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Numerical validation of the experimental cyclic response of RC frames

Braz César, M.T.; Oliveira, Daniel V.; Barros, R.C.
Fonte: Saxe-Coburg Publications Publicador: Saxe-Coburg Publications
Tipo: Parte de Livro
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.05%
In this paper is estimated the numerical cyclic response of RC frames with and without masonry infill’s through a simplified nonlinear analysis using a commercial finite element method (FEM) package. The numerical model is based on the experiments carried out in the National Laboratory of Civil Engineering (LNEC) and the numerical and experimental results are compared to assess the accuracy of the simplified analysis for the bare frame and for the infill frame. To take into account the highly nonlinear behaviour of reinforced concrete (RC) frames due to large deformations, a numerical model based on the inelastic hinge method is used with a higher complexity of the hinge constitutive laws, which allows verifying the suitability of every hinge model to the experimental results.

Solutions for infilled masonry buildings : shaking table tests

Leite, João C.; Lourenço, Paulo B.
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC) Publicador: Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC)
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em //2012 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.35%
Infilled masonry can be seen as an old research issue, but recent seismic activities, such as the 2009 Aquila earthquake in Italy, showed seismic engineers and structural designers that current infill solutions may not work as expected. In this seismic action, the analysis of the damages in buildings constructed in the last 20 years, designed according to modern standards, may lead to the worrying conclusion that the design Limit States were not fulfilled. Taking this into account, a research program was conducted as a partnership between the University of Minho, Portugal, and the National Laboratory for Civil Engineering (L.N.E.C.), Portugal, which included a shaking table experimental program. The objective of this program was to study the seismic behaviour of the most common infill solution in Portugal, the unreinforced double leaf clay brick masonry, and two reinforced solutions referenced in the standard Eurocode 8: i) single leaf clay brick with bed joint reinforcement, connected to the bounding frame; ii) single leaf clay brick with steel net in the plaster, connected to the bounding frame. The present paper details the first two tested solutions, along with the discussion of the results, focusing on the obtained collapse modes of the infills and the measured accelerations for those modes.

Retrofitting masonry infill walls with textile reinforced mortar

Vasconcelos, Graça; Fangueiro, Raúl; Cunha, Fernando Eduardo Macedo; Abreu, S.
Fonte: Sociedade Portuguesa de Engenharia Sísmica Publicador: Sociedade Portuguesa de Engenharia Sísmica
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em /09/2012 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.05%
The vulnerability of unreinforced masonry walls (URM) under seismic events, causing huge loss of money and human lives, has revealed the enormous need for an efficient strengthening material. In this context, the present paper reports the development of a new reinforcing material for masonry walls based on braided fibrous structures. These fibrous materials were developed through braiding of polyester yarns around a core made of either glass or carbon fiber (core reinforced braid) or without any core (simple braid). Masonry walls were fabricated by placing these braided materials on the surface of clay brick walls in a mesh like configuration and covering with a mortar layer. The flexural behavior of developed masonry walls was compared with URM and walls reinforced with more commonly used glass fiber laminates using the same configuration and process.

Seismic performance of traditional half-timbered walls : experimental results

Poletti, Elisa; Vasconcelos, Graça
Fonte: Tampone, Ruggieri and ZInno Publicador: Tampone, Ruggieri and ZInno
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em //2013 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.05%
Half-timbered structures constitute an important cultural heritage of many countries, since they represent a typical anti-seismic construction adopted worldwide [1][2]; therefore, their preservation is of the utmost importance. Although recent earthquakes have pointed out the good seismic behaviour of this kind of structures, few experimental studies are available on the performance of traditional half-timbered walls and their retrofitting solutions and mainly only qualitative information is available of the seismic response of such structures. Due to this lack of information, an extensive experimental campaign was carried out, performing in-plane cyclic tests on real scale half-timbered and timber frame walls, adopting connections and dimensions encountered in real structures and considering different infill types (brick masonry and lath and plaster). Moreover, keeping in mind the great rehabilitation effort that has been carried out in recent years on such buildings, such in the case of the Portuguese Pombalino buildings in Lisbon, it is important to study the effect of strengthening on traditional timber-frame walls. To do this, retrofitting solutions have been applied to traditional walls and tested under cyclic loading. Both traditional and innovative techniques have been considered...

