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O regime de metas inflacionárias e sua adequação ao caso brasileiro: os custos de manutenção do regime; Inflation targeting and its adequacy to the brazilian case: the costs of maintenance of the regimen

Biondi, Roberta Loboda
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 19/05/2006 PT
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46.33%
O regime de metas de inflação é uma estratégia de política monetária utilizada por inúmeros países desenvolvidos e em desenvolvimento que tem por objetivo ancorar as expectativas dos agentes econômicos quanto ao comportamento futuro da taxa de inflação. De acordo com a literatura sobre o tema, o regime de metas inflacionárias além de provocar efeitos positivos sobre a taxa de inflação das economias que o adotam, tende também a provocar melhoras sobre o comportamento do produto. O objetivo desta dissertação é analisar empiricamente os impactos da adoção do sistema de metas de inflação para a taxa de inflação e crescimento real do produto dos países, diferenciando os impactos entre os países desenvolvidos e os em desenvolvimento. Utilizando o grupo de países que adotam metas de inflação como o grupo de tratamento e os países que não adotam como grupo de controle, dois procedimentos metodológicos foram realizados: estimação por diferenças em diferenças e análise em painel. Os resultados da estimação por diferenças em diferenças não se mostraram robustos e assim a análise em painel foi realizada. Os resultados demonstram que a adoção do sistema de metas inflacionárias produz impactos significativos para a inflação e crescimento do produto dos países que o adotam. Para o caso dos países desenvolvidos a adoção do sistema de metas tende a elevar a taxa média de inflação assim como o crescimento do produto. Para os países em desenvolvimento...

Monetary policy and inflation in Brazil (1975-2000): a VAR estimation

Minella,André
Fonte: Fundação Getúlio Vargas Publicador: Fundação Getúlio Vargas
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/2003 EN
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This paper investigates monetary policy and basic macroeconomic relationships involving output, inflation rate, interest rate, and money in Brazil. Based on a vector autoregressive (VAR) estimation, it compares three different periods: moderately-increasing inflation (1975-1985), high inflation (1985-1994), and low inflation (1994-2000). The main results are the following: monetary policy shocks have significant effects on output; monetary policy shocks do not induce a reduction in the inflation rate in the first two periods, but there are indications that they have gained power to affect prices after the Real Plan was launched; monetary policy does not usually respond rapidly or actively to inflation-rate and output innovations; in the recent period, the interest rate responds intensely to financial crises; positive interest-rate shocks are accompanied by a decline in money in all the three periods; the degree of inflation persistence is substantially lower in the recent period.

Inflation Dynamics and Food Prices in an Agricultural Economy : The Case of Ethiopia

Loening, Josef L.; Durevall, Dick; Birru, Yohannes A.
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Ethiopia has experienced a historically unprecedented increase in inflation, mainly driven by cereal price inflation, which is among the highest in Sub-Saharan Africa. Using monthly data from the past decade, the authors estimate error correction models to identify the relative importance of several factors contributing to overall inflation and its three major components, cereal prices, food prices, and non-food prices. The main finding is that, in a longer perspective, over three to four years, the main factors that determine domestic food and non-food prices are the exchange rate and international food and goods prices. In the short run, agricultural supply shocks and inflation inertia strongly affect domestic inflation, causing large deviations from long-run price trends. Money supply growth does affect food price inflation in the short run, although the money stock itself does not seem to drive inflation. The results suggest the need for a multi-pronged approach to fight inflation. Forecast scenarios suggest monetary and exchange rate policies need to take into account cereal production...

Intertemporal Adjustment and Fiscal Policy Under a Fixed Exchange Rate Regime

Aloy, Marcel; Moreno-Dodson, Blanca; Nancy, Gilles
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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The paper presents a dynamic model for small to medium open economies operating under a fixed exchange rate regime. The model provides a partial explanation of the channels through which fiscal and monetary policy affects the real exchange rate. An empirical investigation is conducted for the case of Argentina during the currency board period of 1991-2001. Empirical estimates show that fiscal policy may indeed be an efficient instrument for promoting macroeconomic stability insofar as it encourages convergence toward long-run equilibrium and alters the long-term balance between exports and consumption, both private and public. The simulation applied to Argentina shows that if the share of public spending in the economy is higher than the share of imports, an increase in the tax rate will stimulate capital stock slightly, at least in the short term, and depreciate the real effective exchange rate. In the long run, the fiscal policy affects the value of the real exchange rate and consequently external competitiveness.

