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Prospective surveillance study of acute respiratory infections, influenza-like illness and seasonal influenza vaccine in a cohort of juvenile idiopathic arthritis patients

Carvalho, Luciana Martins de; Paula, Flávia Escremim de; Silvestre, Rodrigo V D ; Roberti, Luciana Rodrigues; Neto, Eurico de Arruda; Mello, Wyller A; Ferriani, Virginia Paes Leme
Fonte: BioMed Central; London Publicador: BioMed Central; London
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.16%
Background Acute respiratory infections (ARI) are frequent in children and complications can occur in patients with chronic diseases. We evaluated the frequency and impact of ARI and influenza-like illness (ILI) episodes on disease activity, and the immunogenicity and safety of influenza vaccine in a cohort of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) patients. Methods Surveillance of respiratory viruses was conducted in JIA patients during ARI season (March to August) in two consecutive years: 2007 (61 patients) and 2008 (63 patients). Patients with ARI or ILI had respiratory samples collected for virus detection by real time PCR. In 2008, 44 patients were immunized with influenza vaccine. JIA activity index (ACRPed30) was assessed during both surveillance periods. Influenza hemagglutination inhibition antibody titers were measured before and 30-40 days after vaccination. Results During the study period 105 ARI episodes were reported and 26.6% of them were ILI. Of 33 samples collected, 60% were positive for at least one virus. Influenza and rhinovirus were the most frequently detected, in 30% of the samples. Of the 50 JIA flares observed, 20% were temporally associated to ARI. Influenza seroprotection rates were higher than 70% (91-100%) for all strains...

Acute respiratory infection and influenza-like illness viral etiologies in Brazilian adults

Bellei, Nancy; Carraro, Emerson; Perosa, Ana; Watanabe, Aripuana; Arruda, Eurico; Granato, Celso
Fonte: Wiley-Blackwell Publicador: Wiley-Blackwell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 1824-1827
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
96.25%
Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq); Processo FAPESP: 01/125796; Influenza-like illness (ILI) definitions have been used worldwide for influenza surveillance. These different case definitions can vary with regard to sensitivity and predictive values for laboratory confirmed influenza. The literature has indicated the inclusion of other viruses may be the cause of these variable results. The objective of the study was to evaluate ILI national sentinel criteria and viral etiologies in adults diagnosed with acute respiratory infection ARI) and/or ILI from 2001 to 2003 in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Clinical and laboratory evaluations were observed from 420 adults and collected on a daily basis from outpatient care units at University Hospital. The ILI definition included: fever plus at least one respiratory symptom (cough and/or sore throat) and one constitutional symptom (headache, malaise, myalgia, sweat or chills, or fatigue). DFA and RT-PCR for influenza, parainfluenza, respiratory syncytial virus, adenovirus, enterovirus, coronavirus, rhinovirus, and metapneumovirus were performed on nasal washes and 61.8% resulted positive. The respiratory viruses detected most often were influenza and rhinovirus. ILI was reported for 240/420 patients (57.1%)...

Lessons from the epidemiological surveillance program, during the influenza A (H1N1) virus epidemic, in a reference university hospital of Southeastern Brazil

Moretti,Maria Luiza; Sinkoc,Verônica; Cardoso,Luis Gustavo de Oliveira; Camargo,Gema Jesus de; Bachur,Luis Felipe; Hofling,Christian Cruz; Angerami,Rodrigo; Trabasso,Plínio; Garcia,Márcia Teixeira; Resende,Mariângela Ribeiro
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical - SBMT Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical - SBMT
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.23%
INTRODUCTION: The case definition of influenza-like illness (ILI) is a powerful epidemiological tool during influenza epidemics. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted to evaluate the impact of two definitions used as epidemiological tools, in adults and children, during the influenza A H1N1 epidemic. Patients were included if they had upper respiratory samples tested for influenza by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction during two periods, using the ILI definition (coughing + temperature > 38ºC) in period 1, and the definition of severe acute respiratory infection (ARS) (coughing + temperature > 38ºC and dyspnoea) in period 2. RESULTS: The study included 366 adults and 147 children, covering 243 cases of ILI and 270 cases of ARS. Laboratory confirmed cases of influenza were higher in adults (50%) than in children (21.6%) ( p < 0.0001) and influenza infection was more prevalent in the ILI definition (53%) than ARS (24.4%) (p < 0.0001). Adults reported more chills and myalgia than children (p = 0.0001). Oseltamivir was administered in 58% and 46% of adults and children with influenza A H1N1, respectively. The influenza A H1N1 case fatality rate was 7% in adults and 8.3% in children. The mean time from onset of illness until antiviral administration was 4 days. CONCLUSIONS: The modification of ILI to ARS definition resulted in less accuracy in influenza diagnosis and did not improve the appropriate time and use of antiviral medication.