Avaliação do efeito das paredes de enchimento no comportamento dinâmico de edifícios de betão armado; Evaluation of the effect of masonry infills walls in the dynamic behavior of reinforced concrete buildings

Domingues, Julien
Fonte: Universidade do Minho Publicador: Universidade do Minho
Tipo: Trabalho de Conclusão de Curso
Publicado em //2013 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.65%
Dissertação de mestrado integrado em Engenharia Civil (área de especialização em Perfil de Estruturas e Geotecnia); Toda a história humana encontra-se recheada de eventos sísmicos que fustigaram as populações e a suas cidades de forma mais ou menos grave, dependendo da intensidade do sismo e da preparação das estruturas para resistirem. Perderem-se nesta luta travada contra a natureza e a sua implacável redundância um número bastante significativo de vidas humanas e danos materiais. Portugal, ao longo dos tempos, já prestou o seu tributo a esta triste causa e poderá no futuro encontrar-se novamente perante um evento sísmico de grandes proporções. A grande preocupação perante esta eventualidade é claramente o facto de o património edificado não estar a altura deste evento. Dentro dos edifícios modernos a maior preocupação, desencadeada em grande parte por recentes sismos em países vizinhos com resultados catastróficos, é a vulnerabilidade das paredes em alvenaria, pelo facto de poderem ceder segundo vários tipos de mecanismos de colapso. O objetivo deste trabalho é contribuir para o conhecimento da engenharia civil sobre o funcionamento destes elementos em particular e a sua influência no comportamento global das estruturas. Para tal...

Innovative systems for earthquake resistant masonry enclosures in RC buildings

Dias, António Baio; Da Porto, Francesca; Fehling, Ekkehard; Lourenço, Paulo B.; Morandi, Paolo; Vintzileou, Elizabeth; Yakut, Ahmet
Fonte: Universidade do Minho Publicador: Universidade do Minho
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em //2014 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.05%
The Commission of the European Communities has recently funded a research project for the benefit of Associations of Small and Medium Enterprises (SME-AGs), aimed at developing innovative systems for masonry enclosures. More in general, the project deals with external partition systems for reinforced concrete framed buildings, such as infill walls and envelopes, and with internal partitions. The project involves sixteen partners from seven European countries, among which there are seven universities and research centres, five industrial associations, and four small and medium enterprises. In the present contribution, an overview of the main objectives and steps of the project is given. A general summary of the various construction systems that are being developed and designed is given. The future developments in terms of experimental programs, numerical analyses, and final expected outcomes of the project are described.

Security evaluation and design of structures subjected to blast loading

Pereira, João Miguel
Fonte: Universidade do Minho Publicador: Universidade do Minho
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em 27/06/2014 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.05%
Tese de doutoramento em Engenharia Civil; The work presented in this thesis was developed at the Department of Civil Engineering of University of Minho. This work involves experimental and numerical campaigns and intends to give a contribution for a better understanding of the effect of explosions. Blast loading is a subject of much actuality and considerable lack of expertise. Europe has never been so rich and safe, where the violent years of the first half of the 20th century lead to an unprecedented period of peace and stability. Despite the terrorist decades, e.g. connected to ETA and IRA in Europe, the attacks of Madrid (2004), London (2005) and worldwide (New York, Oklahoma, Mumbai) had a major psychological effect in the societies. Clearly, the understanding about the effect of blast loading in structures and their subsystems saves lives and reduces damage in buildings. The Buncefield explosion (2005) resulted in tremendous damage to the outlying area and huge fires involving 23 large oil fuel tanks. Experimental and finite element analyses are carried out for the static and dynamic response of lightweight metal boxes that are similar to the steel junction boxes on the site of this explosion. During the Buncefield Explosion Mechanism Phase I research...

