast imaging communities. Widespread adoption will likely require an alternative approach to innovation, which addresses the heterogeneity and diversity of the practicing radiologist community along with the ever-changing expectations in service delivery. The challenges and strategies for reporting innovation and adoption are discussed, with the goal of adapting and customizing new technology to the preferences and needs of individual end-users.

Faster Is More Different: Mean-Field Dynamics of Innovation Diffusion

Baek, Seung Ki; Durang, Xavier; Kim, Mina
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 19/07/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.18%
Based on a recent model of paradigm shifts by Bornholdt et al., we studied mean-field opinion dynamics in an infinite population where an infinite number of ideas compete simultaneously with their values publicly known. We found that a highly innovative society is not characterized by heavy concentration in highly valued ideas: Rather, ideas are more broadly distributed in a more innovative society with faster progress, provided that the rate of adoption is constant, which suggests a positive correlation between innovation and technological disparity. Furthermore, the distribution is generally skewed in such a way that the fraction of innovators is substantially smaller than has been believed in conventional innovation-diffusion theory based on normality. Thus, the typical adoption pattern is predicted to be asymmetric with slow saturation in the ideal situation, which is compared with empirical data sets.

Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) Innovation Process: Towards Development of an Integrated Framework for Successful Adoption and Implementation

Ram, J.; Swatman, P.
Fonte: University of Canterbury; Christchurch Publicador: University of Canterbury; Christchurch
Tipo: Conference paper
Publicado em //2008 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.18%
Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems have attracted wide popularity as they promise multidimensional benefits and competitive leadership. However complexity and failures of their successful adoption and implementation have stolen the limelight, resulting in considerable literature on understanding the critical success factors (CSFs) or conditions in which the ERP systems could be successfully adopted and implemented. Grounded in innovation diffusion & IS Success theories, this empirical study aims to provide a roadmap for holistic examination of the conditions for successful adoption and implementation of ERP systems and their performance impacts in financial and non-financial terms. Employing a cross-sectional survey for data collection and Structural Equation Modelling for analysis, the study will test a research model comprising CSFs for ERP adoption and implementation processes and their link to performance impacts. Unique in the Australian context, the study will provide a theoretical framework to help organisations enhance their chances of successful ERP projects; http://www.bsec.canterbury.ac.nz/acis2008/about.html; Jiwat Ram and Paula M.C. Swatman

Reconciling WTP to actual adoption of green energy tariffs: A diffusion model of an induced environmental market

DIAZ-RAINEY, Ivan; TZAVARA, Dionisia
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.23%
This paper develops a formal model that links the willingness to pay (WTP) literature with the established innovation diffusion literature. This concern arises from an attempt to reconcile the large disparities that have been observed between actual adoption of green energy tariffs and WTP for such tariffs. These disparities have often been attributed to upward response bias and the free rider problem. However, empirical research indicates that other factors have hindered the development of green energy markets, including supply side problems and poor regulation. Using an epidemic diffusion framework our model shows how increasing consumer environmental concern driven by word of mouth and mass media communication channels results in a growing number of people who state they are WTP for green energy. The presence of upward response bias and the free rider problem result in ‘feasible adoption’ being below stated WTP. Feasible adoption is, in turn, differentiated from actual adoption by the extent of market imperfections. It is concluded that; (1) the potential of such markets may take time to reap and that the low penetration rates of today may reflect a conventional diffusion trajectory and (2); low and stable energy prices appear to be a precondition if consumers are to contribute substantively to the funding of renewables investments through green tariffs.

Technology diffusion in a differentiated industry

Petrakis, Emmanuel
Fonte: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid Publicador: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/workingPaper; info:eu-repo/semantics/workingPaper Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /10/1994 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.16%
This paper investigates the adoption timing pattern of a cost-reducing innovation in a differentiated oligopolistic industry. It compares price and quantity market competition with the second-best optimal adoption rule. The diffusion pattern typically depends on the degree of product differentiation, and on the ability of firms to precommit, or not, to a certain adoption date. When goods are imperfect substitutes, market competition leads always to later adoption dates than it is socially optimal. When goods are sufficiently close substitutesı the last adoption occurs always earlier than in the optimum; the first adoption might also occur earlier but only if preemption is a credible threat.

Incentives, Innovation, and Imitation: Social Learning in a Networked Group

Wisdom, Thomas Nathaniel
Fonte: [Bloomington, Ind.] : Indiana University Publicador: [Bloomington, Ind.] : Indiana University
Tipo: Doctoral Dissertation
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.13%
Thesis (Ph.D.) - Indiana University, Psychology, 2010; Humans' extraordinary talents for learning from their environments and from each other are the basis of cultural and technological development, but factors affecting the use of these skills such as time, information differences, group size, and material incentives are not yet completely understood. We used a series of laboratory experiments to investigate the causes, consequences, and dynamics of social learning strategies employed by groups of people in complex search environments, and how individual imitation and innovation behaviors affect results at the group level. In these experiments, participants played a simple computer-based puzzle game with others, in which guesses were composed of sets of discrete units that had both linear and interactive effects on score, and each player could view and imitate entire guesses or parts of guesses from others in the group. Players received round-based score feedback about the quality of their own guesses, and in some cases, others' guesses. Our results showed that participants used several social learning strategies previously studied in other species, as well as strategies studied in the context of innovation diffusion, such as imitation biases toward solutions similar to one's own...