Smoking and epidemic influenza-like illness in female military recruits: a brief survey.

Kark, J D; Lebiush, M
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/1981 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.22%
An outbreak of influenza-like disease caused illness among 48 per cent of 173 female military recruits, 35 per cent of whom smoked cigarettes. The risk of influenza-like illness was greater in smokers (60.0 per cent) than in nonsmokers (41.6 per cent), with a risk ratio of 1.44 (95 per cent CL 1.03-2.01). Among those ill, a significantly greater proportion of smokers visited the clinic than nonsmokers. This could have been due to more severe illness among smokers, or to a greater tendency to visit the physician. The proportion of influenza-like disease attributable to smoking in this population was 13 per cent.

Population estimates of persons presenting to general practitioners with influenza-like illness, 1987-96: a study of the demography of influenza-like illness in sentinel practice networks in England and Wales, and in The Netherlands.

Fleming, D. M.; Zambon, M.; Bartelds, A. I.
Fonte: Cambridge University Press Publicador: Cambridge University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/2000 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.25%
Incidence data by age of new episodes of influenza-like illness reported by sentinel general practice networks in England and Wales and in The Netherlands over a 10-year period were examined to provide estimates of the consulting population during influenza epidemic periods. Baseline levels of recording in each age group were calculated from weeks in which influenza viruses were not circulating and the excess over baseline calculated to provide the population estimates during influenza epidemics. Influenza A/H3N2 epidemics were associated with higher population estimates for consultations than influenza B, especially in the age groups 0-4 and 65 years and over. In the intervening age groups, population estimates were more consistent regardless of the virus type. Both networks reported simultaneous peaking of incidence rates in all of the age groups. There were substantial increases in the number of persons reporting other respiratory illnesses during influenza epidemics. Population estimates of the consulting population provide the only secure basis for which health services resource utilization during influenza epidemics can be estimated.

Weekly influenza-like-Illness rates were significantly lower in areas where schools were not in session in the United States during the 2009 H1N1 pandemic.

Briffault, Olivia
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 27/04/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.08%
This study investigated the relationship between school session status and H1N1 influenza prevalence. Weekly means of Influenza-like-Illness (ILI) rates over the period May 1 to October 31,2009 were compared between areas where schools were and were not in session in the United States. Rates were substantially and significantly higher in areas where schools were in session. This result held separately in spring and fall and was robust to various controls.

Three cases of acute myositis in adults following influenza-like illness during the H1N1 pandemic

Gibson, Summer Bell; Majersik, Jennifer Juhl; Smith, A Gordon; Bromberg, Mark B
Fonte: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd Publicador: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.18%
Acute viral myositis is a rare condition that occurs during the recovery phase of an illness, most commonly influenza. It is characterized by muscle pain and weakness with an isolated laboratory finding of elevated serum creatine kinase (CK). We describe three previously healthy patients who were hospitalized after developing myositis following influenza-like illness during the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) virus pandemic. All experienced myalgias and weakness in all four extremities, including distal upper extremities, associated with an elevated CK level that resolved along with their myalgias and weakness within one week with supportive care. These cases serve as a reminder that influenza-related myositis may have atypical characteristics depending on the strain of influenza, and clinicians should be open to this possibility when new outbreaks occur.

Age Distribution of Influenza Like Illness Cases during Post-Pandemic A(H3N2): Comparison with the Twelve Previous Seasons, in France

Turbelin, Clément; Souty, Cécile; Pelat, Camille; Hanslik, Thomas; Sarazin, Marianne; Blanchon, Thierry; Falchi, Alessandra
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 05/06/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.22%
In France, the 2011–2012 influenza epidemic was characterized by the circulation of antigenically drifted influenza A(H3N2) viruses and by an increased disease severity and mortality among the elderly, with respect to the A(H1N1)pdm09 pandemic and post-pandemic outbreaks. Whether the epidemiology of influenza in France differed between the 2011–2012 epidemic and the previous outbreaks is unclear. Here, we analyse the age distribution of influenza like illness (ILI) cases attended in general practice during the 2011–2012 epidemic, and compare it with that of the twelve previous epidemic seasons. Influenza like illness data were obtained through a nationwide surveillance system based on sentinel general practitioners. Vaccine effectiveness was also estimated. The estimated number of ILI cases attended in general practice during the 2011–2012 was lower than that of the past twelve epidemics. The age distribution was characteristic of previous A(H3N2)-dominated outbreaks: school-age children were relatively spared compared to epidemics (co-)dominated by A(H1N1) and/or B viruses (including the 2009 pandemic and post-pandemic outbreaks), while the proportion of adults over 30 year-old was higher. The estimated vaccine effectiveness (54%...