Inflation in Bangladesh : Trends, Sources and Policy Options

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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46.32%
Inflation in Bangladesh has increased from 1.9 percent in FY01 to 7.2 percent in FY06. The biggest increase was in food prices. Food price inflation increased from 1.4 percent in FY01 to 7.8 percent in FY06. By contrast, non-food price inflation only doubled during the same period. Food price inflation has been well above non-food inflation since FY04. The rise in food inflation could have resulted from developments in global commodity markets, particularly since FY05, increases in domestic production costs, and domestic demand. Inflation increased in most major world economies during FY06 following a surge in international commodity, energy and related fuel prices. The relationship between inflation and growth remains controversial both in theory and in empirics. The inflation-growth relationship for Bangladesh, India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka none of these countries have had high inflation episodes in recent decades. Their analysis shows that growth rates and inflation rates for all four countries are co integrated...

Explaining and Forecasting Inflation in Turkey

Domaç, Ilker
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.33%
The growing adoption of an inflation targeting framework in emerging market economies has increased the importance of understanding inflation dynamics and forecasting its future path in these countries. The author considers the case of Turkey and investigates the performance of models that have some theoretical foundations. To this end, his study focuses on mark-up models, monetary models, and the Phillips curve. The findings suggest that the mark-up models have the best in-sample performance followed by money gap models and the Phillips curve. The empirical results from out-of-sample forecasting performance for the period covering the new economic program (May 2001-December 2002), however, show that the Phillips curve and the money gap models perform better than mark-up models. These findings, in turn, imply that (1) Phillips curves augmented with the exchange rate and money models might provide complementary views in the Turkish context; and (2) the relative importance of output gap and monetary disequilibrium in the inflation process has increased under the floating exchange rate regime. The results underscore the importance of relying on multiple models of inflation in the conduct of Turkish monetary policy.

From Monetary Targeting to Inflation Targeting : Lessons from the Industrialized Countries

Mishkin, Frederic S.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The author examines changes in monetary policy in industrial countries by evaluating, and providing case studies of monetary targeting, and inflation targeting. Inflation targeting has successfully controlled inflation, with some qualifications. It weakens the effects of inflationary shocks, as examples from Canada, Sweden, and the United Kingdom show. It can promote growth, and does not lead to increased fluctuations in output. But inflation targets do not necessarily reduce the cost of reducing inflation. The key to success of inflation targeting, is its stress on transparency, and communication with the public. Inflation targeting increases accountability, which helps ameliorate the time-inconsistency trap (in which the central bank tries to expand output, and employment in the short run, by pursuing overly expansionary monetary policy). Time-inconsistency is more likely to come from political pressures on the central bank, to engage in overly expansionary monetary policy. A key advantage of inflation targeting...

Inflation and the Poor

Easterly, William; Fischer, Stanley
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.4%
Using polling data for 31,869 households in 38 countries, and allowing for country effects, the authors show that the poor are more likely than the rich to mention inflation as a top national concern. This result survives several robustness checks. Also, direct measures of improvements in well-being for the poor - the change in their share of national income, the percentage decline in poverty, and the percentage change in the real minimum wage - are negatively correlated with inflation in pooled cross-country samples. High inflation tends to lower the share of the bottom quintile and the real minimum wage - and tends to increase poverty.