Masonry enclosure walls: lessons learnt from the recent Abruzzo Earthquake

Vicente, R.; Rodrigues, H.; Costa, A.; Varum, H.; Silva, J. A. R. Mendes da
Fonte: Universidade de Aveiro Publicador: Universidade de Aveiro
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.35%
This paper approaches the issue of performance requirements and construction criteria for masonry enclosure and infill walls. Vertical building enclosures in European countries include, very often, non-loadbearing masonry walls, using horizontally hollowed clay bricks. These walls are generally supported and confined by a reinforced concrete frame structure of columns, beams or slabs. Since these walls are commonly considered to be non-structural elements, and their influence over the structural response is ignored, their consideration in the design of structures as well as its linkage to the surrounding structure is often negligent or insufficiently detailed. In consequence, non-structural elements, as for wall enclosures, are relatively sensitive to drift and acceleration demands when buildings are subjected to seismic actions. Many international standards and technical documents alert to the need of acceptability criteria for non-structural walls, however they do not specifically indicate how to prevent collapse and severe cracking and how to enhance the overall stability for severe seismic loading. In this paper, appropriate measures are proposed to improve both in-plane and out-of-plane integrity and the performance behaviour under seismic actions of external leaf of double leaf cavity walls as well as premature disintegration of the infill walls.

Seismic behaviour and strengthening of existing reinforced concrete structures

Varum, H.; Rodrigues, H.; Fernandes, C.; Costa, A.; Arêde, A.
Fonte: Universidade de Aveiro Publicador: Universidade de Aveiro
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.53%
The seismic vulnerability associated to existing reinforced concrete buildings, constructed until the late 1970’s, in urban areas of many European countries with moderate to high seismic hazard, is of extreme importance. In that period, reinforced concrete buildings were designed and constructed without considering adequately earthquake provisions, constituting therefore a significant source of risk for our cities. Recent major earthquakes around the world have evidenced that this type of existing buildings lacking appropriate seismic resisting characteristics are very vulnerable. The present paper focus in four important subjects regarding the seismic behaviour of reinforced concrete buildings, first the importance of the experimental studies on full-scale buildings in particular with two full-scale four-storey reinforced concrete frames tested, in these tests two problems were under study the presence on infill masonry panels in the structure and the use of smooth reinforcement bars, that induces a sudden loss of concrete-steel bond is one of the sources of brittle failure in RC elements. For the presence infill masonry panels it’s presented a simplified macro-model that is able of represents the global behaviour of infill masonry panels and its interaction with RC elements and its application to a case study. Regarding the study of RC buildings smooth reinforcement bars it’s presented the experimental campaign ongoing and the first results and conclusions. Another identified problem in the seismic behaviour of RC buildings is the behaviour of axially loaded reinforced concrete members under biaxial bending moment. It’s presented the actual lack of experimental studies and the nonexistence of simplified models able to represent these effects and the experimental study of RC columns under uniaxial and biaxial bending.

Probabilistic risk assessment of a modern architecture building: analysis of the original building and retrofitting proposals

Rodrigues, H.; Romão, X.; Varum, H.; Arêde, A.; Costa, A.; Delgado, R.
Fonte: Universidade de Aveiro Publicador: Universidade de Aveiro
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.05%
The seismic vulnerability of an existing building representative of modern architecture style is presented herein. To improve its seismic response, a retrofitting solution consisting of an x-bracing system associated to a shear-link dissipater was analysed. The effectiveness of the retrofit was measured by carrying out a seismic fragility analysis, considering a numerical model accounting for the nonlinear behaviour under earthquakes of both RC elements and infill masonry walls. It is seen that currently available numerical tools, in combination with probabilistic assessment procedures, make the structural safety assessment of buildings an increasingly feasible methodology based upon which it is possible to propose effective seismic risk mitigation measures.