Monitoring Avian Influenza A(H7N9) Virus through National Influenza-like Illness Surveillance, China

Xu, Cuiling; Havers, Fiona; Wang, Lijie; Chen, Tao; Shi, Jinghong; Wang, Dayan; Yang, Jing; Yang, Lei; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Shu, Yuelong
Fonte: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Publicador: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.14%
In China during March 4–April 28, 2013, avian influenza A(H7N9) virus testing was performed on 20,739 specimens from patients with influenza-like illness in 10 provinces with confirmed human cases: 6 (0.03%) were positive, and increased numbers of unsubtypeable influenza-positive specimens were not seen. Careful monitoring and rapid characterization of influenza A(H7N9) and other influenza viruses remain critical.

Epidemiology and Viral Etiology of the Influenza-Like Illness in Corsica during the 2012–2013 Winter: An Analysis of Several Sentinel Surveillance Systems

Minodier, Laëtitia; Arena, Christophe; Heuze, Guillaume; Ruello, Marc; Amoros, Jean Pierre; Souty, Cécile; Varesi, Laurent; Falchi, Alessandra
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 24/06/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.22%
Influenza-like illness (ILI) surveillance is important to identify circulating and emerging/reemerging strains and unusual epidemiological trends. The present study aimed to give an accurate picture of the 2012–2013 ILI outbreak in Corsica by combining data from several surveillance systems: general practice, emergency general practice, hospital emergency units, intensive care units, and nursing homes. Twenty-eight respiratory viruses were retrospectively investigated from patients in general practice with ILI. Sequence analysis of the genetic changes in the hemagglutinin gene of influenza viruses (A(H1N1)pdm2009, A(H3N2) and B) was performed. The trends in ILI/influenza consultation rates and the relative illness ratios (RIRs) of having an ILI consultation were estimated by age group for the different surveillance systems analyzed. Of the 182 ILI patients enrolled by general practitioners, 57.7% tested positive for influenza viruses. Phylogenetic analyses suggested a genetic drift for influenza B and A(H3N2) viruses. The ILI/influenza surveillance systems showed similar trends and were well correlated. In accordance with virological data, the RIRs of having an ILI consultation were highest among the young (<15 years old) and decreased with age. No clusters of acute respiratory illness were declared by the sentinel nursing homes. This study is noteworthy in that it is the first extensive description of the 2012–2013 ILI outbreak in Corsica as monitored through several surveillance systems. To improve ILI surveillance in Corsica...

Influenza-Like-Illness and Clinically Diagnosed Flu: Disease Burden, Costs and Quality of Life for Patients Seeking Ambulatory Care or No Professional Care at All

Bilcke, Joke; Coenen, Samuel; Beutels, Philippe
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 17/07/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.19%
This is one of the first studies to (1) describe the out-of-hospital burden of influenza-like-illness (ILI) and clinically diagnosed flu, also for patients not seeking professional medical care, (2) assess influential background characteristics, and (3) formally compare the burden of ILI in patients with and without a clinical diagnosis of flu. A general population sample with recent ILI experience was recruited during the 2011–2012 influenza season in Belgium. Half of the 2250 respondents sought professional medical care, reported more symptoms (especially more often fever), a longer duration of illness, more use of medication (especially antibiotics) and a higher direct medical cost than patients not seeking medical care. The disease and economic burden were similar for ambulatory ILI patients, irrespective of whether they received a clinical diagnosis of flu. On average, they experienced 5–6 symptoms over a 6-day period; required 1.6 physician visits and 86–91% took medication. An average episode amounted to €51–€53 in direct medical costs, 4 days of absence from work or school and the loss of 0.005 quality-adjusted life-years. Underlying illness led to greater costs and lower quality-of-life. The costs of ILI patients with clinically diagnosed flu tended to increase...

Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Detected by Influenza-Like Illness Surveillance in Leyte Island, the Philippines, 2010–2013

Otomaru, Hirono; Kamigaki, Taro; Tamaki, Raita; Opinion, Jamie; Santo, Arlene; Daya, Edgard; Okamoto, Michiko; Saito, Mariko; Tallo, Veronica; Lupisan, Soccoro; Suzuki, Akira; Oshitani, Hitoshi
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 20/04/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.17%
This study aimed to determine the role of influenza-like illness (ILI) surveillance conducted on Leyte Island, the Philippines, including involvement of other respiratory viruses, from 2010 to 2013. ILI surveillance was conducted from January 2010 to March 2013 with 3 sentinel sites located in Tacloban city, Palo and Tanauan of Leyte Island. ILI was defined as fever ≥38°C or feverish feeling and either cough or running nose in a patient of any age. Influenza virus and other 5 respiratory viruses were searched. A total of 5,550 ILI cases visited the 3 sites and specimens were collected from 2,031 (36.6%) cases. Among the cases sampled, 1,637 (75.6%) were children aged <5 years. 874 (43.0%) cases were positive for at least one of the respiratory viruses tested. Influenza virus and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) were predominantly detected (both were 25.7%) followed by human rhinovirus (HRV) (17.5%). The age distributions were significantly different between those who were positive for influenza, HRV, and RSV. ILI cases were reported throughout the year and influenza virus was co-detected with those viruses on approximately half of the weeks of study period (RSV in 60.5% and HRV 47.4%). In terms of clinical manifestations, only the rates of headache and sore throat were significantly higher in influenza positive cases than cases positive to other viruses. In conclusion...

Obesity as a risk factor for severe influenza-like illness

Cocoros, Noelle M; Lash, Timothy L; DeMaria, Alfred; Klompas, Michael
Fonte: Blackwell Publishing Ltd Publicador: Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.12%
Background: Obesity was recognized as in independent risk factor for influenza during the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic. Objectives: We evaluated the association between body mass index (BMI) and influenza-like illness (ILI) during two non-pandemic influenza seasons (2003–2004 and 2004–2005) and during the spring and fall waves of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. Methods: Adults with severe (inpatient) and mild (outpatient) ILI were compared to those without ILI using a case-cohort design. The study was nested among those insured by a single health insurance company, receiving care from a large multispecialty practice. Data were collected from insurance claims and the electronic health record. The primary exposure was obesity (BMI ≥ 30·0 kg/m2). Results: Across three seasons, the crude and adjusted ORs for obesity and severe ILI were 1·65 (95% CI 1·31, 2·08) and 1·23 (95% CI 0·97, 1·57), respectively. An association was observed for those aged 20–59 years (adjusted OR 1·92, 95% CI 1·26, 2·90), but not for those 60 and older (adjusted OR 1·08, 95% CI 0·80, 1·46). The adjusted ORs for obesity and severe ILI in 2003–2004, 2004–2005, and during H1N1 were 1·14 (95% CI 0·80, 1·64), 1·24 (95% CI 0·86, 1·79), and 1·76 (95% CI 0·91...

Understanding influenza vaccine protection in the community: an assessment of the 2013 influenza season in Victoria, Australia

Carville, Kylie S.; Grant, Kristina A.; Sullivan, Sheena G.; Fielding, James E.; Lane, Courtney R.; Franklin, Lucinda; Druce, Julian; Kelly, Heath A.
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 6 pages
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.2%
BACKGROUND The influenza virus undergoes frequent antigenic drift, necessitating annual review of the composition of the influenza vaccine. Vaccination is an important strategy for reducing the impact and burden of influenza, and estimating vaccine effectiveness (VE) each year informs surveillance and preventative measures. We aimed to describe the influenza season and to estimate the effectiveness of the influenza vaccine in Victoria, Australia, in 2013. METHODS Routine laboratory notifications, general practitioner sentinel surveillance (including a medical deputising service) data, and sentinel hospital admission surveillance data for the influenza season (29 April to 27 October 2013) were collated in Victoria, Australia, to describe influenza-like illness or confirmed influenza during the season. General practitioner sentinel surveillance data were used to estimate VE against medically-attended laboratory confirmed influenza. VE was estimated using the case test negative design as 1-adjusted odds ratio (odds of vaccination in cases compared with controls) × 100%. Cases tested positive for influenza while non-cases (controls) tested negative. Estimates were adjusted for age group, week of onset, time to swabbing and co-morbidities. RESULTS The 2013 influenza season was characterised by relatively low activity with a late peak. Influenza B circulation preceded that of influenza A(H1)pdm09...