The steady inflation rate of economic growth

Dungey, Mardi; Pitchford, John
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 102052 bytes; application/pdf
EN_AU
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This paper considers the existence of a path of GDP corresponding to steady inflation in the prices of domestic goods. We estimate the steady inflation rate of growth, denoted the SIRG, at a little over 4 per cent per annum in the post-float period. Changes in inflation are modelled as a nonlinear combination of growth and changes in import price inflation. Because import price inflation is more volatile than overall inflation, policy that targets overall inflation may require growth to fluctuate considerably, whereas growth can be steady if the target is steady inflation of domestic goods’ prices.; yes

Inflation targeting in India: issues and prospects

Jha, Raghbendra
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 1043580 bytes; 354 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
EN_AU
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Inflation targeting (henceforth IT) has emerged as a significant monetary policy framework in both developed and transition economies. It has been in place for a decade or more in a number of countries — with around 20 central banks adopting it as their basic monetary policy framework. Some authors have argued that for transition economies undergoing sustained financial liberalization and integration in world financial markets IT is an attractive monetary policy framework. Consequently there is some pressure for such economies to adopt IT as a core element in their monetary policy frameworks. The present paper evaluates the case for IT in India. It begins with stating, almost from first principles, the objectives of monetary policy in India. I argue that inflation control cannot be an exclusive concern of monetary policy in a country such as India with a substantial poverty problem. The rationales for IT is then spelt out as are some nuances of the practical implementation of IT. The paper provides some evidence on the effects of IT in developed and transition economies and argues that although IT may have been responsible for maintaining a low inflation regime it has not brought down the inflation rate itself substantially. Further...

A bounded model of time variation in trend inflation, Nairu and the Phillips curve

Chan, Joshua C. C.; Koop, Gary; Potter, Simon M.
Fonte: Wiley Publicador: Wiley
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 15 pages
Relevância na Pesquisa
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In this paper, we develop a bivariate unobserved components model for inflation and unemployment. The unobserved components are trend inflation and the non-accelerating inflation rate of unemployment (NAIRU). Our model also incorporates a time-varying Phillips curve and time-varying inflation persistence. What sets this paper apart from the existing literature is that we do not use unbounded random walks for the unobserved components, but rather bounded random walks. For instance, NAIRU is assumed to evolve within bounds. Our empirical work shows the importance of bounding. We find that our bounded bivariate model forecasts better than many alternatives, including a version of our model with unbounded unobserved components. Our model also yields sensible estimates of trend inflation, NAIRU, inflation persistence and the slope of the Phillips curve.; Joshua Chan would like to acknowledge financial support bythe Australian Research Council via a Discovery Early Career Researcher Award (DE150100795).

South Asia Economic Focus, June 2011 : Food Inflation

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: General Economy, Macroeconomics and Growth Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
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This report focuses on the impact of policies and exogenous shocks on food inflation. It deals with four elements: 1) the pass-through of global food (and other commodity) prices, 2) macroeconomic policies, 3) market regulation and short-term supply shocks, and 4) long-term structural shifts and the terms of trade between agriculture and other sectors of the economy. This report examines food and overall inflation trends in South Asia, which is experiencing relatively high inflation, and is home to a large number of poor. There are many more poor people who are net buyers of food than there are those who benefit from higher prices of agricultural products even in the predominantly rural countries of South Asia. The report examines both short-term and longer-term drivers of rising food prices in the region, including developments in international commodity prices, domestic supply shocks, accommodative demand side policies, structural changes in demand patterns, and long-term agricultural productivity trends. The impact on poverty is examined...

Are International Food Price Spikes the Source of Egypt's High Inflation?

Al-Shawarby, Sherine; Selim, Hoda
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
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This paper examines whether domestic inflation spikes in Egypt during 2001-2011 were primarily the result of external food price shocks. To estimate the pass-through of international food price inflation to domestic price inflation, two different methodologies are used: a two-step regression model estimates the pass-through in the long run, and a vector autoregression model provides the short-run estimates. The empirical evidence confirms that pass-through is high in the short term, but not in the long run. More precisely, the results show that (i) long-run pass-through to domestic food inflation is relatively low, lying between 13 and 16 percent, while the long-term spill-over from domestic food inflation to core inflation is moderate, lying around 60 percent; (ii) in the short term, pass-through is relatively high, estimated around 29 percent after 6 months and around two-thirds after a year, but the spill-over effect to core inflation is limited; (iii) international food price shocks explain only a small portion of domestic inflation shocks in both the short and long terms; and (iv) international price inflation has asymmetric effects on domestic prices.