A non-linear masonry infill macro-model to represent the global behaviour of buildings under cyclic loading

Rodrigues, H.; Varum, H.; Costa, A.
Fonte: Universidade de Aveiro Publicador: Universidade de Aveiro
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.74%
The presence of masonry infill walls in RC buildings is very common. However, even nowadays, in the design of new buildings and in the assessment of existing ones, the infills are usually considered as non-structural elements and their influence in the structural response is ignored. For horizontal loading, infill panels can drastically modify the response, attracting forces to parts of the structure that have not been designed to resist them (Varum, 2003). In this paper is presented an improved non-linear numerical model for the simulation of the influence of the masonry infill walls in the seismic behaviour of structures, implemented in the analysis program PORANL. After the implementation and calibration of the proposed masonry model, it was performed a series non-linear dynamic analyses of a building, representative of the Modern Architecture. The main objective was to investigate the behaviour of this type of buildings, and their weakness under seismic loading. The building geometry and dimensions of the RC elements and infill walls were given in the original project, and were confirmed in the technical visits. The building studied has nine storeys and the structure is mainly composed by twelve plane frames oriented in the transversal direction. The building was analysed with a simplified plane model...

The natural frequencies of composite Profiled Steel Sheet Dry Board with Concrete infill (PSSDBC) system

Gandomkar,Farhad Abbas; Badaruzzaman,Wan Hamidon Wan; Osman,Siti Aminah
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Ciências Mecânicas Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Ciências Mecânicas
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.05%
This paper aims to measure natural frequencies of Profiled Steel Sheet Dry Board (PSSDB) with Concrete infill (PSSDBC) system. For this purpose, experimental tests by estimation of Frequency Response Function (FRF) and a numerical method by development of Finite Element Model (FEM) are used. The connection stiffness between Peva45 as Profiled Steel Sheet (PSS) and different concrete grades of 25 (C25), 30 (C30), and 35 (C35) are measured by push-out tests to be used in the FEM. The effect of presence of concrete in the PSSDB system on the natural frequencies such as Fundamental Natural Frequency (FNF) of the system is investigated. The variability in the FNF of the studied system under different parameters such as concrete grades, thicknesses of PSS and Dry Board (DB), and boundary conditions is determined. In a wide numerical study, the FNF of the PSSDBC system with practical dimensions is revealed for different lengths, widths, and boundary conditions. The results help designer predict serviceability and design criteria of the studied panels.

Dynamic response of low frequency Profiled Steel Sheet Dry Board with Concrete infill (PSSDBC) floor system under human walking load

Gandomkar,Farhad Abbas; Badaruzzaman,Wan Hamidon Wan; Osman,Siti Aminah
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Ciências Mecânicas Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Ciências Mecânicas
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.05%
This paper investigates the dynamic response of a composite structural system known as Profiled Steel Sheet Dry Board with Concrete infill (PSSDBC) to evaluate its vibration serviceability under human walking load. For this point, thirteen (13) PSSDBC panels in the category of Low Frequency Floor (LFF) were developed using Finite Element Method (FEM). The natural frequencies and mode shapes of the studied panels were determined based on the developed finite element models. For more realistic evaluation on dynamic response of the panels, dynamic load models representing human walking load were considered based on their Fundamental Natural Frequency (FNF), and also time and space descriptions. The peak accelerations of the panels were determined and compared to the limiting value proposed by the standard code ISO 2631-2. Effects of changing thickness of the Profiled Steel Sheet (PSS), Dry Board (DB), screw spacing, grade of concrete, damping ratio, type of support, and floor span on the dynamic responses of the PSSDBC panels were assessed. Results demonstrated that although some factors reduced dynamic response of the PSSDBC system under human walking load, low frequency PSSDBC floor system could reach high vibration levels resulting in lack of comfortableness for users.