ASPREN surveillance system for influenza-like illness: a comparison with FluTracking and the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System

Parrella, A.; Dalton, C.B.; Pearce, R.; Litt, J.C.B.; Stocks, N.
Fonte: The Royal Australian College of General Practitioners Publicador: The Royal Australian College of General Practitioners
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2009 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.12%
BACKGROUND: General practitioners play an important role in the detection and clinical management of influenza. The Australian Sentinel Practice Research Network (ASPREN) has been collecting data from sentinel GPs on selected conditions, including influenza-like illness (ILI), since 1991 to inform public health authorities of communicable disease activity in the community. METHODS: Weekly incidence of ILI data reported by ASPREN GPs in 2007-2008 was compared with data from two separate surveillance systems: New South Wales data from FluTracking, an online self reporting ILI surveillance system; and national laboratory notifications of influenza reported to the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System between 2003 and 2008. RESULTS: ASPREN recorded peak ILI rates of 47 per 1000 consultations in week 30 (ending 29 July) 2007 and 34 per 1000 consultations in week 36 (ending 7 September) 2008. Similar trends in incidence were seen in FluTracking cough and fever rates, ASPREN data in New South Wales and National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System laboratory notifications. DISCUSSION: Data captured by the three separate surveillance systems provide complementary information regarding influenza in the Australian population.; Adriana Parrella...

The representativeness of a European multi-center network for influenza-like-illness participatory surveillance

Cantarelli, Pietro; Debin, Marion; Turbelin, Clément; Poletto, Chiara; Blanchon, Thierry; Falchi, Alessandra; Hanslik, Thomas; Bonmarin, Isabelle; Levy-Bruhl, Daniel; Micheletti, Alessandra; Paolotti, Daniela; Vespignani, Alessandro; Edmunds, John; Eames
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 20/09/2014 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.05%
The Internet is becoming more commonly used as a tool for disease surveillance. Similarly to other surveillance systems and to studies using online data collection, Internet-based surveillance will have biases in participation, affecting the generalizability of the results. Here we quantify the participation biases of Influenzanet, an ongoing European-wide network of Internet-based participatory surveillance systems for influenza-like-illness.; work partly supported by the U707/InVS partnership contract n° 12-N-MIP20-04, and the ANR contract no. ANR-12-MONU-0018 (HARMSFLU).

Differential Diagnosis of Respiratory Viruses in Influenza-Like Illness: preliminary surveillance data

Gonçalves, Paulo; Pechirra, Pedro; Conde, Patrícia; Nunes, Baltazar; Guiomar, Raquel
Fonte: Instituto Nacional de Saúde Doutor Ricardo Jorge, IP Publicador: Instituto Nacional de Saúde Doutor Ricardo Jorge, IP
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em /09/2011 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.36%
The National Influenza Reference Laboratory (NIRL) coordinates and performs virological surveillance of Influenza-Like Ilness (ILI), integrated in the Portuguese National Influenza Surveillance Programme (NISP). Despite of this well established surveillance, little is known about the aetiology, virology and clinical aspects of respiratory illness in the country, other than that caused by influenza. National data shows that, during a winter influenza season, 40-70% of ILI cases are not attributed to influenza infection. This will have a significant impact on the estimation of influenza incidence, morbidity and mortality rates. Information on the contribution of other pathogens on the aetiology of ILI is, therefore, necessary. The objective of this preliminary study was to identify other respiratory viruses associated with influenza-like illness and their prevalence in Portugal. During the 2010/2011 influenza winter season, 1017 cases of influenza-like illness (according to the ICHPPC-II definition) were reported to the NIRL for influenza (FLU) diagnosis, in the context of the NISP. From these, 400 were selected to be additionally tested for other respiratory virus that cause respiratory illness with influenza-like symptoms, including respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) types A and B...

Influenza and influenza-like illness in general practice: drawing lessons for surveillance from a pilot study in Paris, France.