Introducing Inventiveness into the Patent System: Submission to the Review of the National Innovation System

Moir, Hazel V J
Fonte: Innovation Perspectives Publicador: Innovation Perspectives
Tipo: Outros Formato: 27 pages
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.19%
Because of the potential impact of the patent system on innovation diffusion, particularly on continuous and/or incremental innovation, patent policy should be of central importance to the review of the national innovation system. Substantial empirical evidence shows that most industrial innovations are not induced by the patent system. Even in very large markets, such as the USA, only a minority of patents are likely to be induced by the patent system. To the extent that patents do induce innovations, it is the inventiveness of the innovation which gives rise to possible social benefits (externalities, mainly in the form of knowledge spillovers) which may offset the costs of a patent system and thus give rise to a net economic benefit. On the basis of this evidence about the inducement effect of the patent system, and evidence on the current very low inventiveness standard for patent grant, policy proposals are put forward to re-introduce inventiveness into the patent system, thus making it potentially welfare-enhancing. These proposed changes would also have a major impact in ameliorating the negative impact of the patent system on continuous/incremental innovation.

A introdução de novos produtos e o processo de difusão das inovações na estratégia das empresas: uma análise de bens duráveis.; Company new product launching strategy and the diffusion of innovations: a durable goods analysis.

Hegedus, Clovis Eduardo Nunes
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 17/03/2006 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.52%
O trabalho trata da difusão das inovações, explorando conceitos já discutidos pela literatura pertinente. A revisão dessa literatura foi feita tanto nos modelos qualitativos quanto nos quantitativos, o que permitiu verificar que o tema é bastante amplo e de grande importância para a sociedade e as empresas. Diferentes áreas como Sociologia, Antropologia, Marketing, Economia, Administração e Engenharia de Produção; foram analisadas para identificar como o fenômeno da difusão é estudado. A inovação é um tema presente em todas as corporações modernas, seja pela pressão mercadológica ou tecnológica, portanto, é considerada fundamental para o sucesso de uma organização. Assim, o trabalho explorou como as empresas tratam sua estratégia de inovar, quando e se incorporam conceitos sobre difusão das inovações na sociedade, de forma a aumentar as chances de sucesso de um novo produto. Foi estudado o comportamento da difusão dos seguintes bens duráveis nos domicílios brasileiros: televisores, rádios, geladeiras, freezer e filtros de água; e também a existência de canalização interna de água. Para suportar esse estudo, foram consultadas as diversas pesquisas realizadas periodicamente pelo IBGE, como Censos Decenais...

A stochastic two-stage innovation diffusion model on a lattice

Coletti, Cristian F.; de Oliveira, Karina B. E.; Rodriguez, Pablo M.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 23/08/2015
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.18%
We propose and study a spatial stochastic model describing a process of awareness, evaluation and decision-making by agents on the d-dimensional integer lattice. Each agent may be in any of the three states belonging to the set {0, 1, 2}. In this model 0 stands for ignorants, 1 for aware and 2 for adopters. Aware and adopters inform its nearest ignorant neighbors about a new product innovation at rate lambda. At rate alpha an agent in aware state becomes an adopter due to the influence of (its nearest) adopters neighbors. Finally, aware and adopters forget the information about the new product at rate one. The purpose of this work is to analyze the influence of the parameters lambda and alpha on the qualitative behavior of the process. More precisely, we study sufficient conditions under which the innovation diffusion (and adoption) either becomes extinct or propagates through the population with positive probability.

Faster is More Different: Mean-Field Dynamics of Innovation Diffusion

Baek, Seung Ki; Durang, Xavier; Kim, Mina
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 21/07/2013
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.18%
Based on a recent model of paradigm shifts by Bornholdt et al., we studied mean-field opinion dynamics in an infinite population where an infinite number of ideas compete simultaneously with their values publicly known. We found that a highly innovative society is not characterized by heavy concentration in highly valued ideas: Rather, ideas are more broadly distributed in a more innovative society with faster progress, provided that the rate of adoption is constant, which suggests a positive correlation between innovation and technological disparity. Furthermore, the distribution is generally skewed in such a way that the fraction of innovators is substantially smaller than has been believed in conventional innovation-diffusion theory based on normality. Thus, the typical adoption pattern is predicted to be asymmetric with slow saturation in the ideal situation, which is compared with empirical data sets.; Comment: 11 pages, 4 figures