Experimental evaluation of the prevention methods for the interface between masonry infill walls and concrete columns

Tramontin,A. P.; Moreno Junior,A. L.; Oliveira,C. R
Fonte: IBRACON - Instituto Brasileiro do Concreto Publicador: IBRACON - Instituto Brasileiro do Concreto
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/10/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.53%
Cracks that form at the interfaces between masonry structures are common uncontrolled occurrences in buildings. Numerous methods have been proposed by the construction industry to address this problem. Cracks continuously form in the joints between concrete columns and masonry infill walls. In this study, the most common methods for preventing these types of cracks were evaluated in laboratory experiments. Column masonry models were constructed using different types of joints between concrete columns and masonry infill walls, such as steel bars and steel mesh. The efficiency of each type of joint method was evaluated by performing direct tensile tests (pullout tests) on the models and monitoring the evolution of the crack opening in the joint between the column and wall, as a function of load applied to the model. The results from this study indicate that the model composed of "electrowelded wire mesh without steel angles" is the best model for controlling cracking in the joints between concrete columns and masonry infill walls.

Interaction of 3H+ (as HTO) and 36Cl− (as Na36Cl) with crushed granite and corresponding fracture infill material investigated in column experiments

Štamberg, K.; Palágyi, Š.; Videnská, K.; Havlová, V.
Fonte: Springer Netherlands Publicador: Springer Netherlands
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.53%
The transport of 3H+ (as HTO) and 36Cl− (as Na36Cl) was investigated in the dynamic system, i.e., in the columns filled with crushed pure granite and fracture infill of various grain sizes. The aim of column experiments was to determine important transport parameter, such as the retardation, respectively distribution coefficients, Peclet numbers and hydrodynamic dispersion coefficients. Furthermore, the research was focused to quantification of the effect of grain size on migration of studied radionuclides. The experimental breakthrough curves were fitted by a model based on the erfc-function, assuming a linear reversible equilibrium sorption/desorption isotherm, and the above mentioned transport parameters were determined. The results showed that influence of grain size on sorption of 3H+ and 36Cl− was negligible. Retardation and distribution coefficients of both tracers converged to one and zero, respectively, in case of all fractions of crushed granite and infill material. Generally, the presumed ion exclusion of 36Cl in anionic form was proved under given conditions, only very weak one seems to exist in a case of infill material. In principal, both radionuclides behaved as non-sorbing, conservative tracers. On the other hand...

CHARACTERIZATION OF FILLING MATERIALS FOR EASEL PAINTINGS

Freeman, ASHLEY
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.53%
Developing appropriate treatments for easel paintings can be complex, as many works are composed of various materials that respond in different ways. When selecting a filling material for these artworks, several properties are investigated including: the need for the infill to react to environmental conditions in a similar manner as the original material; the need for the infill to have good handling properties, adhesion to the original support, and cohesion within the filling material; the ability for the infill to withstand the stress of the surrounding material and; be as flexible as the original material to not cause further damage. Also, changes in colour or mechanical properties should not occur as part of the ageing process. Studies are needed on acrylic-based materials used as infills in conservation treatments. This research examines some of the chemical, physical, and optical changes of eleven filling materials before and after ageing, with the aim to evaluate the overall appropriateness of these materials as infills for easel paintings. The materials examined were three rabbit skin glue (RSG) gessoes, and seven commercially prepared acrylic materials, all easily acquired in North America. Chemical analysis was carried out with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray fluorescence (XRF)...

STRUCTURAL BENEFITS OF HEMPCRETE INFILL IN TIMBER STUD WALLS

MUKHERJEE, AGNITA
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.35%
Due to an increase in environmental consciousness in the construction industry there has been increasing interest in using natural building materials like rammed earth construction, straw bale construction and hempcrete construction. These materials have very small embodied energy and are carbon negative or carbon neutral. Hempcrete is a bio-composite mix made up of hemp shive, lime, cement and water. There has been extensive research undertaken on the thermal, acoustic, and mechanical properties of hempcrete. It has low density, good thermal and acoustic insulation properties, and can passively regulate humidity in a built environment. However it also has low compressive strength and modulus of elasticity. Thus hempcrete cannot be used as a direct load bearing material but can used as an infill material in timber stud walls. This thesis investigates how hempcrete can have beneficial structural effects by preventing buckling of timber (increasing the buckling load) columns when used as an infill in between columns in a timber stud wall. Eight timber walls were constructed (both half scale -1200mm high; and full scale – up to 2133mm high) with varying column dimensions. Six of the walls were infilled with hempcrete of varying density. Two walls were not infilled and were baseline tests. All walls were tested in compression. It was found that high density hempcrete (715 kg/m3) not only prevented weak axis buckling of columns but also carried some direct load. Low density hempcrete was also successful in preventing weak axis buckling of the infilled walls. In-filled walls failed in strong axis buckling at a load twice (for half scale walls with 38x89mm columns) or 4 times(full scale walls with 38x235mm columns) that of the unfilled walls. An analytical model based on buckling of a strut on an elastic foundation was proposed to predict the maximum strength hempcrete can add to a wall by preventing buckling. The timber column strength equations from CSA –O86-01 closely predicted the buckling load of the walls from the experiments. The results from the model were also put in design equations from CSA –O86-01 to predict practical failure loads if the walls failed by buckling into hempcrete. Although only a single test result was available...