Carrat, F; Tachet, A; Housset, B; Valleron, A J; Rouzioux, C
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/1997 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.19%
BACKGROUND: There are two types of inflenza surveillance techniques: qualitative laboratory-based surveillance and quantitative medical practice-based surveillance. The former is of great importance in isolating new strains of the virus, which helps in the decision-making process concerning the composition of the vaccine, and the latter provides estimates of morbidity, mortality or economic impact as a result of infection from the influenza virus. Rapid methods such as immunoflourescence (IF) or immunocapture assays (ICA) are now available for diagnosis of influenza infections. However, little is known about the use of these methods for influenza surveillance purposes. AIMS: To evaluate the feasibility of a rapid influenza diagnosis in ambulatory conditions, and to investigate the therapeutical outcomes of patients suffering from influenza-like illness (ILI) in relation to the virological diagnoses. METHOD: During the 1994-1995 influenza season, 130 patients presenting with ILI symptoms (< 36 hours) to 33 general practitioners (GPs) were included in a prospective study. Two nasal swabs and one throat swab per patient were collected and sent to the laboratory within 12 hours. Information concerning therapeutical outcomes was recorded during examination. Specimens were analysed using the immunofluorescence (IF) method and antigen immunocapture assay (ICA). RESULTS: Sixteen influenza A (12%) and 19 influenza B (15%) infections were diagnosed. The overall rate of influenza positive specimens was 17% in the pre-epidemic period and 31% during the epidemic (P = 0.1). The rates of usable specimens for IF assay...

Real-Time Epidemic Monitoring and Forecasting of H1N1-2009 Using Influenza-Like Illness from General Practice and Family Doctor Clinics in Singapore

Ong, Jimmy Boon Som; Chen, Mark I-Cheng; Cook, Alex R.; Lee, Huey Chyi; Lee, Vernon J.; Lin, Raymond Tzer Pin; Tambyah, Paul Ananth; Goh, Lee Gan
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.16%
BACKGROUND Reporting of influenza-like illness (ILI) from general practice/family doctor (GPFD) clinics is an accurate indicator of real-time epidemic activity and requires little effort to set up, making it suitable for developing countries currently experiencing the influenza A (H1N1-2009) pandemic or preparing for subsequent epidemic waves. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS We established a network of GPFDs in Singapore. Participating GPFDs submitted returns via facsimile or e-mail on their work days using a simple, standard data collection format, capturing: gender; year of birth; "ethnicity"; residential status; body temperature (degrees C); and treatment (antiviral or not); for all cases with a clinical diagnosis of an acute respiratory illness (ARI). The operational definition of ILI in this study was an ARI with fever of 37.8 degrees C or more. The data were processed daily by the study co-ordinator and fed into a stochastic model of disease dynamics, which was refitted daily using particle filtering, with data and forecasts uploaded to a website which could be publicly accessed. Twenty-three GPFD clinics agreed to participate. Data collection started on 2009-06-26 and lasted for the duration of the epidemic. The epidemic appeared to have peaked around 2009-08-03 and the ILI rates had returned to baseline levels by the time of writing. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE This real-time surveillance system is able to show the progress of an epidemic and indicates when the peak is reached. The resulting information can be used to form forecasts...

Incidence of influenza-like illness and severe acute respiratory infection during three influenza seasons in Bangladesh, 2008-2010

Azziz-Baumgartner,Eduardo; Alamgir,ASM; Rahman,Mustafizur; Homaira,Nusrat; Sohel,Badrul Munir; Sharker,MA Yushuf; Zaman,Rashid Uz; Dee,Jacob; Gurley,Emily S; Mamun,Abdullah Al; Mah-E-Muneer,Syeda; Fry,Alicia M; Widdowson,Marc-Alain; Bresee,Joseph; Lindstr
Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.29%
OBJECTIVE: To determine how much influenza contributes to severe acute respiratory illness (SARI), a leading cause of death in children, among people of all ages in Bangladesh. METHODS: Physicians obtained nasal and throat swabs to test for influenza virus from patients who were hospitalized within 7 days of the onset of severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) or who consulted as outpatients for influenza-like illness (ILI). A community health care utilization survey was conducted to determine the proportion of hospital catchment area residents who sought care at study hospitals and calculate the incidence of influenza using this denominator. FINDINGS: The estimated incidence of SARI associated with influenza in children < 5 years old was 6.7 (95% confidence interval, CI: 0-18.3); 4.4 (95% CI: 0-13.4) and 6.5 per 1000 person-years (95% CI: 0-8.3/1000) during the 2008, 2009 and 2010 influenza seasons, respectively. The incidence of SARI in people aged > 5 years was 1.1 (95% CI: 0.4-2.0) and 1.3 (95% CI: 0.5-2.2) per 10 000 person-years during 2009 and 2010, respectively. The incidence of medically attended, laboratory-confirmed seasonal influenza in outpatients with ILI was 10 (95% CI: 8-14), 6.6 (95% CI: 5-9) and 17 per 100 person-years (95% CI: 13-22) during the 2008...