Fiscal Deficits, Monetary Reform, and Inflation Stabilization in Romania

Budina, Nina; van Wijnbergen, Sweder
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Working Paper; Publications & Research; Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Unsustainable fiscal deficits were the chief reason for the inflation that has persisted in Eastern Europe since 1989. Deficits need to be cut back, but by how much for a given inflation target? The authors develop a simple framework for debt, the deficit, and inflation to study the interactions between fiscal and monetary policy in Romania's economy. This framework can be used to 1) determine the financeable deficit and the required deficit reduction for a given rate of output growth, inflation rate, and target for debt-output ratios, and 2) find the rate, and target for which no fiscal adjustment is needed. They use this framework to assess consistency between inflation, monetary reform, and fiscal policy in Romania. Many of the issues in Romania are similar to those in other countries. But Romania is an interesting case because of its history of unsuccessful stabilization attempts. The authors' results suggest that fiscal problems during 1992-94 were masked by shifting government expenses to the books of the National Bank of Romania so that the government deficit did not fully reflect public spending. In addition...

Monetary Policy under Flexible Exchange Rates : An Introduction to Inflation Targeting

Agenor, Pierre-Richard
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
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In the past few years, a number of central banks have adopted inflation targeting for monetary policy. The author provides an introduction to inflation targeting, with an emphasis on analytical issues, and the recent experience of middle- and high-income developing countries (which have relatively low inflation to begin with, and reasonably well-functioning financial markets). After presenting a formal analytical framework, the author discusses the basic requirements for inflation targeting, and how such a regime differs from money, and exchange rate targeting regimes. After discussing the operational framework for inflation targeting (including the price index to monitor the time horizon, the forecasting procedures, and the role of asset prices), he examines recent experiences with inflation targets, providing new evidence on the convexity of the Phillips curve for six developing countries. His conclusions: Inflation targeting is a flexible policy framework that allows a country's central bank to exercise some degree of discretion, without putting in jeopardy its main objective of maintaining stable prices. In middle- and high-income developing economies that can refrain from implicit exchange rate targeting, it can improve the design...

Is There Room for Foreign Exchange Interventions Under an Inflation Targeting Framework? Evidence from Mexico and Turkey

Domaç, Ilker; Mendoza, Alfonso
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.34%
The salient characteristics of emerging market economies coupled with the increasing adoption of inflation targeting in these countries has stimulated much debate about the role of the exchange rate in inflation targeting regimes. The authors aim at shedding more light on this issue by investigating whether central bank foreign exchange interventions have had any impact on the volatility of the exchange rate in Mexico and Turkey since the adoption of the floating regime. To this end, their study, using daily data on foreign exchange intervention, employs an Exponential GARCH framework. Empirical results suggest that both the amount and frequency of foreign exchange interventions have decreased the volatility of the exchange rates in these countries. The authors' findings corroborate the notion that if foreign exchange interventions are carried out with finesse and sensibly-that is, not to defend a particular exchange rate-they could play a useful role in containing the adverse effects of temporary exchange rate shocks on inflation and financial stability.

Does the Exchange Rate Regime Affect Macroeconomic Performance : Evidence from Transition Economics

Domac, Ilker; Peters, Kyle; Yuzefovich, Yevgeny
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.36%
To examine whether a country's exchange rate regime has any impact on inflation and growth performance in transition economies, the authors develop an empirical framework that addresses some of the main problems plaguing empirical work in this strand of the literature: the Lucas critique, the endogeneity of the exchange rate regime, and the sample selection problem. Empirical results demonstrate that the exchange rate regime does affect inflation performance. the results suggest that: 1) Transition countries with intermediate arrangements might reduce inflation if they were to adopt a fixed regime. 2) Switching from a floating regime to an intermediate regime might not reduce inflation. 3) An unanticipated float--when a country whose fundamentals make it unlikely to adopt another regime adopts a floating regime--results in lower inflation. Based on their results, it is not possible to infer more about one particular exchange rate regime being superior to another in terms of growth performance. But empirical findings do underscore the different effects that policy variables--and other variables influencing economic activity--have on growth under different exchange-rate arrangements.