Application of selected new urbanist principles to residential infill developments in mature suburbs of Greater Boston

Port, Andrew, 1977-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 95 leaves; 5905081 bytes; 19148810 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.74%
The New Urbanist movement has grown considerably in the past decade in response to the impacts of sprawl in the United States. The crisis of sprawl has been caused in large part by poorly crafted land use regulations, many of which mandate sprawl. While an abundance of contemporary land use and planning literature focuses on the concepts of New Urbanism, little attention has been given to their regulatory implementation. And while developers and architects have responded to the problems of sprawl with plans for the development of new communities, few have looked at the opportunity to retrofit existing suburbs. This research adds to the field by illustrating how selected New Urbanist principles can be viably applied to residential infill developments in mature suburbs (specifically Greater Boston) if alternative regulations are adopted. Such development will not only preserve natural resources at the urban edge, but will ensure the efficiency and vitality of our mature core communities. Four developments in communities' representative of the Greater Boston region illustrate the contemporary (conventional) form of residential infill and two are given a post-mortem design alternative (New Urbanist). These alternative developments illustrate the viability of applying New Urbanist principles to residential infill in mature suburbs of Greater Boston. A model hamlet development regulation...

Blast loading of masonry infills: testing and simulation

Pereira, João Miguel; Campos, José; Lourenço, Paulo B.
Fonte: Universidade do Minho Publicador: Universidade do Minho
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em /03/2015 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.35%
This work intends to present a newly developed test setup for dynamic out-of-plane loading using underWater Blast Wave Generators (WBWG) as loading source. Underwater blasting operations have been, during the last decades, subject of research and development of maritime blasting operations (including torpedo studies), aquarium tests for the measurement of blasting energy of industrial explosives and confined underwater blast wave generators. WBWG allow a wide range for the produced blast impulse and surface area distribution. It also avoids the generation of high velocity fragments and reduces atmospheric sound wave. A first objective of this work is to study the behavior of masonry infill walls subjected to blast loading. Three different masonry walls are to be studied, namely unreinforced masonry infill walls and two different reinforcement solutions. These solutions have been studied previously for seismic action mitigation. Subsequently, the walls will be simulated using an explicit finite element code for validation and parametric studies. Finally, a tool to help designers to make informed decisions on the use of infills under blast loading will be presented.

Notice on a prototype of a new test chamber for rubber infill evaluation

Gomes,J.F.P.; Mota,H. I.; Bordado,J.C.M.; Baião,M.; Sarmento,G.M.; Fernandes,J.; Pampulim,V. M.; Custódio,M. L.; Veloso,I.
Fonte: Sociedade Portuguesa de Materiais Publicador: Sociedade Portuguesa de Materiais
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.35%
A test chamber was projected and built (according to ISO 16000-9 Standard) to simulate atmospheric conditions experienced by rubber infill (when applied in synthetic turf pitches) and measure accurately the different leachates as well as emission parameters. This procedure is to be considered as a technical option to the lysimeter “global turf system evaluation” when the rubber infill alone is to be evaluated. The advantage of the proposed option considering this “Test Chamber” is its simplicity and economy. This test chamber is actually installed and being used for tests in LAIST.