Multi-parameter models of innovation diffusion on complex networks

McCullen, Nicholas J.; Rucklidge, Alastair M.; Bale, Catherine S. E.; Foxon, Tim J.; Gale, William F.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 20/07/2012
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.18%
A model, applicable to a range of innovation diffusion applications with a strong peer to peer component, is developed and studied, along with methods for its investigation and analysis. A particular application is to individual households deciding whether to install an energy efficiency measure in their home. The model represents these individuals as nodes on a network, each with a variable representing their current state of adoption of the innovation. The motivation to adopt is composed of three terms, representing personal preference, an average of each individual's network neighbours' states and a system average, which is a measure of the current social trend. The adoption state of a node changes if a weighted linear combination of these factors exceeds some threshold. Numerical simulations have been carried out, computing the average uptake after a sufficient number of time-steps over many realisations at a range of model parameter values, on various network topologies, including random (Erdos-Renyi), small world (Watts-Strogatz) and (Newman's) highly clustered, community-based networks. An analytical and probabilistic approach has been developed to account for the observed behaviour, which explains the results of the numerical calculations.

Spatio-Temporal Patterns for a Generalized Innovation Diffusion Model

Hashemi, Fariba; Hongler, Max-Olivier; Gallay, Olivier
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 19/04/2011
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.23%
We construct a model of innovation diffusion that incorporates a spatial component into a classical imitation-innovation dynamics first introduced by F. Bass. Relevant for situations where the imitation process explicitly depends on the spatial proximity between agents, the resulting nonlinear field dynamics is exactly solvable. As expected for nonlinear collective dynamics, the imitation mechanism generates spatio-temporal patterns, possessing here the remarkable feature that they can be explicitly and analytically discussed. The simplicity of the model, its intimate connection with the original Bass' modeling framework and the exact transient solutions offer a rather unique theoretical stylized framework to describe how innovation jointly develops in space and time.; Comment: 20 pages, 4 figures

Price of Anarchy of Innovation Diffusion in Social Networks

Chen, Xilun; Wu, Chenxia
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 28/07/2014
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.18%
There have been great efforts in studying the cascading behavior in social networks such as the innovation diffusion, etc. Game theoretically, in a social network where individuals choose from two strategies: A (the innovation) and B (the status quo) and get payoff from their neighbors for coordination, it has long been known that the Price of Anarchy (PoA) of this game is not 1, since the Nash equilibrium (NE) where all players take B (B Nash) is inferior to the one all players taking A (A Nash). However, no quantitative analysis has been performed to give an accurate upper bound of PoA in this game. In this paper, we adopt a widely used networked coordination game setting [3] to study how bad a Nash equilibrium can be and give a tight upper bound of the PoA of such games. We show that there is an NE that is slightly worse than the B Nash. On the other hand, the PoA is bounded and the worst NE cannot be much worse than the B Nash. In addition, we discuss how the PoA upper bound would change when compatibility between A and B is introduced, and show an intuitive result that the upper bound strictly decreases as the compatibility is increased.

Exploring associations between micro-level models of innovation diffusion and emerging macro-level adoption patterns

Laciana, Carlos E.; Rovere, Santiago L.; Podestá, Guillermo P.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.25%
A micro-level agent-based model of innovation diffusion was developed that explicitly combines (a) an individual's perception of the advantages or relative utility derived from adoption, and (b) social influence from members of the individual's social network. The micro-model was used to simulate macro-level diffusion patterns emerging from different configurations of micro-model parameters. Micro-level simulation results matched very closely the adoption patterns predicted by the widely-used Bass macro-level model (Bass, 1969). For a portion of the domain, results from micro-simulations were consistent with aggregate-level adoption patterns reported in the literature. Induced Bass macro-level parameters and responded to changes in micro-parameters: (1) increased with the number of innovators and with the rate at which innovators are introduced; (2) increased with the probability of rewiring in small-world networks, as the characteristic path length decreases; and (3) an increase in the overall perceived utility of an innovation caused a corresponding increase in induced and values. Understanding micro to macro linkages can inform the design and assessment of marketing interventions on micro-variables - or processes related to them - to enhance adoption of future products or technologies.; Comment: 20 pages...

Influence of Luddism on innovation diffusion

Mellor, Andrew; Mobilia, Mauro; Redner, Sidney; Rucklidge, Alastair M.; Ward, Jonathan A.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.32%
We generalize the classical Bass model of innovation diffusion to include a new class of agents --- Luddites --- that oppose the spread of innovation. Our model also incorporates ignorants, susceptibles, and adopters. When an ignorant and a susceptible meet, the former is converted to a susceptible at a given rate, while a susceptible spontaneously adopts the innovation at a constant rate. In response to the \emph{rate} of adoption, an ignorant may become a Luddite and permanently reject the innovation. Instead of reaching complete adoption, the final state generally consists of a population of Luddites, ignorants, and adopters. The evolution of this system is investigated analytically and by stochastic simulations. We determine the stationary distribution of adopters, the time needed to reach the final state, and the influence of the network topology on the innovation spread. Our model exhibits an important dichotomy: when the rate of adoption is low, an innovation spreads slowly but widely; in contrast, when the adoption rate is high, the innovation spreads rapidly but the extent of the adoption is severely limited by Luddites.; Comment: 11 pages, 7 figures