An evaluation of the tolerant to higher inflation rate in the short run by the Brazilian Central Bank in the period 2001-2012

Moreira,Tito Belchior Silva; Souza,Geraldo da Silva e; Ellery Jr,Roberto
Fonte: Fundação Getúlio Vargas Publicador: Fundação Getúlio Vargas
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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This article investigates the degree of tolerance to higher inflation rates in the short run by the presidents of the Brazilian Central Bank in the period 2001-2012. We used monthly data and various specifications and estimates of the Taylor rule via GMM. In general, the results show the following empirical evidences: i) the mandate of Henrique Meirelles was less tolerant to higher inflation rates when comparing with the mandate of Armínio Fraga and ii) the Alexandre Tombini's administration is more tolerant to higher inflation rate in the short run than Armínio Fraga's.

The NAIRU, unemployment and the rate of inflation in Brazil; Discussion Paper 94 : The NAIRU, unemployment and the rate of inflation in Brazil; A NAIRU, o desemprego e a taxa de inflação no Brasil

Lima, Elcyon Caiado Rocha
Fonte: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (Ipea) Publicador: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (Ipea)
Tipo: Discussion Paper
EN-US
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Neste artigo estimamos a Non-Accelerating Inflation Rate of Unemployment (Nairu) do Brasil e investigamos diversas questões empíricas: o comportamento da Nairu ao longo do tempo, intervalos de confiança para a Nairu e sua utilidade na condução da política monetária no Brasil. Há diversos estudos recentes sobre a Nairu ¾ Staiger, Stock e Watson (1997), Blanchard e Katz (1997) e Portugal, Madalozzo e Hillbrecht (1999). Este artigo inova em relação aos demais ao adotar procedimentos econométricos que, na nossa opinião, são mais adequados para lidar com a instabilidade vivida pela economia brasileira em período recente. Estimamos dois modelos em espaço-deestados diferentes: um com resíduos ARCH e outro com mudança de regime markoviana. O artigo apresenta novas evidências empíricas que permitem responder a diversas indagações teóricas. Ele mostra que a Nairu tem crescido desde 1995 e conclui que existe uma correlação significativa e com sinal correto entre desvios da taxa de desemprego em relação à Nairu e à taxa de inflação. Conclui-se também que as estimativas da Nairu são muito pouco úteis na condução da política monetária já que os seus intervalos de confiança são demasiadamente amplos.; 18 p. : il.

The NAIRU, unemployment and the rate of inflation in Brazil; Texto para Discussão (TD) 753: The NAIRU, unemployment and the rate of inflation in Brazil; A NAIRU, o desemprego e a taxa de inflação no Brasil

Lima, Elcyon Caiado Rocha
Fonte: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (Ipea) Publicador: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (Ipea)
Tipo: Texto para Discussão (TD)
PT-BR
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Neste artigo estimamos a Non-Accelerating Inflation Rate of Unemployment (Nairu) do Brasil e investigamos diversas questões empíricas: o comportamento da Nairu ao longo do tempo, intervalos de confiança para a Nairu e sua utilidade na condução da política monetária no Brasil. Há diversos estudos recentes sobre a Nairu - Staiger, Stock e Watson (1997), Blanchard e Katz (1997) e Portugal, Madalozzo e Hillbrecht (1999). Este artigo inova em relação aos demais ao adotar procedimentos econométricos que, na nossa opinião, são mais adequados para lidar com a instabilidade vivida pela economia brasileira em período recente. Estimamos dois modelos em espaço-deestados diferentes: um com resíduos ARCH e outro com mudança de regime markoviana. O artigo apresenta novas evidências empíricas que permitem responder a diversas indagações teóricas. Ele mostra que a Nairu tem crescido desde 1995 e conclui que existe uma correlação significativa e com sinal correto entre desvios da taxa de desemprego em relação à Nairu e à taxa de inflação. Conclui-se também que as estimativas da Nairu são muito pouco úteis na condução da política monetária já que os seus intervalos de confiança são demasiadamente amplos.; 18 p. : il.